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The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of
political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch of Marxism developed by Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky. Trotsky self-identified as an Orthodox Marxism, orthodox Marxist and Bolsheviks, Bolshevik–L ...
s throughout
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
in 1848. It remains the most widespread
revolutionary wave A revolutionary wave or revolutionary decade is one series of revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of pol ...
in
European history The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of written records. During the Neolith ...
. The revolutions were essentially
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the a ...

democratic
and
liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...

liberal
in nature, with the aim of removing the old
monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political legitimacy and authority of the monarch may vary from restricted and large ...
structures and creating independent nation-states. The revolutions spread across Europe after an initial revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no significant coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries. Some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more
participation Participation or Participant may refer to: Politics *Participation (decision making), mechanisms for people to participate in social decisions *Civic participation, engagement by the citizens in government *e-participation, citizen participation ...
in government and democracy, demands for
freedom of the press Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and being w ...
, other demands made by the
working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see also "Designation of workers by collar colorCo ...
for economic rights, the upsurge of
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target ...
, the regrouping of established government forces, and the
European Potato Failure 200px, A blighted potato tuber The European Potato Failure was a food crisis Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, '' ...
, which triggered mass starvation, migration, and civil unrest. The uprisings were led by temporary coalitions of reformers, the middle classes (the
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguisti ...

bourgeoisie
) and workers; however, the coalitions did not hold together for long. Many of the revolutions were quickly suppressed, as tens of thousands of people were killed, and many more were forced into exile. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of
serfdom Serfdom was the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism, and similar systems. It was a condition of debt bondage and indentured servitude with similarities to and differences from slavery, which developed ...
in Austria and Hungary, the end of
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
in Denmark, and the introduction of
representative democracy Representative democracy, also known as indirect democracy, is a type of democracy where elected persons represent Represent may refer to: * Represent (Compton's Most Wanted album), ''Represent'' (Compton's Most Wanted album) or the title song, ...
in the Netherlands. The revolutions were most important in France, the Netherlands,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
, the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It compr ...
, and the states of the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
that would make up the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
in the late 19th and early 20th century.


Origins

The revolutions arose from such a wide variety of causes that it is difficult to view them as resulting from a coherent movement or set of social phenomena. Numerous changes had been taking place in European society throughout the first half of the 19th century. Both
liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
reformers and radical politicians were reshaping national governments. Technological change was revolutionizing the life of the working classes. A popular press extended political awareness, and new values and ideas such as
popular liberalism
popular liberalism
,
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target ...
and
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
began to emerge. Some historians emphasize the serious crop failures, particularly those of 1846, that produced hardship among peasants and the working urban poor. Large swaths of the
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
were discontented with royal absolutism or near-absolutism. In 1846, there had been an
uprising Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. A rebellion originates from a sentiment of indignation and disapproval of a situation and ...
of
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...

Polish
nobility in Austrian
Galicia Galicia may refer to: Geographic regions * Galicia (Spain), a region and autonomous community of northwestern Spain ** Gallaecia, a Roman province ** The post-Roman Kingdom of the Suebi, also called the Kingdom of Gallaecia ** The medieval Kingdom ...
, which was only countered when peasants, in turn, rose up against the nobles. Additionally, an
uprising Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. A rebellion originates from a sentiment of indignation and disapproval of a situation and ...
by democratic forces against
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
, planned but not actually carried out, occurred in
Greater Poland in Kalisz File:Ratusz w Lesznie (2).jpg"> Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland">town hall Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (; german: Großpolen, la">Polonia Maior), is a historical r ...
. The middle and working classes thus shared a desire for reform, and agreed on many of the specific aims. Their participation in the revolutions, however, differed. While much of the
impetus
impetus
came from the middle classes, much of the
cannon fodderCannon fodder is an informal, derogatory term for combatant Combatant is the legal status of an individual who has the right to engage in hostilities during an armed conflict. The legal definition of "combatant" is found at article 43(2) of Additi ...
came from the lower classes. The revolts first erupted in the cities.


Urban workers

The population in French rural areas had risen rapidly, causing many peasants to seek a living in the cities. Many in the
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguisti ...

bourgeoisie
feared and distanced themselves from the
working poor The working poor are working people whose incomes fall below a given poverty line due to low-income jobs and low familial household income. These are people who spend at least 27 weeks in a year working or looking for employment, but remain under ...
. Many unskilled laborers toiled from 12 to 15 hours per day when they had work, living in squalid, disease-ridden slums. Traditional artisans felt the pressure of
industrialization Factories, refineries, mines, and agribusiness are all elements of industrialisation Industrialisation ( alternatively spelled industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian societ ...
, having lost their
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functiona ...
s. The liberalization of trade laws and the growth of factories had increased the gulf between master tradesmen, and journeymen and apprentices, whose numbers increased disproportionately by 93% from 1815 to 1848 in Germany. Significant proletarian unrest had occurred in
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...

Lyon
in 1831 and 1834, and
Prague Prague ( ; cs, Praha ; german: Prag, ; la, Praga) is the capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people ...

Prague
in 1844. Jonathan Sperber has suggested that in the period after 1825, poorer urban workers (particularly day laborers, factory workers and artisans) saw their purchasing power decline relatively steeply: urban meat consumption in Belgium, France and Germany stagnated or declined after 1830, despite growing populations. The economic Panic of 1847 increased urban unemployment: 10,000 Viennese factory workers were made redundant and 128 Hamburg firms went bankrupt over the course of 1847. With the exception of the Netherlands, there was a strong correlation among the countries that were most deeply affected by the industrial shock of 1847 and those that underwent a revolution in 1848. The situation in the German states was similar. Parts of
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
were beginning to industrialize. During the decade of the 1840s, mechanized production in the textile industry brought about inexpensive clothing that undercut the handmade products of German tailors. Reforms ameliorated the most unpopular features of rural
feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disc ...
, but industrial workers remained dissatisfied with these reforms and pressed for greater change. Urban workers had no choice but to spend half of their income on food, which consisted mostly of bread and potatoes. As a result of harvest failures,
food prices Food prices refer to the average price level for food across countries, regions and on a global scale. Food prices have an impact on producers and consumers of food. Price levels depend on the Food industry, food production process, including f ...
soared and the demand for
manufactured goods Manufacturing is the creation or production of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distr ...
decreased, causing an increase in unemployment. During the revolution, to address the problem of unemployment, workshops were organized for men interested in construction work. Officials also set up workshops for women when they felt they were excluded. Artisans and unemployed workers destroyed industrial machines when they threatened to give employers more power over them.


