OriginsThe revolutions arose from such a wide variety of causes that it is difficult to view them as resulting from a coherent movement or set of social phenomena. Numerous changes had been taking place in European society throughout the first half of the 19th century. Both reformers and radical politicians were reshaping national governments. Technological change was revolutionizing the life of the working classes. A popular press extended political awareness, and new values and ideas such as , and began to emerge. Some historians emphasize the serious crop failures, particularly those of 1846, that produced hardship among peasants and the working urban poor. Large swaths of the were discontented with royal absolutism or near-absolutism. In 1846, there had been an of nobility in Austrian , which was only countered when peasants, in turn, rose up against the nobles. Additionally, an by democratic forces against , planned but not actually carried out, occurred in . The middle and working classes thus shared a desire for reform, and agreed on many of the specific aims. Their participation in the revolutions, however, differed. While much of the came from the middle classes, much of the came from the lower classes. The revolts first erupted in the cities.
Urban workersThe population in French rural areas had risen rapidly, causing many peasants to seek a living in the cities. Many in the feared and distanced themselves from the . Many unskilled laborers toiled from 12 to 15 hours per day when they had work, living in squalid, disease-ridden slums. Traditional artisans felt the pressure of , having lost their s. The liberalization of trade laws and the growth of factories had increased the gulf between master tradesmen, and journeymen and apprentices, whose numbers increased disproportionately by 93% from 1815 to 1848 in Germany. Significant proletarian unrest had occurred in in 1831 and 1834, and in 1844. Jonathan Sperber has suggested that in the period after 1825, poorer urban workers (particularly day laborers, factory workers and artisans) saw their purchasing power decline relatively steeply: urban meat consumption in Belgium, France and Germany stagnated or declined after 1830, despite growing populations. The economic Panic of 1847 increased urban unemployment: 10,000 Viennese factory workers were made redundant and 128 Hamburg firms went bankrupt over the course of 1847. With the exception of the Netherlands, there was a strong correlation among the countries that were most deeply affected by the industrial shock of 1847 and those that underwent a revolution in 1848. The situation in the German states was similar. Parts of were beginning to industrialize. During the decade of the 1840s, mechanized production in the textile industry brought about inexpensive clothing that undercut the handmade products of German tailors. Reforms ameliorated the most unpopular features of rural , but industrial workers remained dissatisfied with these reforms and pressed for greater change. Urban workers had no choice but to spend half of their income on food, which consisted mostly of bread and potatoes. As a result of harvest failures, soared and the demand for decreased, causing an increase in unemployment. During the revolution, to address the problem of unemployment, workshops were organized for men interested in construction work. Officials also set up workshops for women when they felt they were excluded. Artisans and unemployed workers destroyed industrial machines when they threatened to give employers more power over them.
Rural areasRural population growth had led to food shortages, pressure, and migration, both within and from Europe, especially to the Americas. Peasant discontent in the 1840s grew in intensity: peasant occupations of lost communal land increased in many areas: those convicted of wood theft in the Rhenish Palatinate increased from 100,000 in 1829–30 to 185,000 in 1846–47. In the years 1845 and 1846, a caused a subsistence crisis in Northern Europe, and encouraged the raiding of manorial potato stocks in Silesia in 1847. The effects of the blight were most severely manifested in the ,Helen Litton, ''The Irish Famine: An Illustrated History'', Wolfhound Press, 1995, but also caused famine-like conditions in the and throughout . Harvests of rye in the Rhineland were 20% of previous levels, while the Czech potato harvest was reduced by half. These reduced harvests were accompanied by a steep rise in prices (the cost of wheat more than doubled in France and Habsburg Italy). There were 400 French food riots during 1846 to 1847, while German socio-economic protests increased from 28 during 1830 to 1839, to 103 during 1840 to 1847. Central to long-term peasant grievances were the loss of communal lands, forest restrictions (such as the French Forest Code of 1827), and remaining feudal structures, notably the robot (labor obligations) that existed among the serfs and oppressed peasantry of the Habsburg lands. wealth (and corresponding power) was synonymous with the ownership of farm lands and effective control over the s. Peasant grievances exploded during the revolutionary year of 1848, yet were often disconnected from urban revolutionary movements: the revolutionary 's popular nationalist rhetoric in Budapest did not translate into any success with the Magyar peasantry, while the Viennese democrat reported that his efforts to galvanize the Austrian peasantry had "disappeared in the great sea of indifference and phlegm".
