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Robbery is the
crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a State (polity), state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Crime, defi ...

crime
of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most-us ...
, robbery is defined as taking the property of another, with the intent to permanently deprive the person of that property, by means of force or fear; that is, it is a
larceny Larceny is a crime involving the unlawful taking or theft Theft is the taking of another person's property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themse ...
or
theft Theft is the taking of another person's property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of pr ...

theft
accomplished by an
assault An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action. It is both a crime In ordinary language, a crime is an u ...

assault
. Precise definitions of the offence may vary between jurisdictions. Robbery is differentiated from other forms of
theft Theft is the taking of another person's property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of pr ...

theft
(such as
burglary Burglary, also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking, is illegally entering a building or other areas to commit a crime. Usually that offence is theft, but most jurisdictions include others within the ambit of burglary. To co ...
,
shoplifting Shoplifting is the theft of goods from an open retail establishment, typically by concealing a store item on one's person, in pockets, under clothes, or in a bag, and leaving the store without paying. With clothing, shoplifters may put on items ...
,
pickpocketing Pickpocketing is a form of larceny Larceny is a crime involving the unlawful taking or theft of the personal property of another person or business. It was an offence under the common law of England and became an offence in jurisdictions whic ...
, or
car theft Motor vehicle theft (also called car theft and, in the United States, grand theft auto) is the criminal act of stealing Theft is the taking of another person's property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abs ...
) by its inherently violent nature (a
violent crime A violent crime, violent felony, crime of violence or crime of a violent nature is a crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State ...
); whereas many lesser forms of theft are punished as
misdemeanors A misdemeanor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American En ...
, robbery is always a
felony A felony is traditionally considered a crime of high seriousnessSeriousness (noun; adjective: ''serious'') is an attitude of gravity Gravity (), or gravitation, is a list of natural phenomena, natural phenomenon by which all things with m ...
in jurisdictions that distinguish between the two. Under English law, most forms of theft are triable either way, whereas robbery is
triable only on indictment In many common law jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin ''Wikt:ius#Latin, juris'' 'law' + ''Wikt:dictio, dictio'' 'declaration') is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice, as defined by the kind of case, and the ...
. The word "rob" came via
French
French
from
Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kn ...
words (e.g., ''deraubare'') of
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
origin, from
Common Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new ...
''raub'' "theft". Among the types of robbery are armed robbery, which involves the use of a
weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict physical damage or harm. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, crime, law enforcement, self-defe ...
, and aggravated robbery, when someone brings with them a deadly weapon or something that appears to be a deadly weapon. Highway robbery or mugging takes place outside or in a
public place A public space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads (including the pavement), public square A town square (or square, plaza, public square, city square, urban square, or piazza) is an open public space commonly ...
such as a sidewalk, street, or parking lot.
Carjacking Carjacking is a robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published b ...
is the act of stealing a car from a victim by force.
Extortion Extortion is the practice of obtaining benefit through coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimid ...
is the threat to do something illegal, or the offer to not do something illegal, in the event that goods are not given, primarily using words instead of actions. Criminal slang for robbery includes "blagging" (armed robbery, usually of a bank) or "stick-up" (derived from the verbal command to robbery targets to raise their hands in the air), and "
steaming Steaming is a method of cooking using steam. This is often done with a food steamer, a kitchen appliance made specifically to cook food with steam, but food can also be steamed in a wok. In the American southwest, steam pits used for cooking have ...
" (organized robbery on underground train systems).


Canada

In Canada, the
Criminal Code A criminal code (or penal code) is a document that compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, ha ...
makes robbery an
indictable offence In many common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dic ...
, subject to a maximum penalty of
life imprisonment Life imprisonment is any sentence Sentence(s) or The Sentence may refer to: Common uses * Sentence (law), the punishment a judge gives to a defendant found guilty of a crime * Sentence (linguistics), a grammatical unit of language * Sentence ...
. If the accused uses a restricted or prohibited firearm to commit robbery, there is a mandatory minimum sentence of five years for the first offence, and seven years for subsequent offences.


Republic of Ireland

Robbery is a statutory offence in the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective id ...