Rural areas

Rural population growth had led to food shortages,
land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of Earth's crust, crustal components such a ...
pressure, and migration, both within and from Europe, especially to the Americas. Peasant discontent in the 1840s grew in intensity: peasant occupations of lost communal land increased in many areas: those convicted of wood theft in the Rhenish Palatinate increased from 100,000 in 1829–30 to 185,000 in 1846–47. In the years 1845 and 1846, a
potato blight The potato is a starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attr ...
caused a subsistence crisis in Northern Europe, and encouraged the raiding of manorial potato stocks in Silesia in 1847. The effects of the blight were most severely manifested in the
Great Irish Famine The Great Famine ( ga, an Gorta Mór ), also known as the Great Hunger, the Famine (mostly within Ireland) or the Irish Potato Famine (mostly outside Ireland), was a period of mass starvation and disease A disease is a particular abn ...
,Helen Litton, ''The Irish Famine: An Illustrated History'', Wolfhound Press, 1995, but also caused famine-like conditions in the
Scottish Highlands The Highlands ( sco, the Hielands; gd, a’ Ghàidhealtachd , 'the place of the Gaels The Gaels ( ; ga, Na Gaeil ; gd, Na Gàidheil ; gv, Ny Gaeil ) are an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) ...

Scottish Highlands
and throughout
continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', lite ...

continental Europe
. Harvests of rye in the Rhineland were 20% of previous levels, while the Czech potato harvest was reduced by half. These reduced harvests were accompanied by a steep rise in prices (the cost of wheat more than doubled in France and Habsburg Italy). There were 400 French food riots during 1846 to 1847, while German socio-economic protests increased from 28 during 1830 to 1839, to 103 during 1840 to 1847. Central to long-term peasant grievances were the loss of communal lands, forest restrictions (such as the French Forest Code of 1827), and remaining feudal structures, notably the robot (labor obligations) that existed among the serfs and oppressed peasantry of the Habsburg lands.
Aristocratic Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class, the aristocrats. The term derives from the Greek ''aristokrat ...
wealth (and corresponding power) was synonymous with the ownership of farm lands and effective control over the
peasant A peasant is a pre-industrial Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the tra ...
s. Peasant grievances exploded during the revolutionary year of 1848, yet were often disconnected from urban revolutionary movements: the revolutionary
Sándor Petőfi Sándor Petőfi ( []; né Petrovics; sk, Alexander Petrovič; sr, Александар Петровић; 1 January 1823 – most likely 31 July 1849) was a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary. He is considered Hungary's national poet, ...
's popular nationalist rhetoric in Budapest did not translate into any success with the Magyar peasantry, while the Viennese democrat
Hans Kudlich
Hans Kudlich
reported that his efforts to galvanize the Austrian peasantry had "disappeared in the great sea of indifference and phlegm".


Role of ideas

Despite forceful and often violent efforts of established and reactionary powers to keep them down, disruptive ideas gained popularity:
democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to cho ...

democracy
,
liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals ...

liberalism
, radicalism,
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target ...
, and
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
. They demanded a
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
,
universal manhood suffrageUniversal manhood suffrage is a form of voting rights Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. ...
,
press freedom Press commonly refers to: * Pressure, or the act of pressing * Printing press, commonly called "the press" * Print media, commonly called "the press" after the printing press Press may also refer to: People * Press (surname), a family name of Eng ...
,
freedom of expression Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosop ...
and other democratic rights, the establishment of civilian militia, liberation of peasants, liberalization of the economy, abolition of tariff barriers and the abolition of monarchical power structures in favor of the establishment of
republican states
republican states
, or at least the restriction of the prince power in the form of constitutional monarchies. In the language of the 1840s, 'democracy' meant replacing an electorate of property-owners with universal male
suffrage Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called a ...

suffrage
. 'Liberalism' fundamentally meant
consent of the governed Consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another. It is a term of common speech, with specific definitions as used in such fields as the law, medicine, research, and sexual relationships. Consent as understo ...
, restriction of church and
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
power, republican government,
freedom of the press Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and being w ...
and the individual. The 1840s had seen the emergence of radical liberal publications such as ''Rheinische Zeitung'' (1842); ''Le National'' and ''La Réforme'' (1843) in France;
Ignaz Kuranda Ignaz Kuranda (1 May 1812 in Prague – 3 April 1884 in Vienna) was an Austrian Empire, Austrian deputy and political writer of Czechs, Bohemian origin. Establishes "Die Grenzboten" Image:V07p584001 Ignaz Kuranda.jpg, right His grandfather a ...

Ignaz Kuranda
's ''Grenzboten'' (1841) in Austria;
Lajos Kossuth Lajos Kossuth de Udvard et Kossuthfalva (, hu, udvardi és kossuthfalvi Kossuth Lajos, sk, Ľudovít Košút, anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice o ...