Role of ideasDespite forceful and often violent efforts of established and reactionary powers to keep them down, disruptive ideas gained popularity: , , radicalism, , and . They demanded a , , , and other democratic rights, the establishment of civilian militia, liberation of peasants, liberalization of the economy, abolition of tariff barriers and the abolition of monarchical power structures in favor of the establishment of , or at least the restriction of the prince power in the form of constitutional monarchies. In the language of the 1840s, 'democracy' meant replacing an electorate of property-owners with universal male . 'Liberalism' fundamentally meant , restriction of church and power, republican government, and the individual. The 1840s had seen the emergence of radical liberal publications such as ''Rheinische Zeitung'' (1842); ''Le National'' and ''La Réforme'' (1843) in France; 's ''Grenzboten'' (1841) in Austria; 's ''Pesti Hírlap'' (1841) in Hungary, as well as the increased popularity of the older '' '' in Norway and the '' '' in Sweden. 'Nationalism' believed in uniting people bound by (some mix of) common s, , , shared , and of course immediate ; there were also movements. Nationalism had developed a broader appeal during the pre-1848 period, as seen in the 's 1836 ''History of the Czech Nation'', which emphasised a national lineage of conflict with the Germans, or the popular patriotic ''Liederkranz'' (song-circles) that were held across Germany: patriotic and belligerent songs about had dominated the national song festival in 1845. 'Socialism' in the 1840s was a term without a consensus definition, meaning different things to different people, but was typically used within a context of more power for workers in a system based on worker ownership of the . These concepts together - democracy, liberalism, nationalism and socialism, in the sense described above - came to be encapsulated in the political term radicalism.
Sequence of main trendsEvery country had a distinctive timing, but the general pattern showed very sharp cycles as reform moved up then down.
Spring 1848: Astonishing successThe world was astonished in spring 1848 when revolutions appeared in so many places and seemed on the verge of success everywhere. Agitators who had been exiled by the old governments rushed home to seize the moment. In France the monarchy was once again overthrown and replaced by a republic. In a number of major German and Italian states, and in Austria, the old leaders were forced to grant liberal constitutions. The Italian and German states seemed to be rapidly forming unified nations. Austria gave Hungarians and Czechs liberal grants of autonomy and national status.
Summer 1848: Divisions among reformersIn France bloody street battles exploded between the middle class reformers and the working class radicals. German reformers argued endlessly without finalizing their results.Kranzberg, ''1848: A Turning Point?'' (1962) p xii, xvii–xviii.
Autumn 1848: Reactionaries organize for a counter-revolutionCaught off guard at first, the aristocracy and their allies plot a return to power.
1849–1851: Overthrow of revolutionary regimesThe revolutions suffer a series of defeats in summer 1849. Reactionaries returned to power and many leaders of the revolution went into exile. Some social reforms proved permanent, and years later nationalists in Germany, Italy, and Hungary gained their objectives.
Events by country or region
Italian statesAlthough few noticed at the time, the first major outbreak came in Palermo, Sicily, starting in January 1848. There had been several previous revolts against rule; this one produced an independent state that lasted only 16 months before the Bourbons came back. During those months, the constitution was quite advanced for its time in liberal democratic terms, as was the proposal of an Italian confederation of states. The revolt's failure was reversed 12 years later as the Bourbon collapsed in 1860–61 with the .
FranceThe "February Revolution" in France was sparked by the suppression of the '' campagne des banquets.'' This revolution was driven by nationalist and republican ideals among the French general public, who believed the people should rule themselves. It ended the of , and led to the creation of the . The new government was headed by , the nephew of , who in 1852 staged a coup d'état and established himself as a dictatorial emperor of the . remarked in his ''Recollections'' of the period, "society was cut in two: those who had nothing united in common envy, and those who had anything united in common terror."
German statesThe "March Revolution" in the German states took place in the south and the west of Germany, with large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations. Led by well-educated students and intellectuals, they demanded German national unity, , and . The uprisings were poorly coordinated, but had in common a rejection of traditional, autocratic political structures in the 39 independent states of the . The middle-class and working-class components of the Revolution split, and in the end, the conservative aristocracy defeated it, forcing many liberal into exile.