Republic of Ireland
. It is created by section 14(1) of the
Criminal Justice (Theft and Fraud Offences) Act, 2001 The Criminal Justice (Theft and Fraud Offences) Act, 2001 (No. 50 of 2001) updates and consolidates the law relating to dishonesty Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a lack of probity, cheating, lying, or deliberately wit ...
, which provides:


United Kingdom


England and Wales

Robbery is a statutory offence in
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
. It is created by section 8(1) of the
Theft Act 1968 The Theft Act 1968c 60 is an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It creates a number of offences against property in England and Wales. On 15 January 2007 the Fraud Act 2006 came into force, redefining most of the off ...
which reads:


Aggravated theft

Robbery is the only offence of aggravated theft.Griew, Edward. The Theft Acts 1968 and 1978. Sweet and Maxwell. Fifth Edition. 1986. Paragraph 3-01 at page 79.


Aggravated robbery

There are no offences of aggravated robbery.


"Steals"

This requires evidence to show a
theft Theft is the taking of another person's property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of pr ...

theft
as set out in section 1(1) of the Theft Act 1968. In ''R v Robinson'' the defendant threatened the victim with a knife in order to recover money which he was actually owed. His conviction for robbery was quashed on the basis that Robinson had an honest, although unreasonable, belief (under Section 2(1)(a) of the Act) in his legal right to the money. See also ''R v Skivington'' 1 QB 166,
967 Year 967 ( CMLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month ...
2 WLR 655, 131 JP 265, 111 SJ 72,
967 Year 967 ( CMLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month ...
1 All ER 483, 51 Cr App R 167, CA. In ''R v Hale'' (1978) the application of force and the stealing took place in different locations, and it was not possible to establish the timing; it was held that the appropriation necessary to prove theft was a continuing act, and the jury could correctly convict of robbery. This approach was followed in ''R v Lockley'' (1995) when the force was applied to a shopkeeper after property had been taken. It was argued that the theft should be regarded as complete by this time, and ''R v Gomez'' (1993), should apply; the court disagreed, preferring to follow ''R v Hale''.


Actual or threatened force against a person

The threat or use of force must take place immediately before or at the time of the
theft Theft is the taking of another person's property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of pr ...

theft
. Force used after the theft is complete will not turn the theft into a robbery. The words "or immediately after" that appeared in section 23(1)(b) of the
Larceny Act 1916 The Larceny Act 1916 was an Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Its purpose was to consolidate and simplify the law relating to larceny triable on indictment and to kindred offences. The definit ...
were deliberately omitted from section 8(1). The book '' Archbold'' said that the facts in ''R v Harman'', which did not amount to robbery in 1620, would not amount to robbery now. It was held in ''R v Dawson and James'' (1978) that "force" is an ordinary English word and its meaning should be left to the jury. This approach was confirmed in ''R v Clouden'' (1985) and ''Corcoran v Anderton'' (1980), both handbag-snatching cases. Stealing may involve a young child who is not aware that taking other persons' property is not in order.


Threat

The victim must be placed in apprehension or fear that force would be used immediately before or at the time of the taking of the property. A threat is not immediate if the wrongdoer threatens to use force of violence some future time. Robbery occurs if an aggressor forcibly snatched a
mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the tra ...

mobile phone
or if they used a knife to make an implied threat of violence to the holder and then took the phone. The person being threatened does not need to be the owner of the property. It is not necessary that the victim was actually frightened, but the defendant must have put or sought to put the victim or some other person in fear of immediate force. The force or threat may be directed against a third party, for example a customer in a jeweller's shop. Theft accompanied by a threat to damage property will not constitute robbery, but it may disclose an offence of
blackmail Blackmail is an act of coercion using the threat of revealing or publicizing either Substantial truth, substantially true or false information about a person or people unless certain demands are met. It is often damaging information, and may be ...
. Dishonestly dealing with property stolen during a robbery will constitute an offence of handling.