Lajos Kossuth
's ''Pesti Hírlap'' (1841) in Hungary, as well as the increased popularity of the older ''
Morgenbladet ''Morgenbladet'' is a Norwegian weekly, newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and ...
'' in Norway and the ''
Aftonbladet ''Aftonbladet'' (, lit. "The evening paper") is a Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finlan ...
'' in Sweden. 'Nationalism' believed in uniting people bound by (some mix of) common
language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...

language
s,
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

culture
,
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
, shared
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
, and of course immediate
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

geography
; there were also
irredentist Irredentism is a political and popular movement whose members claim (usually on behalf of their nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a sha ...
movements. Nationalism had developed a broader appeal during the pre-1848 period, as seen in the
František Palacký
František Palacký
's 1836 ''History of the Czech Nation'', which emphasised a national lineage of conflict with the Germans, or the popular patriotic ''Liederkranz'' (song-circles) that were held across Germany: patriotic and belligerent songs about
Schleswig The Duchy of Schleswig ( da, Hertugdømmet Slesvig; german: Herzogtum Schleswig; nds, Hartogdom Sleswig; frr, Härtochduum Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland () covering the area between about 60 km (35 miles) north and 70 km ( ...
had dominated the
Würzburg Würzburg (; Main-Franconian: ) is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in the traditional region of Franconia in the north of the Germany, German state of Bavaria. Würzburg is the administrative seat of the ''Regierungsbezirk'' Lower Fra ...

Würzburg
national song festival in 1845. 'Socialism' in the 1840s was a term without a consensus definition, meaning different things to different people, but was typically used within a context of more power for workers in a system based on worker ownership of the
means of production The means of production is a concept that encompasses the social use and ownership Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive right In Anglo-Saxon law Anglo-Saxon law (Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest record ...
. These concepts together - democracy, liberalism, nationalism and socialism, in the sense described above - came to be encapsulated in the political term radicalism.


Sequence of main trends

Every country had a distinctive timing, but the general pattern showed very sharp cycles as reform moved up then down.


Spring 1848: Astonishing success

The world was astonished in spring 1848 when revolutions appeared in so many places and seemed on the verge of success everywhere. Agitators who had been exiled by the old governments rushed home to seize the moment. In France the monarchy was once again overthrown and replaced by a republic. In a number of major German and Italian states, and in Austria, the old leaders were forced to grant liberal constitutions. The Italian and German states seemed to be rapidly forming unified nations. Austria gave Hungarians and Czechs liberal grants of autonomy and national status.


Summer 1848: Divisions among reformers

In France bloody street battles exploded between the middle class reformers and the working class radicals. German reformers argued endlessly without finalizing their results.Kranzberg, ''1848: A Turning Point?'' (1962) p xii, xvii–xviii.


Autumn 1848: Reactionaries organize for a counter-revolution

Caught off guard at first, the aristocracy and their allies plot a return to power.


1849–1851: Overthrow of revolutionary regimes

The revolutions suffer a series of defeats in summer 1849. Reactionaries returned to power and many leaders of the revolution went into exile. Some social reforms proved permanent, and years later nationalists in Germany, Italy, and Hungary gained their objectives.


Events by country or region


Italian states

Although few noticed at the time, the first major outbreak came in Palermo, Sicily, starting in January 1848. There had been several previous revolts against
BourbonBourbon may refer to: Food and drink * Bourbon whiskey, an American whiskey made using a corn-based mash * Bourbon barrel aged beer, a type of beer aged in bourbon barrels * Bourbon biscuit, a chocolate sandwich biscuit * A beer produced by Brass ...

Bourbon
rule; this one produced an independent state that lasted only 16 months before the Bourbons came back. During those months, the constitution was quite advanced for its time in liberal democratic terms, as was the proposal of an Italian confederation of states. The revolt's failure was reversed 12 years later as the Bourbon
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( nap, Regno d’ ’e Ddoje Sicilie; scn, Regnu dî Dui Sicili; it, Regno delle Due Sicilie; es, Reino de las Dos Sicilias) was a kingdom located in Southern Italy from 1816 to 1860. The kingdom was the larg ...
collapsed in 1860–61 with the
Risorgimento Italian unification ( it, Unità d'Italia ), also known as the Risorgimento (, ; meaning "Resurgence"), was the 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the Merger (politics), consolidation of List of historic states of Ital ...

Risorgimento
.


France

The "February Revolution" in France was sparked by the suppression of the '' campagne des banquets.'' This revolution was driven by nationalist and republican ideals among the French general public, who believed the people should rule themselves. It ended the
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
of
Louis-Philippe Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848, the last King and penultimate monarch of France. As Duke of Chartres he distinguished himself commanding troops during the Revolutionary Wars, b ...
, and led to the creation of the
French Second Republic The French Second Republic (french: Deuxième République Française or ), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was the republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of p ...
. The new government was headed by , the nephew of
Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon Bonaparte ; co, Napulione Buonaparte. (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) r ...

Napoleon Bonaparte
, who in 1852 staged a coup d'état and established himself as a dictatorial emperor of the
Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire, ), was the 18-year Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, Cali ...

Second French Empire
.
Alexis de Tocqueville#REDIRECT Alexis de Tocqueville Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, comte de Tocqueville (; 29 July 180516 April 1859), colloquially known as Tocqueville (), was a French aristocrat, diplomat, political scientist, political philosopher and historia ...

Alexis de Tocqueville
remarked in his ''Recollections'' of the period, "society was cut in two: those who had nothing united in common envy, and those who had anything united in common terror."


German states

The "March Revolution" in the German states took place in the south and the west of Germany, with large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations. Led by well-educated students and intellectuals, they demanded German national unity,
freedom of the press Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and being w ...
, and
freedom of assembly Janitorial workers striking in front of the MTV building in Santa Monica, California">Santa Monica Santa Monica () is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, i ...
. The uprisings were poorly coordinated, but had in common a rejection of traditional, autocratic political structures in the 39 independent states of the
German Confederation The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire, which had ...

German Confederation
. The middle-class and working-class components of the Revolution split, and in the end, the conservative aristocracy defeated it, forcing many liberal
Forty-Eighters The Forty-Eighters were Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as ...
into exile.