DenmarkDenmark had been governed by a system of absolute monarchy ( ) since the 17th century. King , a moderate reformer but still an absolutist, died in January 1848 during a period of rising opposition from farmers and liberals. The demands for constitutional monarchy, led by the National Liberals, ended with a popular march to on 21 March. The new king, , met the liberals' demands and installed a new Cabinet that included prominent leaders of the National Liberal Party.Weibull, Jörgen. "Scandinavia, History of." '' The national-liberal movement wanted to abolish absolutism, but retain a strongly centralized state. The king accepted '' 15th ed., Vol. 16, 324.a new constitution agreeing to share power with a bicameral parliament called the . It is said that the Danish king's first words after signing away his absolute power were, "that was nice, now I can sleep in the mornings". Although army officers were dissatisfied, they accepted the new arrangement which, in contrast to the rest of Europe, was not overturned by reactionaries. The liberal constitution did not extend to , leaving the unanswered.
SchleswigThe , a region containing both Danes (a North Germanic population) and Germans (a West Germanic population), was a part of the Danish monarchy, but remained a duchy separate from the Kingdom of Denmark. Spurred by sentiment, the Germans of Schleswig took up arms in protest at a new policy announced by Denmark's National Liberal government which would have fully integrated the duchy into Denmark. The German population in Schleswig and Holstein revolted, inspired by the Protestant clergy. The German states sent in an army, but Danish victories in 1849 led to the Treaty of Berlin (1850) and the . They reaffirmed the sovereignty of the King of Denmark, while prohibiting union with Denmark. The violation of the latter provision led to renewed warfare in 1863 and the Prussian victory in 1864.
Habsburg MonarchyFrom March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburg Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements, which often had a nationalist character. The empire, ruled from Vienna, included Austrians, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, , Slovaks, Ukrainians/ , Romanians, and Italians, all of whom attempted in the course of the revolution to achieve either autonomy, independence, or even hegemony over other nationalities. The nationalist picture was further complicated by the simultaneous events in the German states, which moved toward greater German national unity.
HungaryThe Hungarian revolution of 1848 was the longest in Europe, crushed in August 1849 by Austrian and Russian armies. Nevertheless, it had a major effect in freeing the serfs. It started on 15 March 1848, when Hungarian patriots organized mass demonstrations in and (today Budapest) which forced the imperial governor to accept their 12 points of demands, which included the demand for freedom of press, an independent Hungarian ministry residing in Buda-Pest and responsible to a popularly elected parliament, the formation of a National Guard, complete civil and religious equality, trial by jury, a national bank, a Hungarian army, the withdrawal of foreign (Austrian) troops from Hungary, the freeing of political prisoners, and the union with Transylvania. On that morning, the demands were read aloud along with poetry by with the simple lines of "We swear by the God of the Hungarians. We swear, we shall be slaves no more".Deak, Istvan. The Lawful Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979. and some other liberal nobility that made up the appealed to the Habsburg court with demands for representative government and civil liberties."The US and the 1848 Hungarian Revolution." The Hungarian Initiatives Foundation. Accessed 26 March 2015. http://www.hungaryfoundation.org/history/20140707_US_HUN_1848. These events resulted in , the Austrian prince and foreign minister, resigning. The demands of the Diet were agreed upon on 18 March by Emperor Ferdinand. Although Hungary would remain part of the monarchy through with the emperor, a constitutional government would be founded. The Diet then passed the April laws that established equality before the law, a legislature, a hereditary constitutional monarchy, and an end to the transfer and restrictions of land use. The revolution grew into a war for independence from the when , Ban of Croatia, crossed the border to restore their control. The new government, led by , was initially successful against the Habsburg forces. Although Hungary took a national united stand for its freedom, some minorities of the Kingdom of Hungary, including the Serbs of Vojvodina, the Romanians of Transylvania and some Slovaks of Upper Hungary supported the Habsburg Emperor and fought against the Hungarian Revolutionary Army. Eventually, after one and a half years of fighting, the revolution was crushed when Russian Tsar marched into Hungary with over 300,000 troops. As result of the defeat, Hungary was thus placed under brutal martial law. The leading rebels like Kossuth fled into exile or were executed. In the long run, the passive resistance following the revolution, along with the crushing Austrian defeat in the 1866 , led to the (1867), which marked the birth of the .
