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A rubric is a word or section of text that is traditionally written or printed in
red Red is the color at the long wavelength end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength Image:dominant wavelength.png, frame, Dominant/complementary wavelength example on the CIE color ...

red
ink for emphasis. The word derives from the la, rubrica, meaning
red ochre Ochre ( ; from grc, ὤχρα, from , , pale), or ocher in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language nativ ...
or red
chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the (i.e. "empty") spaces in a , and is a of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a between 0% and 100%. Strictly speaking, some tests measure the "acce ...

chalk
, and originates in
Medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

Medieval
illuminated manuscript An illuminated manuscript is a formally prepared where the text is often supplemented with flourishes such as , and . Often used in the for prayers, liturgical services and psalms, the practice continued into secular texts from the 13th centur ...
s from the 13th century or earlier. In these, red letters were used to highlight initial capitals (particularly of
psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the third section of the Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh ( ...

psalms
), section headings and names of religious significance, a practice known as
rubrication in the Malmesbury Bible from 1407 Image:IncunabulumDetail.JPG">300px, Detail from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed and rubricated in Strasbourg by Johann Grüninger. Rubrication is the addition of text in red ink to a manuscript for emphasis ...
, which was a separate stage in the production of a
manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriter A typewriter is a or machine for characters. Typically, a typewriter has an array ...

manuscript
. Rubric can also mean the red ink or paint used to make rubrics, or the
pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compou ...
used to make it. Although red was most often used, other colours came into use from the late
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
onwards, and the word rubric was used for these also. Medievalists can use patterns of rubrication to help identify textual traditions. Various figurative senses of the word have been extended from its original meaning. Usually these senses are used within the set phrase "under hateverrubric", for example, "under this rubric, is true, or " was doneunder the rubric of Y". Such senses include: "an authoritative rule"; "the title of a statute"; ; "an explanatory or introductory commentary"; "an established rule, tradition, or custom"; or "a guide listing specific criteria for grading or scoring academic assignments".


As liturgical instructions

Instructions for a priest explaining what he must do during a
liturgy Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a community, communal response to and participation in the sacred through activities reflecting praise, thanksgiving, remembrance ...
were also rubricated in and the other liturgical books, and the texts to be spoken aloud were in black. From this, "rubric" has a secondary denotation of an instruction in a text, regardless of how it is actually inscribed. This is the oldest recorded definition in English, found in 1375. Less formally, "rubrics" may refer to any liturgical action customarily performed, whether or not pursuant to a written instruction. The history, status, and authority of the content of rubrics are significant, and sometimes controversial, among liturgical scholars. In the past, some theologians distinguished between rubrics they considered of Divine origin and those merely of human origin. Rubrics were probably originally verbal, and then written in separate volumes. The earliest extant liturgical books do not contain them, but from references in texts of the first millennium it appears that written versions existed. Full rubrics regarding matters such as vesture, appearance of the
altar An altar is a structure upon which offerings such as sacrifice Sacrifice is the offering of material possessions or the lives of animals or humans to a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phe ...

altar
, timing of specific liturgies, and similar matters still may be published separately. In modern liturgical books, e. g. the
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
''
Roman Missal The Roman Missal ( la, Missale Romanum) is the liturgical book of the Roman Rite that contains the texts and rubric A rubric is a word or section of text that is traditionally written or printed in red ink for emphasis. The word derives from ...
'', lengthy general rubrics, probably printed in black, pertain to such matters and preface the actual order of liturgies, which contain shorter, specific rubrics that still are usually rubricated. Red is also often used to distinguish words spoken by the celebrant and those by the congregation, or by other specific persons involved in the liturgy, e. g. those marrying.


After the development of printing

With the arrival of
printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cru ...

printing
, other typographic effects such as
italic type In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylised form of calligraphic handwriting. Owing to the influence from calligraphy, italics normally slant slightly to the right. Italics are a way to emphasise key points in a printed tex ...
, bolded type, or different sizes of type were used to emphasize a section of text, and as printing in two colours is more expensive and time consuming,
rubrication in the Malmesbury Bible from 1407 Image:IncunabulumDetail.JPG">300px, Detail from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed and rubricated in Strasbourg by Johann Grüninger. Rubrication is the addition of text in red ink to a manuscript for emphasis ...
has tended to be reserved for sacred and liturgical books or luxury editions of other works.
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of tradit ...

William Morris
's medievally inspired typography for the
Kelmscott Press William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of traditi ...
at the end of the 19th century included chapter titles and other accents in red, or rarely blue, ink, and was influential on
small press A small press is a publisher with annual sales below a certain level or below a certain number of titles published. The terms "indie publisher" and "independent press" and others are sometimes used interchangeably. Independent press is general ...
art typography associated with the
Arts and Crafts movement The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and Society, societies through Skill, skills and imagination in order to produce Physical object, objects, Natural environment, ...
in both
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, particularly the work of the Ashendene,
Doves Columbidae () is a bird Family (biology), family consisting of pigeons and doves. It is the only family in the Order (biology), order Columbiformes. These are stout-bodied birds with short necks, and short slender bills that in some species f ...
, and
Roycroft Roycroft was a reformist community of craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe ...
Presses.Parry, Linda: ''William Morris'', New York: Harry Abrams, 1996, . Around 1900,
rubrication in the Malmesbury Bible from 1407 Image:IncunabulumDetail.JPG">300px, Detail from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed and rubricated in Strasbourg by Johann Grüninger. Rubrication is the addition of text in red ink to a manuscript for emphasis ...
was incorporated into a Red letter edition of the King James Version of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
to distinguish the Dominical words, i. e., those spoken by
Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Jesus Christ
during His corporeal life on Earth, because that translation lacked quotation marks. Other versions of the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
have since adopted the popular practice.


Rubrics in education

A rubric is an explicit set of criteria used for assessing a particular type of work or performance and provides more details than a single grade or mark. Rubrics, therefore, will help teachers grade more objectively.


See also

*
Code of Rubrics The Code of Rubrics is a three-part liturgical document promulgated in 1960 under Pope John XXIII, which in the form of a code (law), legal code indicated the canon law of the Catholic Church, liturgical and sacramental law governing the celebration ...
*
Rubrication in the Malmesbury Bible from 1407 Image:IncunabulumDetail.JPG">300px, Detail from a rare Blackletter Bible (1497) printed and rubricated in Strasbourg by Johann Grüninger. Rubrication is the addition of text in red ink to a manuscript for emphasis ...
*
Scriptorium Scriptorium (), literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts commonly handled by monastic scribe A scribe is a person wh ...

Scriptorium


References


Glossary of Manuscript Terms
British Library The British Library is the national library A national library is a library established by a government as a country's preeminent repository of information. Unlike public library, public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow book ...

British Library


External links

*
Rubrics of the Anglican Low Mass (from 1931)
Very full set of rubrics (more than a normal service book would include); perversely, the words to be spoken are here shown in red, and the rubrics in black.

Rubrics showing who speaks are in red; others in small italics.

Examples of Kelmscott Press pages showing use of red accents.
''So this then is the preachment entitled Chicago tongue''
A "flip book" presentation of the Roycroft Press edition c. 1913, illustrating use of rubrics in the Arts and Crafts tradition.
''Good Recipes''
This
cookbook A cookbook or cookery book is a kitchen reference containing recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something p ...

cookbook
published by the Woman's Society of the Winnetka Congregational Church in 1906 shows the influence of Arts and Crafts rubrics on everyday typography in the early 20th century. {{Book structure Typography Manuscripts Christian practices Catholic liturgy