Denmark

Denmark had been governed by a system of absolute monarchy (
King's Law The King's Law () or ''Lex Regia'' () (also called the Danish Royal Law of 1665) was the Absolute monarchy, absolutist constitution of Denmark–Norway, Denmark and Norway from 1665 until Constitution of Denmark, 1849 and Constitution of Norway, 1 ...
) since the 17th century. King
Christian VIII Christian VIII (18 September 1786 – 20 January 1848) was the king of Denmark The Monarchy of Denmark is a constitutional political system, institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark. The Kingdom includes Denmark pro ...

Christian VIII
, a moderate reformer but still an absolutist, died in January 1848 during a period of rising opposition from farmers and liberals. The demands for constitutional monarchy, led by the National Liberals, ended with a popular march to
Christiansborg Christiansborg Palace ( da, Christiansborg Slot; ) is a palace , the official residence of Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies ...

Christiansborg
on 21 March. The new king, , met the liberals' demands and installed a new Cabinet that included prominent leaders of the National Liberal Party.Weibull, Jörgen. "Scandinavia, History of." ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
'' 15th ed., Vol. 16, 324.
The national-liberal movement wanted to abolish absolutism, but retain a strongly centralized state. The king accepted a new constitution agreeing to share power with a bicameral parliament called the
Rigsdag Rigsdagen ({{IPA-da, ˈʁisˌtɛˀn̩) was the name of the national legislature of Denmark from 1849 to 1953. ''Rigsdagen'' was Denmark's first parliament, and it was incorporated in the Constitution of 1849. It was a bicameral legislature, consi ...
. It is said that the Danish king's first words after signing away his absolute power were, "that was nice, now I can sleep in the mornings". Although army officers were dissatisfied, they accepted the new arrangement which, in contrast to the rest of Europe, was not overturned by reactionaries. The liberal constitution did not extend to
Schleswig The Duchy of Schleswig ( da, Hertugdømmet Slesvig; german: Herzogtum Schleswig; nds, Hartogdom Sleswig; frr, Härtochduum Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland () covering the area between about 60 km (35 miles) north and 70 km ( ...
, leaving the
Schleswig-Holstein Question File:Herzogtümer.png, Schleswig and Holstein before the Second Schleswig War. The Schleswig-Holstein Question (german: Schleswig-Holsteinische Frage; da, Spørgsmålet om Sønderjylland og Holsten) was a complex set of diplomatic and other issues ...
unanswered.


Schleswig

The
Duchy of Schleswig The Duchy of Schleswig ( da, Hertugdømmet Slesvig; german: Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: ''Hartogdom Sleswig''; North Frisian: ''Härtochduum Slaswik'') was a duchy in Southern Jutland (''Sønderjylland'') covering the area between about ...
, a region containing both Danes (a North Germanic population) and Germans (a West Germanic population), was a part of the Danish monarchy, but remained a duchy separate from the Kingdom of Denmark. Spurred by
pan-German Pan-Germanism (german: Pangermanismus or '), also occasionally known as Pan-Germanicism, is a pan-nationalist political idea. Pan-Germanists originally sought to unify all the German-speaking people – and possibly also Germanic-speaking ...
sentiment, the Germans of Schleswig took up arms in protest at a new policy announced by Denmark's National Liberal government which would have fully integrated the duchy into Denmark. The German population in Schleswig and Holstein revolted, inspired by the Protestant clergy. The German states sent in an army, but Danish victories in 1849 led to the Treaty of Berlin (1850) and the
London Protocol (1852) On 8 May 1852, after the First War of Schleswig, an agreement called the London Protocol was signed. This international treaty was the revision of an earlier protocol, which had been ratified on 2 August 1850, by the major Germanic powers of Aust ...
. They reaffirmed the sovereignty of the King of Denmark, while prohibiting union with Denmark. The violation of the latter provision led to renewed warfare in 1863 and the Prussian victory in 1864.


Habsburg Monarchy

From March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburg Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements, which often had a nationalist character. The empire, ruled from Vienna, included Austrians, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs,
Croats Croats (; hr, Hrvati ), also known as Croatians, are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, o ...

Croats
, Slovaks, Ukrainians/
Ruthenians Ruthenians and Ruthenes ( la, Rutheni) are exonyms An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Sout ...
, Romanians,
Serbs Serbs ( sr-Cyr, Срби, Srbi, ) are a South Slavic ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from ...
and Italians, all of whom attempted in the course of the revolution to achieve either autonomy, independence, or even hegemony over other nationalities. The nationalist picture was further complicated by the simultaneous events in the German states, which moved toward greater German national unity.


Hungary

The Hungarian revolution of 1848 was the longest in Europe, crushed in August 1849 by Austrian and Russian armies. Nevertheless, it had a major effect in freeing the serfs. It started on 15 March 1848, when Hungarian patriots organized mass demonstrations in
Pest Pest or The Pest may refer to: Science and medicine * Pest (organism), an animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns ** Weed, a plant considered undesirable * Infectious disease, an illness resulting from an infection ** Plague (diseas ...
and
Buda Buda (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Buda
(today Budapest) which forced the imperial governor to accept their 12 points of demands, which included the demand for freedom of press, an independent Hungarian ministry residing in Buda-Pest and responsible to a popularly elected parliament, the formation of a National Guard, complete civil and religious equality, trial by jury, a national bank, a Hungarian army, the withdrawal of foreign (Austrian) troops from Hungary, the freeing of political prisoners, and the union with Transylvania. On that morning, the demands were read aloud along with poetry by
Sándor Petőfi Sándor Petőfi ( []; né Petrovics; sk, Alexander Petrovič; sr, Александар Петровић; 1 January 1823 – most likely 31 July 1849) was a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary. He is considered Hungary's national poet, ...
with the simple lines of "We swear by the God of the Hungarians. We swear, we shall be slaves no more".Deak, Istvan. The Lawful Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.
Lajos Kossuth Lajos Kossuth de Udvard et Kossuthfalva (, hu, udvardi és kossuthfalvi Kossuth Lajos, sk, Ľudovít Košút, anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice o ...