GaliciaThe center of the Ukrainian national movement was in , which is today divided between Ukraine and Poland. On 19 April 1848, a group of representatives led by the Greek Catholic clergy launched a petition to the Austrian Emperor. It expressed wishes that in those regions of Galicia where the Ruthenian (Ukrainian) population represented majority, the should be taught at schools and used to announce official decrees for the peasantry; local officials were expected to understand it and the Ruthenian clergy was to be equalized in their rights with the clergy of all other denominations. On 2 May 1848, the Supreme Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Council was established. The Council (1848–1851) was headed by the Greek-Catholic Bishop Gregory Yakhimovich and consisted of 30 permanent members. Its main goal was the administrative division of Galicia into Western (Polish) and Eastern (Ruthenian/Ukrainian) parts within the borders of the Habsburg Empire, and formation of a separate region with a political self-governance.
SwedenDuring 18–19 March, a series of riots known as the March Unrest (''Marsoroligheterna'') took place in the Swedish capital of Stockholm. Declarations with demands of political reform were spread in the city and a crowd was dispersed by the military, leading to 18 casualties.
SwitzerlandSwitzerland, already an alliance of republics, also saw an internal struggle. The attempted secession of seven Catholic Cantons of Switzerland, cantons to form an alliance known as the ''Sonderbund'' ("separate alliance") in 1845 led to a short civil conflict in November 1847 in which around 100 people were killed. The ''Sonderbund'' was decisively defeated by the Protestant cantons, which had a larger population. A new constitution of 1848 ended the almost-complete independence of the cantons, transforming Switzerland as a federal state, Switzerland into a federal state.
Greater PolandPolish people mounted a military insurrection against the Kingdom of Prussia, Prussians in the Grand Duchy of Posen (or the region), a part of Prussia since its annexation in 1815. The Poles tried to establish a Polish political entity, but refused to cooperate with the Germans and the Jews. The Germans decided they were better off with the status quo, so they assisted the Prussian governments in recapturing control. In the long-term, the uprising stimulated nationalism among both the Poles and the Germans and brought civil equality to the Jews.
Romanian PrincipalitiesA Romanian liberal and Romantic nationalist uprising began in June in the principality of Wallachia. Its goals were administrative autonomy, abolition of serfdom, and popular self-determination. It was closely connected with the 1848 unsuccessful Moldavian Revolution of 1848, revolt in Moldavia, it sought to overturn the administration imposed by Imperial Russian authorities under the ''Regulamentul Organic'' regime, and, through many of its leaders, demanded the abolition of boyar privilege. Led by a group of young intellectuals and officers in the Wallachian military forces, the movement succeeded in toppling the ruling List of rulers of Wallachia, Prince Gheorghe Bibescu, whom it replaced with a provisional government and a Regent, regency, and in passing a series of major liberal reforms, first announced in the Proclamation of Islaz. Despite its rapid gains and popular backing, the new administration was marked by conflicts between the Liberalism and radicalism in Romania, radical wing and more conservative forces, especially over the issue of land reform. Two successive abortive coups weakened the new government, and its international status was always contested by Russia. After managing to rally a degree of sympathy from Ottoman political leaders, the Revolution was ultimately isolated by the intervention of Russian diplomats. In September 1848 by agreement with the Ottomans, Russia invaded and put down the revolution. According to Vasile Maciu, the failures were attributable in Wallachia to foreign intervention, in Moldavia to the opposition of the feudalists, and in Transylvania to the failure of the campaigns of General Józef Bem, and later to Austrian repression. In later decades, the rebels returned and gained their goals.
BelgiumBelgium Belgium in the long nineteenth century, did not see major unrest in 1848; it had already undergone a liberal reform after the Belgian Revolution, Revolution of 1830 and thus its constitutional system and its monarchy survived. A number of small local riots broke out, concentrated in the ''sillon industriel'' industrial region of the provinces of Liège (province), Liège and Hainaut (province), Hainaut. The most serious threat of revolutionary contagion, however, was posed by Belgian émigré groups from France. In 1830 the Belgian Revolution had broken out inspired by the revolution occurring in France, and Belgian authorities feared that a similar 'copycat' phenomenon might occur in 1848. Shortly after the revolution in France, Belgian migrant workers living in Paris were encouraged to return to Belgium to overthrow Monarchy of Belgium, the monarchy and establish a republic. Belgian authorities expelled Karl Marx himself from Brussels in early March on accusations of having used part of his inheritance to arm Belgian revolutionaries. Around 6,000 armed émigrés of the "Belgian Legion#French Revolution of 1848, Belgian Legion" attempted to cross the Belgian frontier. There were two divisions which were formed. The first group, travelling by train, were stopped and quickly disarmed at Quiévrain on 26 March 1848. The second group crossed the border on 29 March and headed for Brussels. They were confronted by Belgian troops at the hamlet of Risquons-Tout and defeated. Several smaller groups managed to infiltrate Belgium, but the reinforced Belgian border troops succeeded and the defeat at Risquons-Tout effectively ended the revolutionary threat to Belgium. The situation in Belgium began to recover that summer after a good harvest, and Belgian general election, 1848, fresh elections returned a strong majority to the governing party.