Mode of trial

Robbery is an
indictable-only offence In many common law jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin ''Wikt:ius#Latin, juris'' 'law' + ''Wikt:dictio, dictio'' 'declaration') is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice, as defined by the kind of case, and the ...
.This is the effect of section 8(2) of the
Theft Act 1968 The Theft Act 1968c 60 is an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It creates a number of offences against property in England and Wales. On 15 January 2007 the Fraud Act 2006 came into force, redefining most of the off ...
and paragraph 28(a) of Schedule 1 to the
Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 The Magistrates' Courts Act 1980 (c. 43) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kin ...
.


Sentence

Under current sentencing guidelines, the punishment for robbery is affected by a variety of aggravating and mitigating factors. Particularly important is how much harm was caused to the victim and how much
culpability Culpability, or being culpable, is a measure of the degree to which an agent, such as a person, can be held morally or legally Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to reg ...
the offender had (e.g. carrying a weapon or leading a group effort implies high culpability). Robbery is divided into three categories which are, in increasing order of seriousness: street or less sophisticated commercial; dwelling; and professionally planned commercial. Robbery generally results in a custodial sentence. Only a low-harm, low-culpability robbery with other mitigating factors would result in an alternative punishment, in the form of a high level community order. The maximum legal punishment is imprisonment for life. It is also subject to the mandatory sentencing regime under the
Criminal Justice Act 2003 The Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44) is an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It is a wide-ranging measure introduced to modernise many areas of the criminal justice system in England and Wales and, to a lesser exten ...
. Current sentencing guidelines advise that the sentence should be no longer than 20 years, for a high-harm, high-culpability robbery with other aggravating factors. The "starting point" sentences are: *Low-harm, low-culpability street robbery: 1 year *Medium-harm, medium-culpability street robbery: 4 years *Medium-harm, medium-culpability professionally planned robbery: 5 years *High-harm, high-culpability street robbery: 8 years *High-harm, high-culpability professionally planned robbery: 16 years An offender may also serve a longer sentence if they are convicted of other offences alongside the robbery, such as
assault An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action. It is both a crime In ordinary language, a crime is an u ...

assault
and
grievous bodily harm Grievous bodily harm (often abbreviated to GBH) is a term used in English criminal law English criminal law concerns Offence (law), offences, their prevention and the consequences, in England and Wales. Criminal conduct is considered to be a ...
.


History


= Common law

= Robbery was an offence under the
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most-us ...
of England. Matthew Hale provided the following definition: The
common law offence Common law offences are crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsa ...
of robbery was abolished for all purposes not relating to offences committed before 1 January 1969 by section 32(1)(a) of the
Theft Act 1968 The Theft Act 1968c 60 is an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It creates a number of offences against property in England and Wales. On 15 January 2007 the Fraud Act 2006 came into force, redefining most of the off ...
.


= Statute

= See sections 40 to 43 of the
Larceny Act 1861 The Larceny Act 1861 (24 & 25 Vict c 96) was an Act of the Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislature, legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (po ...
. Section 23 of the
Larceny Act 1916 The Larceny Act 1916 was an Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Its purpose was to consolidate and simplify the law relating to larceny triable on indictment and to kindred offences. The definit ...
read: This section provided maximum penalties for a number of offences of robbery and aggravated robbery.


Assault with intent to rob

If a robbery is foiled before it can be completed, an alternative offence (with the same penalty, given by section 8(2) of the 1968 Act) is assault; any act which intentionally or recklessly causes another to fear the immediate and unlawful use of force, with an intent to rob, will suffice. The following cases are relevant: * ''R v Trusty and Howard'' (1783) 1 East PC 418 * ''R v Sharwin'' (1785) 1 East PC 421


=Mode of trial and sentence

= Assault with intent to rob is an
indictable-only offence In many common law jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin ''Wikt:ius#Latin, juris'' 'law' + ''Wikt:dictio, dictio'' 'declaration') is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice, as defined by the kind of case, and the ...
. It is punishable with imprisonment for life or for any shorter term. Assault with intent to rob is also subject to the mandatory sentencing regime under the
Criminal Justice Act 2003 The Criminal Justice Act 2003 (c. 44) is an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It is a wide-ranging measure introduced to modernise many areas of the criminal justice system in England and Wales and, to a lesser exten ...
.