Lajos Kossuth
and some other liberal nobility that made up the
Diet Diet may refer to: Food * Diet (nutrition) In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for #Health, health or #Weight management, weight-mana ...
appealed to the Habsburg court with demands for representative government and civil liberties."The US and the 1848 Hungarian Revolution." The Hungarian Initiatives Foundation. Accessed 26 March 2015. http://www.hungaryfoundation.org/history/20140707_US_HUN_1848. These events resulted in
Klemens von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein( ; german: Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein (15 May 1773 – 11 June 1859), was an Austrian diplomat who was at the center of ...
, the Austrian prince and foreign minister, resigning. The demands of the Diet were agreed upon on 18 March by Emperor Ferdinand. Although Hungary would remain part of the monarchy through
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
with the emperor, a constitutional government would be founded. The Diet then passed the April laws that established equality before the law, a legislature, a hereditary constitutional monarchy, and an end to the transfer and restrictions of land use. The revolution grew into a war for independence from the
Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumonarchie), or Habsburg Empire (german: Habsburgerreich) is a modern umbrella term In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek language, Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "u ...

Habsburg Monarchy
when
Josip Jelačić Count Josip Jelačić von Bužim (16 October 180120 May 1859; also spelled ''Jellachich'', ''Jellačić'' or hu, Jellasics; hr, Josip grof Jelačić Bužimski) was a Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian languag ...
, Ban of Croatia, crossed the border to restore their control. The new government, led by
Lajos Kossuth Lajos Kossuth de Udvard et Kossuthfalva (, hu, udvardi és kossuthfalvi Kossuth Lajos, sk, Ľudovít Košút, anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice o ...

Lajos Kossuth
, was initially successful against the Habsburg forces. Although Hungary took a national united stand for its freedom, some minorities of the Kingdom of Hungary, including the Serbs of Vojvodina, the Romanians of Transylvania and some Slovaks of Upper Hungary supported the Habsburg Emperor and fought against the Hungarian Revolutionary Army. Eventually, after one and a half years of fighting, the revolution was crushed when Russian Tsar marched into Hungary with over 300,000 troops. As result of the defeat, Hungary was thus placed under brutal martial law. The leading rebels like Kossuth fled into exile or were executed. In the long run, the passive resistance following the revolution, along with the crushing Austrian defeat in the 1866
Austro-Prussian War The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War, known in Germany as ("German War") and by a variety of other names, was fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was ...
, led to the
Austro-Hungarian Compromise File:Ferenc József koronázás 1892-23.jpg, 300px, Photo of the coronation oath in Buda in front of the Inner City Parish Church in Pest, Inner City Parish Church (Budapest) The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (german: Ausgleich, hu, ...
(1867), which marked the birth of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exer ...

Austro-Hungarian Empire
.


Galicia

The center of the Ukrainian national movement was in
Galicia Galicia may refer to: Geographic regions * Galicia (Spain), a region and autonomous community of northwestern Spain ** Gallaecia, a Roman province ** The post-Roman Kingdom of the Suebi, also called the Kingdom of Gallaecia ** The medieval Kingdom ...
, which is today divided between Ukraine and Poland. On 19 April 1848, a group of representatives led by the Greek Catholic clergy launched a petition to the Austrian Emperor. It expressed wishes that in those regions of Galicia where the Ruthenian (Ukrainian) population represented majority, the
Ukrainian language Ukrainian ( uk, украї́нська мо́ва, translit=ukrainska mova, label=native name, ), historically also called Ruthenian, is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Sla ...
should be taught at schools and used to announce official decrees for the peasantry; local officials were expected to understand it and the Ruthenian clergy was to be equalized in their rights with the clergy of all other denominations. On 2 May 1848, the Supreme Ruthenian (Ukrainian) Council was established. The Council (1848–1851) was headed by the Greek-Catholic Bishop Gregory Yakhimovich and consisted of 30 permanent members. Its main goal was the administrative division of Galicia into Western (Polish) and Eastern (Ruthenian/Ukrainian) parts within the borders of the Habsburg Empire, and formation of a separate region with a political self-governance.


Sweden

During 18–19 March, a series of riots known as the March Unrest (''Marsoroligheterna'') took place in the Swedish capital of Stockholm. Declarations with demands of political reform were spread in the city and a crowd was dispersed by the military, leading to 18 casualties.


Switzerland

Switzerland, already an alliance of republics, also saw an internal struggle. The attempted secession of seven Catholic Cantons of Switzerland, cantons to form an alliance known as the ''Sonderbund'' ("separate alliance") in 1845 led to a short civil conflict in November 1847 in which around 100 people were killed. The ''Sonderbund'' was decisively defeated by the Protestant cantons, which had a larger population. A new constitution of 1848 ended the almost-complete independence of the cantons, transforming Switzerland as a federal state, Switzerland into a federal state.


Greater Poland

Polish people mounted a military insurrection against the Kingdom of Prussia, Prussians in the Grand Duchy of Posen (or the
Greater Poland in Kalisz File:Ratusz w Lesznie (2).jpg"> Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland">town hall Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska (; german: Großpolen, la">Polonia Maior), is a historical r ...
region), a part of Prussia since its annexation in 1815. The Poles tried to establish a Polish political entity, but refused to cooperate with the Germans and the Jews. The Germans decided they were better off with the status quo, so they assisted the Prussian governments in recapturing control. In the long-term, the uprising stimulated nationalism among both the Poles and the Germans and brought civil equality to the Jews.