IrelandA tendency common in the revolutionary movements of 1848 was a perception that the liberal monarchies set up in the 1830s, despite formally being representative parliamentary democracies, were too oligarchical and/or corrupt to respond to the urgent needs of the people, and were therefore in need of drastic democratic overhaul or, failing that, separatism to build a democratic state from scratch. This was the process that occurred in Ireland between 1801 and 1848. Previously a separate kingdom, Ireland was Acts of Union 1800, incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. Although its population was made up largely of Catholics, and sociologically of agricultural workers, tensions arose from the political over-representation, in positions of power, of landowners of Protestant background who were loyal to the United Kingdom. From the 1810s a conservative-liberal movement led by Daniel O'Connell had sought to secure Catholic emancipation, equal political rights for Catholics ''within'' the British political system, successful in the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829. But as in other European states, a current inspired by Radicalism (historical), Radicalism criticized the conservative-liberals for pursuing the aim of democratic equality with excessive compromise and gradualism. In Ireland a current of Civic nationalism, nationalist, Liberté, égalité, fraternité, egalitarian and Radicalism (historical), Radical republicanism, inspired by the French Revolution, had been present since the 1790s being expressed initially in the Irish Rebellion of 1798. This tendency grew into a movement for social, cultural and political reform during the 1830s, and in 1839 was realized into a political association called Young Ireland. It was initially not well received, but grew more popular with the Great Famine (Ireland), Great Famine of 18451849, an event that brought catastrophic social effects and which threw into light the inadequate response of authorities. The spark for the Young Irelander Revolution came in 1848 when the British Parliament passed the "Crime and Outrage Bill (Ireland) 1847, Crime and Outrage Bill". The Bill was essentially a declaration of martial law in Ireland, designed to create a counter-insurgency against the growing Irish nationalist movement. In response, the Young Ireland Party launched its rebellion in July 1848, gathering landlords and tenants to its cause. But its first Famine Warhouse 1848, major engagement against police, in the village of Ballingarry, South Tipperary, was a failure. A long gunfight with around 50 armed Royal Irish Constabulary, police ended when police reinforcements arrived. After the arrest of the Young Ireland leaders, the rebellion collapsed, though intermittent fighting continued for the next year, It is sometimes called the ''Famine Rebellion'' (since it took place during the Great Famine).
SpainWhile no revolution occurred in Spain in the year 1848, a similar phenomenon occurred. During this year, the country was going through the Second Carlist War. The European revolutions erupted at a moment when the Isabella II of Spain, political regime in Spain faced great criticism from within one of its two main parties, and by 1854 a radical-liberal revolution and a conservative-liberal counter-revolution had both occurred. Since 1833, Spain had been governed by a Conservative liberalism, conservative-liberal Parliamentary Monarchy, parliamentary monarchy similar to and modelled on the July Monarchy in France. In order to exclude absolute monarchists from government, power had alternated between two liberal parties: the center-left Progressive Party (Spain), Progressive Party, and the center-right Moderate Party (Spain), Moderate Party. But a decade of rule by the center-right Moderates had recently produced a constitutional reform (1845), prompting fears that the Moderates sought to reach out to Absolutists and permanently exclude the Progressives. The left-wing of the Progressive Party, which had historical links to Jacobin (politics), Jacobinism and Radicalism (historical), Radicalism, began to push for root-and-branch reforms to the constitutional monarchy, notably Universal manhood suffrage, universal male suffrage and parliamentary sovereignty. The European Revolutions of 1848 and particularly the prompted the Exaltados, Spanish radical movement to adopt positions incompatible with the existing constitutional regime, notably Republicanism in Spain, republicanism. This ultimately led the Radicals to exit the Progressive Party to form the Democratic Party (Spain), Democratic Party in 1849. Over the next years, two revolutions occurred. In 1852, the conservatives of the Moderate Party were ousted after a decade in power by an alliance of Radicals, Liberals and liberal Conservatives led by Generals Espartero and O'Donnell. In 1854, the more conservative half of this alliance launched a second revolution to oust the republican Radicals, leading to a new 10-year period of government by conservative-liberal monarchists. Taken together, the two revolutions can be thought of as echoing aspects of the : the Spanish Revolution of 1852, as a revolt by Radicals and Liberals against the oligarchical, conservative-liberal parliamentary monarchy of the 1830s, mirrored the French Revolution of 1848; while the Spanish Spanish Revolution of 1854, Revolution of 1854, as a counter-revolution of conservative-liberals under a military strongman, had echoes of French coup d'état of 1851, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte's coup against the French Second Republic.