Northern Ireland

Robbery is a statutory offence in
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
. It is created b
section 8
of the
Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 The Theft Act (Northern Ireland) 1969 (c 16) is an Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom, Act of the Parliament of Northern Ireland. It makes criminal law provisions for Northern Ireland similar to those made in England and Wales by the Theft Ac ...
.


United States

In the United States, robbery is generally treated as an aggravated form of common law larceny. Specific elements and definitions differ from state to state. The common elements of robbery are: # a trespassory # taking and # carrying away # of the personal property # of another # with the intent to steal # from the person or presence of the victim # by force or threat of force. The first six elements are the same as common law larceny. It is the last two elements that aggravate the crime to common law robbery. from the person or presence of the victim – robbery requires that the property be taken directly from the person of the victim or from their presence. This is different from larceny which simply requires that property be taken from the victim's possession, actual or constructive. Property is "on the victim's person" if the victim is actually holding the property, or the property is contained within clothing the victim is wearing or is attached to a victim's body such as a watch or earrings.Lafave, Criminal Law 3rd ed. (West 2000) Sec 8.11 Property is in a person's presence when it is within the area of their immediate control. The property has to be close enough to the victim's person that the victim could have prevented its taking if he/she had not been placed in fear or intimidation. by force or threat of force – the use of force or threat of force is the defining element of robbery. For there to be robbery there must be "force or fear" in perpetrating the theft. Questions concerning the degree of force necessary for robbery have been the subject of much litigation. Merely snatching the property from the victim's person is not sufficient force unless the victim resists or one of the items is attached or carried in such a way that a significant amount of force must be used to free the item from the victim's person. For robbery the victim must be placed in "fear" of immediate harm by threat or intimidation. The threat need not be directed at the victim personally. Threats to third parties are sufficient. The threat must be one of present rather than future personal harm. Fear does not mean "fright", it means apprehension – an awareness of the danger of immediate bodily harm.


California

The maximum sentence for robbery in California is 9 years, according to Penal Code section 213(a)(1)(A). The threat or use of force does not have to take place immediately before or at the time of the theft. Force used after the theft will turn the theft into a robbery unless the theft is complete. The theft is considered completed when the perpetrator reaches a place of temporary safety with the property.


Robbery statistics


Robberies by country

The
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: ''Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime'') is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international ...
notes "that when using the figures, any cross-national comparisons should be conducted with caution because of the differences that exist between the legal definitions of offences in countries, or the different methods of offence counting and recording". Also not every single crime is reported, meaning two things; (1) robbery rates are going to appear lower than they actually are and; (2) the percentage of crime that is not reported is going to be higher in some countries then others, for example – in one country 86% of the robberies were reported, whereas in another country only 67% of the robberies were reported. The last thing to note is that crime will vary by certain neighborhoods or areas in each country, so, just because a nationwide rate is a specified rate, does not mean that everywhere in that country retains the same amount of danger or safety.


Homicides during a robbery, by country


In popular culture

Robberies have been depicted, sometimes graphically, in various forms of media, and several robbers have become
pop icon A pop icon is a celebrity, character or object whose exposure in popular culture is regarded as constituting a defining characteristic of a given society or era. The usage of the term is largely subjective since there are no definitively objectiv ...
s, such as
Bonnie and Clyde Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (October 1, 1910May 23, 1934) and Clyde Chestnut Barrow (March 24, 1909May 23, 1934) were an Crime in the United States, American criminal couple who traveled the Central United States with Barrow Gang, their gang during ...

Bonnie and Clyde
and
John Dillinger John Herbert Dillinger (June 22, 1903 – July 22, 1934) was an American gangster of the Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning Great Depress ...
. Examples of media works focused on robberies include:


In film

* ''
The Killing Killing or Killings may refer to: Types of killing *-cide, a suffix that refers to types of killing (see List of types of killing), such as: ** Homicide, one human killing another *** Murder, unlawful killing of another human without justification ...
'' (1956), by
Stanley Kubrick Stanley Kubrick (; July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and photographer. He is frequently cited as one of the greatest filmmakers Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is ...
, depicts a graphic robbery. * '' Wake Up and Die'' (1966) is an Italian crime drama film directed by
Carlo Lizzani Carlo Lizzani (3 April 1922 – 5 October 2013) was an Italy, Italian film director, screenwriter and critic. Biography Born in Rome, before World War II Lizzani worked as a scenarist on such films as Roberto Rossellini's ''Germany Year Zero ...