Romanian Principalities

A Romanian liberal and Romantic nationalist uprising began in June in the principality of Wallachia. Its goals were administrative autonomy, abolition of serfdom, and popular self-determination. It was closely connected with the 1848 unsuccessful Moldavian Revolution of 1848, revolt in Moldavia, it sought to overturn the administration imposed by Imperial Russian authorities under the ''Regulamentul Organic'' regime, and, through many of its leaders, demanded the abolition of boyar privilege. Led by a group of young intellectuals and officers in the Wallachian military forces, the movement succeeded in toppling the ruling List of rulers of Wallachia, Prince Gheorghe Bibescu, whom it replaced with a provisional government and a Regent, regency, and in passing a series of major liberal reforms, first announced in the Proclamation of Islaz. Despite its rapid gains and popular backing, the new administration was marked by conflicts between the Liberalism and radicalism in Romania, radical wing and more conservative forces, especially over the issue of land reform. Two successive abortive coups weakened the new government, and its international status was always contested by Russia. After managing to rally a degree of sympathy from Ottoman political leaders, the Revolution was ultimately isolated by the intervention of Russian diplomats. In September 1848 by agreement with the Ottomans, Russia invaded and put down the revolution. According to Vasile Maciu, the failures were attributable in Wallachia to foreign intervention, in Moldavia to the opposition of the feudalists, and in Transylvania to the failure of the campaigns of General Józef Bem, and later to Austrian repression. In later decades, the rebels returned and gained their goals.


Belgium

Belgium Belgium in the long nineteenth century, did not see major unrest in 1848; it had already undergone a liberal reform after the Belgian Revolution, Revolution of 1830 and thus its constitutional system and its monarchy survived. A number of small local riots broke out, concentrated in the ''sillon industriel'' industrial region of the provinces of Liège (province), Liège and Hainaut (province), Hainaut. The most serious threat of revolutionary contagion, however, was posed by Belgian émigré groups from France. In 1830 the Belgian Revolution had broken out inspired by the revolution occurring in France, and Belgian authorities feared that a similar 'copycat' phenomenon might occur in 1848. Shortly after the revolution in France, Belgian migrant workers living in Paris were encouraged to return to Belgium to overthrow Monarchy of Belgium, the monarchy and establish a republic. Belgian authorities expelled Karl Marx himself from Brussels in early March on accusations of having used part of his inheritance to arm Belgian revolutionaries. Around 6,000 armed émigrés of the "Belgian Legion#French Revolution of 1848, Belgian Legion" attempted to cross the Belgian frontier. There were two divisions which were formed. The first group, travelling by train, were stopped and quickly disarmed at Quiévrain on 26 March 1848. The second group crossed the border on 29 March and headed for Brussels. They were confronted by Belgian troops at the hamlet of Risquons-Tout and defeated. Several smaller groups managed to infiltrate Belgium, but the reinforced Belgian border troops succeeded and the defeat at Risquons-Tout effectively ended the revolutionary threat to Belgium. The situation in Belgium began to recover that summer after a good harvest, and Belgian general election, 1848, fresh elections returned a strong majority to the governing party.


Ireland

A tendency common in the revolutionary movements of 1848 was a perception that the liberal monarchies set up in the 1830s, despite formally being representative parliamentary democracies, were too oligarchical and/or corrupt to respond to the urgent needs of the people, and were therefore in need of drastic democratic overhaul or, failing that, separatism to build a democratic state from scratch. This was the process that occurred in Ireland between 1801 and 1848. Previously a separate kingdom, Ireland was Acts of Union 1800, incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801. Although its population was made up largely of Catholics, and sociologically of agricultural workers, tensions arose from the political over-representation, in positions of power, of landowners of Protestant background who were loyal to the United Kingdom. From the 1810s a conservative-liberal movement led by Daniel O'Connell had sought to secure Catholic emancipation, equal political rights for Catholics ''within'' the British political system, successful in the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829. But as in other European states, a current inspired by Radicalism (historical), Radicalism criticized the conservative-liberals for pursuing the aim of democratic equality with excessive compromise and gradualism. In Ireland a current of Civic nationalism, nationalist, Liberté, égalité, fraternité, egalitarian and Radicalism (historical), Radical republicanism, inspired by the French Revolution, had been present since the 1790s being expressed initially in the Irish Rebellion of 1798. This tendency grew into a movement for social, cultural and political reform during the 1830s, and in 1839 was realized into a political association called Young Ireland. It was initially not well received, but grew more popular with the Great Famine (Ireland), Great Famine of 18451849, an event that brought catastrophic social effects and which threw into light the inadequate response of authorities. The spark for the Young Irelander Revolution came in 1848 when the British Parliament passed the "Crime and Outrage Bill (Ireland) 1847, Crime and Outrage Bill". The Bill was essentially a declaration of martial law in Ireland, designed to create a counter-insurgency against the growing Irish nationalist movement. In response, the Young Ireland Party launched its rebellion in July 1848, gathering landlords and tenants to its cause. But its first Famine Warhouse 1848, major engagement against police, in the village of Ballingarry, South Tipperary, was a failure. A long gunfight with around 50 armed Royal Irish Constabulary, police ended when police reinforcements arrived. After the arrest of the Young Ireland leaders, the rebellion collapsed, though intermittent fighting continued for the next year, It is sometimes called the ''Famine Rebellion'' (since it took place during the Great Famine).