Other European statesGreat Britain, The Island of Great Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal, the Russian Empire (including Congress Poland, Poland and Grand Principality of Finland, Finland), and the Ottoman Empire did not encounter major national or Radical revolutions over this period. Sweden and Norway were also little affected. Principality of Serbia, Serbia, though formally unaffected by the revolt as it was a part of the Ottoman state, actively supported Serbian revolutionaries in the Habsburg Empire. Russia's relative stability was attributed to the revolutionary groups' inability to communicate with each other. In some countries, uprisings had already occurred demanding similar reforms to the Revolutions of 1848, but little success. This was case for the Congress Poland, Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which had seen a series of uprisings before or after but not during 1848: the November Uprising of 1830–31; the Kraków Uprising of 1846 (notable for being quelled by the anti-revolutionary Galician slaughter), and later on the January Uprising of 1863–65. In other countries, the relative calm could be attributed to the fact that they had already gone through revolutions or civil wars in the preceding years, and therefore already enjoyed many of the reforms which Radicals elsewhere were demanding in 1848. This was largely the case for Belgium (the Belgian Revolution in 1830–1); Portugal (the Liberal Wars of 1828–34); and Switzerland (the Sonderbund War of 1847) In yet other countries, the absence of unrest was partly due to governments taking action to prevent revolutionary unrest, and pre-emptively grant some of the reforms demanded by revolutionaries elsewhere. This was notably the case for the Netherlands, where King William II of the Netherlands, William II decided Constitutional Reform of 1848, to alter the Dutch constitution to reform elections and voluntarily reduce the power of the monarchy. The same might be said of Switzerland, where a new constitutional regime was introduced in 1848: the Swiss Federal Constitution was a revolution of sorts, laying the foundation of Swiss society as it is today. While no major political upheavals occurred in the Ottoman Empire as such, political unrest did occur in some of its Vassal States (Ottoman Empire), vassal states. In Serbia, was abolished and the power of the Serbian prince was reduced with the 1838 Constitution of Serbia, Constitution of Serbia in 1838.
Other English-speaking countriesIn Britain, while the middle classes had been pacified by their inclusion in the extension of the franchise in the Reform Act 1832, the consequential agitations, violence, and petitions of the Chartism, Chartist movement came to a head with Chartism#1848 petition, their peaceful petition to Parliament of 1848. The repeal in 1846 of the protectionist agricultural tariffscalled the "Corn Laws"had defused some proletarian fervour. In the Isle of Man, there were ongoing efforts to reform the self-elected House of Keys, but no revolution took place. Some of the reformers were encouraged by events in France in particular. In the United States, opinions were polarized, with Democrats and reformers in favor, although they were distressed at the degree of violence involved. Opposition came from conservative elements, especially Whigs, southern slaveholders, orthodox Calvinists, and Catholics. About 4,000 German exiles arrived and some became fervent Republicans in the 1850s, such as Carl Schurz. Kossuth toured America and won great applause, but no volunteers or diplomatic or financial help. Following Rebellions of 1837–1838, rebellions in 1837 and 1838, 1848 in Canada saw the establishment of responsible government in Nova Scotia and The Canadas, the first such governments in the British Empire outside Great Britain. John Ralston Saul has argued that this development is tied to the revolutions in Europe, but described the Canadian approach to the revolutionary year of 1848 as "talking their way...out of the empire's control system and into a new democratic model", a stable democratic system which has lasted to the present day. Tory and Orange Order in Canada opposition to responsible government came to a head in riots triggered by the Rebellion Losses Bill in 1849. They succeeded in the burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal, but, unlike their counterrevolutionary counterparts in Europe, they were ultimately unsuccessful.