Carlo Lizzani
, based on the real life of Luciano Lutring ("''il solista del mitra''", translation: "the submachine soloist"), who kept his weapon in a violin case. * ''
Take the Money and Run ''Take the Money and Run'' is a 1969 American mockumentary A mockumentary (a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "Portmanteau (luggage), portmanteau") is a Blend word, blend of words
'' (1969), by
Woody Allen Woody Allen (born Allan Stewart Konigsberg; November 30, 1935) is an American film director, writer, actor, and comedian whose career spans more than six decades and multiple Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Os ...

Woody Allen
, depicts an unconventional view of a robbery by an incompetent robber. * ''Le Gitan'' (1975), directed by
José Giovanni José Giovanni (22 June 1923, Paris, France – 24 April 2004, Lausanne, Switzerland) was the pseudonym of Joseph Damiani, a French writer and film-maker of Corsican origin who became a naturalized Swiss citizen in 1986. A former Collaboration wi ...
, is loosely based on Luciano Lutring's autobiography. Lutring is played by
Alain Delon Alain Fabien Maurice Marcel Delon (; born 8 November 1935) is a French actor and businessman. He is known as one of Europe's most prominent actors and screen sex symbol A sex symbol is a person or character widely considered Sexual attract ...

Alain Delon
. * ''
Dog Day Afternoon ''Dog Day Afternoon'' is a 1975 American Biographical film, biographical crime drama film directed by Sidney Lumet and produced by Martin Bregman and Martin Elfand. The film stars Al Pacino, John Cazale, James Broderick, and Charles Durning. The ...

Dog Day Afternoon
'' (1975) depicts a bank robbery which escalates to a hostage situation. * ''
Reservoir Dogs ''Reservoir Dogs'' is a 1992 American crime film Crime films, in the broadest sense, is a film genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre generally involve various aspects of crime and its dete ...

Reservoir Dogs
'' (1992), by
Quentin Tarantino Quentin Jerome Tarantino (; born March 27, 1963) is an American filmmaker, film director, screenwriter, producer, film critic, and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear storylines, dark humor Darkness, the polar opposite of brig ...

Quentin Tarantino
, shows the aftermath of a robbery, with an abundance of lurid details.


In literature

* Luciano Lutring (30 December 1937 – 13 May 2013), known as "the submachine gun soloist" because he kept the weapon in a violin case, used that moniker as the title of his memoir '' Il solista del mitra''. He was an Italian criminal, author, and painter who, when committing robberies, worked alone (which is rather rare for a robber). *
Lionel White Lionel White (9 July 1905 – 26 December 1985) was an American journalist and crime novelist, several of whose dark, noirish stories were made into films. His books include ''The Snatchers'' (made into a film as ''The Night of the Followin ...

Lionel White
's Bloodhound mysteries novel, No.116, ''Clean Break'' (1955) was the basis for Stanley Kubrik's film ''The Killing'' (1956).


In video games

Video games '' Payday: The Heist'' and ''
Payday 2 ''Payday 2'' is a cooperative first-person shooter First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre, sub-genre of shooter video games centered on gun and other weapon-based combat in a First person (video games), first-person perspective, wi ...

Payday 2
'' are both games by
Overkill Software Overkill Software is a Swedish video game developer A video game developer is a software developer specializing in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games. A game developer can range from one perso ...
where one of the main objectives is to steal items of monetary value at places such as banks, art galleries, armored trucks, and more.


See also


References

* Matthew Hale. Historia Placitorum Coronae. 1736. 1800 Edition. Volume 1. Chapter XLVI. Page
532
to 538.


Further reading

* Allen, Michael. (2005). ''Textbook on Criminal Law''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. . * Criminal Law Revision Committee. 8th Report. Theft and Related Offences. Cmnd. 2977 * Griew, Edward. ''Theft Acts 1968 & 1978''. London: Sweet & Maxwell. London: LexisNexis.


External links

{{Authority control Crimes Illegal occupations