Spain

While no revolution occurred in Spain in the year 1848, a similar phenomenon occurred. During this year, the country was going through the Second Carlist War. The European revolutions erupted at a moment when the Isabella II of Spain, political regime in Spain faced great criticism from within one of its two main parties, and by 1854 a radical-liberal revolution and a conservative-liberal counter-revolution had both occurred. Since 1833, Spain had been governed by a Conservative liberalism, conservative-liberal Parliamentary Monarchy, parliamentary monarchy similar to and modelled on the July Monarchy in France. In order to exclude absolute monarchists from government, power had alternated between two liberal parties: the center-left Progressive Party (Spain), Progressive Party, and the center-right Moderate Party (Spain), Moderate Party. But a decade of rule by the center-right Moderates had recently produced a constitutional reform (1845), prompting fears that the Moderates sought to reach out to Absolutists and permanently exclude the Progressives. The left-wing of the Progressive Party, which had historical links to Jacobin (politics), Jacobinism and Radicalism (historical), Radicalism, began to push for root-and-branch reforms to the constitutional monarchy, notably Universal manhood suffrage, universal male suffrage and parliamentary sovereignty. The European Revolutions of 1848 and particularly the
French Second Republic The French Second Republic (french: Deuxième République Française or ), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was the republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of p ...
prompted the Exaltados, Spanish radical movement to adopt positions incompatible with the existing constitutional regime, notably Republicanism in Spain, republicanism. This ultimately led the Radicals to exit the Progressive Party to form the Democratic Party (Spain), Democratic Party in 1849. Over the next years, two revolutions occurred. In 1852, the conservatives of the Moderate Party were ousted after a decade in power by an alliance of Radicals, Liberals and liberal Conservatives led by Generals Espartero and O'Donnell. In 1854, the more conservative half of this alliance launched a second revolution to oust the republican Radicals, leading to a new 10-year period of government by conservative-liberal monarchists. Taken together, the two revolutions can be thought of as echoing aspects of the
French Second Republic The French Second Republic (french: Deuxième République Française or ), officially the French Republic (''République française''), was the republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of p ...
: the Spanish Revolution of 1852, as a revolt by Radicals and Liberals against the oligarchical, conservative-liberal parliamentary monarchy of the 1830s, mirrored the French Revolution of 1848; while the Spanish Spanish Revolution of 1854, Revolution of 1854, as a counter-revolution of conservative-liberals under a military strongman, had echoes of French coup d'état of 1851, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte's coup against the French Second Republic.


Other European states

Great Britain, The Island of Great Britain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal, the Russian Empire (including Congress Poland, Poland and Grand Principality of Finland, Finland), and the Ottoman Empire did not encounter major national or Radical revolutions over this period. Sweden and Norway were also little affected. Principality of Serbia, Serbia, though formally unaffected by the revolt as it was a part of the Ottoman state, actively supported Serbian revolutionaries in the Habsburg Empire. Russia's relative stability was attributed to the revolutionary groups' inability to communicate with each other. In some countries, uprisings had already occurred demanding similar reforms to the Revolutions of 1848, but little success. This was case for the Congress Poland, Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which had seen a series of uprisings before or after but not during 1848: the November Uprising of 1830–31; the Kraków Uprising of 1846 (notable for being quelled by the anti-revolutionary Galician slaughter), and later on the January Uprising of 1863–65. In other countries, the relative calm could be attributed to the fact that they had already gone through revolutions or civil wars in the preceding years, and therefore already enjoyed many of the reforms which Radicals elsewhere were demanding in 1848. This was largely the case for Belgium (the Belgian Revolution in 1830–1); Portugal (the Liberal Wars of 1828–34); and Switzerland (the Sonderbund War of 1847) In yet other countries, the absence of unrest was partly due to governments taking action to prevent revolutionary unrest, and pre-emptively grant some of the reforms demanded by revolutionaries elsewhere. This was notably the case for the Netherlands, where King William II of the Netherlands, William II decided Constitutional Reform of 1848, to alter the Dutch constitution to reform elections and voluntarily reduce the power of the monarchy. The same might be said of Switzerland, where a new constitutional regime was introduced in 1848: the Swiss Federal Constitution was a revolution of sorts, laying the foundation of Swiss society as it is today. While no major political upheavals occurred in the Ottoman Empire as such, political unrest did occur in some of its Vassal States (Ottoman Empire), vassal states. In Serbia,
feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disc ...
was abolished and the power of the Serbian prince was reduced with the 1838 Constitution of Serbia, Constitution of Serbia in 1838.


Other English-speaking countries

In Britain, while the middle classes had been pacified by their inclusion in the extension of the franchise in the Reform Act 1832, the consequential agitations, violence, and petitions of the Chartism, Chartist movement came to a head with Chartism#1848 petition, their peaceful petition to Parliament of 1848. The repeal in 1846 of the protectionist agricultural tariffscalled the "Corn Laws"had defused some proletarian fervour. In the Isle of Man, there were ongoing efforts to reform the self-elected House of Keys, but no revolution took place. Some of the reformers were encouraged by events in France in particular. In the United States, opinions were polarized, with Democrats and reformers in favor, although they were distressed at the degree of violence involved. Opposition came from conservative elements, especially Whigs, southern slaveholders, orthodox Calvinists, and Catholics. About 4,000 German exiles arrived and some became fervent Republicans in the 1850s, such as Carl Schurz. Kossuth toured America and won great applause, but no volunteers or diplomatic or financial help. Following Rebellions of 1837–1838, rebellions in 1837 and 1838, 1848 in Canada saw the establishment of responsible government in Nova Scotia and The Canadas, the first such governments in the British Empire outside Great Britain. John Ralston Saul has argued that this development is tied to the revolutions in Europe, but described the Canadian approach to the revolutionary year of 1848 as "talking their way...out of the empire's control system and into a new democratic model", a stable democratic system which has lasted to the present day. Tory and Orange Order in Canada opposition to responsible government came to a head in riots triggered by the Rebellion Losses Bill in 1849. They succeeded in the burning of the Parliament Buildings in Montreal, but, unlike their counterrevolutionary counterparts in Europe, they were ultimately unsuccessful.