Latin AmericaIn Spanish Latin America, the Revolution of 1848 appeared in Republic of New Granada, New Granada, where Colombian students, liberals, and intellectuals demanded the election of General José Hilario López. He took power in 1849 and launched major reforms, abolishing slavery and the death penalty, and providing freedom of the press and of religion. The resulting turmoil in History of Colombia, Colombia lasted three decades; from 1851 to 1885, the country was ravaged by four general civil wars and 50 local revolutions. In Chile, the 1848 revolutions inspired the 1851 Chilean Revolution. In Empire of Brazil, Brazil, the Praieira Revolt, a movement in Pernambuco, lasted from November 1848 to 1852. Unresolved conflicts from the period of the regency and local resistance to the consolidation of the Brazilian Empire that had been proclaimed in 1822 helped to plant the seeds of the revolution. In Mexico, the conservative government led by Santa Anna lost California and half of the territory to the United States in the Mexican–American War of 1845-48. Derived from this catastrophe and chronic stability problems, the Liberal Party started a reformist movement. This movement, via elections, led liberals to formulate the ''Plan of Ayutla''. The Plan written in 1854 aimed at removing conservative, centralist President Antonio López de Santa Anna from control of Mexico during the Second Federal Republic of Mexico period. Initially, it seemed little different from other political plans of the era, but it is considered the first act of the La Reforma, Liberal Reform in Mexico. It was the catalyst for revolts in many parts of Mexico, which led to the resignation of Santa Anna from the presidency, never to vie for office again. The next Presidents of Mexico were the liberals, Juan Álvarez, Ignacio Comonfort, and Benito Juárez. The new regime would then proclaim the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857, 1857 Mexican Constitution, which implemented a variety of liberal reforms. Among other things, these reforms confiscated religious property, aimed to promote economic development and to stabilize a nascent republican government. The reforms led directly to the so-called Three Years War or Reform War of 1857. The liberals won this war but the conservatives solicited the French Government of Napoleon III for a European, conservative Monarch, deriving into the Second French intervention in Mexico. Under the puppet Habsburg government of Maximilian I of Mexico, the country became a client state of France (1863-1867).
LegacyHistorian Priscilla Robertson posits that many goals were achieved by the 1870s, but the credit primarily goes to the enemies of the 1848 revolutionaries, commenting: "Most of what the men of 1848 fought for was brought about within a quarter of a century, and the men who accomplished it were most of them specific enemies of the 1848 movement. Thiers ushered in a third French Republic, Bismarck united Germany, and Cavour, Italy. Deák won autonomy for Hungary within a dual monarchy; a Russian czar freed the serfs; and the British manufacturing classes moved toward the freedoms of the People's Charter." Liberal democracy, Liberal democrats looked to 1848 as a democratic revolution, which in the long run ensured liberty, equality, and fraternity. For nationalists, 1848 was the springtime of hope, when newly emerging nationalities rejected the old multinational empires, but the end results were not as comprehensive as many had hoped. Communists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat. The view of the Revolutions of 1848 as a bourgeois revolution is also common in non-Marxist scholarship. Middle-class anxiety and different approaches between bourgeois revolutionaries and radicals led to the failure of revolutions. Many governments engaged in a partial reversal of the revolutionary reforms of 1848–1849 as well as heightened repression and censorship. The Hanoverian nobility successfully appealed to the Confederal Diet in 1851 over the loss of their noble privileges, while the Prussian Junkers recovered their manorial police powers from 1852 to 1855. In the Austrian Empire, the Sylvester Patents (1851) discarded Franz Stadion's constitution and the Statute of Basic Rights, while the number of arrests in Habsburg territories increased from 70,000 in 1850 to one million by 1854. Nicholas I's rule in Russia after 1848 was particularly repressive, marked by an expansion of the secret police (the Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery, Tretiye Otdeleniye) and stricter censorship; there were more Russians working for censorship organs than actual books published in the period immediately after 1848. In France, the works of Charles Baudelaire, Victor Hugo, Alexandre Ledru-Rollin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon were confiscated. In the post-revolutionary decade after 1848, little had visibly changed, and many historians considered the revolutions a failure, given the seeming lack of permanent structural changes. More recently, Christopher Clark has characterised the period that followed 1848 as one dominated by a revolution in government. Karl Marx expressed disappointment at the bourgeois character of the revolutions. Marx elaborated in his 1850 "Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League" a theory of permanent revolution according to which the proletariat should strengthen democratic bourgeois revolutionary forces until the proletariat itself is ready to seize power. The Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Manteuffel declared that the state could no longer be run like the landed estate of a nobleman. In Prussia, August von Bethmann-Hollweg's ''Preußisches Wochenblatt'' newspaper (founded 1851) acted as a popular outlet for modernising Prussian conservative statesmen and journalists against the reactionary Kreuzzeitung faction. The Revolutions of 1848 were followed by new centrist coalitions dominated by Liberalism, liberals nervous of the threat of working-class , as seen in the Piedmontese ''Connubio'' under Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour. Governments after 1848 were forced into managing the public sphere and popular sphere with more effectiveness, resulting in the increased prominence of the Prussian ''Zentralstelle für Pressangelegenheiten'' (Central Press Agency, established 1850), the Austrian ''Zensur-und polizeihofstelle'', and the French ''Direction Générale de la Librairie'' (1856). Nevertheless, there were a few immediate successes for some revolutionary movements, notably in the Habsburg lands. Austrian Empire, Austria and eliminated feudalism by 1850, improving the lot of the peasants. European middle classes made political and economic gains over the next 20 years; France retained universal male suffrage. Russia would later Emancipation reform of 1861, free the serfs on 19 February 1861. The Habsburgs finally had to give the Hungarians more self-determination in the ''Ausgleich'' of 1867. The revolutions inspired lasting reform in Denmark as well as the Netherlands. :de:Reinhard Rürup, Reinhard Rürup has described the 1848 Revolutions as a turning point in the development of modern antisemitism through the development of conspiracies that presented Jews as representative both of the forces of social revolution (apparently typified in Joseph Goldmark and Adolf Fischhof of Vienna) and of international capital, as seen in the 1848 report from Eduard von Müller-Tellering, the Viennese correspondent of Marx's ''Neue Rheinische Zeitung'', which declared that "tyranny comes from money and the money belongs to the Jews". About 4,000 exiles came to the United States fleeing the reactionary purges. Of these, 100 went to the Texas Hill Country as German Texans. More widely, many disillusioned and persecuted revolutionaries, in particular (though not exclusively) those from Germany and the Austrian Empire, left their homelands for foreign exile in the New World or in the more liberal European nations; these emigrants were known as the .
In popular cultureSteven Brust and Emma Bull's 1997 epistolary novel ''Freedom & Necessity'' is set in England in the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1848.
See also* Age of Revolution * Arab Spring * Color Revolutions * Protests of 1968 * Revolutions of 1830 * Revolutions of 1917–23 * Revolutions of 1989
Surveys* Breunig, Charles (1977), ''The Age of Revolution and Reaction, 1789–1850'' () * Chastain, James, ed. (2005) ''Encyclopedia of Revolutions of 1848'
France* Clark, Timothy J. ''Image of the people: Gustave Courbet and the 1848 revolution'' (Univ of California Press, 1999), his paintings. * Duveau, Georges. ''1848: The Making of a Revolution'' (1966) * Fasel, George. "The Wrong Revolution: French Republicanism in 1848," ''French Historical Studies'' Vol. 8, No. 4 (Autumn, 1974), pp. 654–7
Germany and Austria* Deak, Istvan. ''The Lawful Revolution: Louis Kossuth and the Hungarians, 1848–1849'' (1979) * Hahs, Hans J. ''The 1848 Revolutions in German-speaking Europe'' (2001) * Hamerow, Theodore S. "History and the German Revolution of 1848." ''American Historical Review'' 60.1 (1954): 27-44
Italy* Ginsborg, Paul. "Peasants and Revolutionaries in Venice and the Veneto, 1848," ''Historical Journal,'' Sep 1974, Vol. 17 Issue 3, pp. 503–5
Other* Feyzioğlu, Hamiyet Sezer et al. "Revolutions of 1848 and the Ottoman Empire," ''Bulgarian Historical Review,'' 2009, Vol. 37 Issue 3/4, pp. 196–205
Historiography* Dénes, Iván Zoltán. "Reinterpreting a 'Founding Father': Kossuth Images and Their Contexts, 1848–2009," ''East Central Europe,'' April 2010, Vol. 37 Issue 1, pp. 90–117 * Hamerow, Theodore S. "History and the German Revolution of 1848," ''American Historical Review'' Vol. 60, No. 1 (Oct. 1954), pp. 27–4