Latin America

In Spanish Latin America, the Revolution of 1848 appeared in Republic of New Granada, New Granada, where Colombian students, liberals, and intellectuals demanded the election of General José Hilario López. He took power in 1849 and launched major reforms, abolishing slavery and the death penalty, and providing freedom of the press and of religion. The resulting turmoil in History of Colombia, Colombia lasted three decades; from 1851 to 1885, the country was ravaged by four general civil wars and 50 local revolutions. In Chile, the 1848 revolutions inspired the 1851 Chilean Revolution. In Empire of Brazil, Brazil, the Praieira Revolt, a movement in Pernambuco, lasted from November 1848 to 1852. Unresolved conflicts from the period of the regency and local resistance to the consolidation of the Brazilian Empire that had been proclaimed in 1822 helped to plant the seeds of the revolution. In Mexico, the conservative government led by Santa Anna lost California and half of the territory to the United States in the Mexican–American War of 1845-48. Derived from this catastrophe and chronic stability problems, the Liberal Party started a reformist movement. This movement, via elections, led liberals to formulate the ''Plan of Ayutla''. The Plan written in 1854 aimed at removing conservative, centralist President Antonio López de Santa Anna from control of Mexico during the Second Federal Republic of Mexico period. Initially, it seemed little different from other political plans of the era, but it is considered the first act of the La Reforma, Liberal Reform in Mexico. It was the catalyst for revolts in many parts of Mexico, which led to the resignation of Santa Anna from the presidency, never to vie for office again. The next Presidents of Mexico were the liberals, Juan Álvarez, Ignacio Comonfort, and Benito Juárez. The new regime would then proclaim the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1857, 1857 Mexican Constitution, which implemented a variety of liberal reforms. Among other things, these reforms confiscated religious property, aimed to promote economic development and to stabilize a nascent republican government. The reforms led directly to the so-called Three Years War or Reform War of 1857. The liberals won this war but the conservatives solicited the French Government of Napoleon III for a European, conservative Monarch, deriving into the Second French intervention in Mexico. Under the puppet Habsburg government of Maximilian I of Mexico, the country became a client state of France (1863-1867).


Legacy

Historian Priscilla Robertson posits that many goals were achieved by the 1870s, but the credit primarily goes to the enemies of the 1848 revolutionaries, commenting: "Most of what the men of 1848 fought for was brought about within a quarter of a century, and the men who accomplished it were most of them specific enemies of the 1848 movement. Thiers ushered in a third French Republic, Bismarck united Germany, and Cavour, Italy. Deák won autonomy for Hungary within a dual monarchy; a Russian czar freed the serfs; and the British manufacturing classes moved toward the freedoms of the People's Charter." Liberal democracy, Liberal democrats looked to 1848 as a democratic revolution, which in the long run ensured liberty, equality, and fraternity. For nationalists, 1848 was the springtime of hope, when newly emerging nationalities rejected the old multinational empires, but the end results were not as comprehensive as many had hoped. Communists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguisti ...

bourgeoisie
indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat. The view of the Revolutions of 1848 as a bourgeois revolution is also common in non-Marxist scholarship. Middle-class anxiety and different approaches between bourgeois revolutionaries and radicals led to the failure of revolutions. Many governments engaged in a partial reversal of the revolutionary reforms of 1848–1849 as well as heightened repression and censorship. The Hanoverian nobility successfully appealed to the Confederal Diet in 1851 over the loss of their noble privileges, while the Prussian Junkers recovered their manorial police powers from 1852 to 1855. In the Austrian Empire, the Sylvester Patents (1851) discarded Franz Stadion's constitution and the Statute of Basic Rights, while the number of arrests in Habsburg territories increased from 70,000 in 1850 to one million by 1854. Nicholas I's rule in Russia after 1848 was particularly repressive, marked by an expansion of the secret police (the Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery, Tretiye Otdeleniye) and stricter censorship; there were more Russians working for censorship organs than actual books published in the period immediately after 1848. In France, the works of Charles Baudelaire, Victor Hugo, Alexandre Ledru-Rollin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon were confiscated. In the post-revolutionary decade after 1848, little had visibly changed, and many historians considered the revolutions a failure, given the seeming lack of permanent structural changes. More recently, Christopher Clark has characterised the period that followed 1848 as one dominated by a revolution in government. Karl Marx expressed disappointment at the bourgeois character of the revolutions. Marx elaborated in his 1850 "Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League" a theory of permanent revolution according to which the proletariat should strengthen democratic bourgeois revolutionary forces until the proletariat itself is ready to seize power. The Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Manteuffel declared that the state could no longer be run like the landed estate of a nobleman. In Prussia, August von Bethmann-Hollweg's ''Preußisches Wochenblatt'' newspaper (founded 1851) acted as a popular outlet for modernising Prussian conservative statesmen and journalists against the reactionary Kreuzzeitung faction. The Revolutions of 1848 were followed by new centrist coalitions dominated by Liberalism, liberals nervous of the threat of working-class
socialism Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...
, as seen in the Piedmontese ''Connubio'' under Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour. Governments after 1848 were forced into managing the public sphere and popular sphere with more effectiveness, resulting in the increased prominence of the Prussian ''Zentralstelle für Pressangelegenheiten'' (Central Press Agency, established 1850), the Austrian ''Zensur-und polizeihofstelle'', and the French ''Direction Générale de la Librairie'' (1856). Nevertheless, there were a few immediate successes for some revolutionary movements, notably in the Habsburg lands. Austrian Empire, Austria and
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
eliminated feudalism by 1850, improving the lot of the peasants. European middle classes made political and economic gains over the next 20 years; France retained universal male suffrage. Russia would later Emancipation reform of 1861, free the serfs on 19 February 1861. The Habsburgs finally had to give the Hungarians more self-determination in the ''Ausgleich'' of 1867. The revolutions inspired lasting reform in Denmark as well as the Netherlands. :de:Reinhard Rürup, Reinhard Rürup has described the 1848 Revolutions as a turning point in the development of modern antisemitism through the development of conspiracies that presented Jews as representative both of the forces of social revolution (apparently typified in Joseph Goldmark and Adolf Fischhof of Vienna) and of international capital, as seen in the 1848 report from Eduard von Müller-Tellering, the Viennese correspondent of Marx's ''Neue Rheinische Zeitung'', which declared that "tyranny comes from money and the money belongs to the Jews". About 4,000 exiles came to the United States fleeing the reactionary purges. Of these, 100 went to the Texas Hill Country as German Texans. More widely, many disillusioned and persecuted revolutionaries, in particular (though not exclusively) those from Germany and the Austrian Empire, left their homelands for foreign exile in the New World or in the more liberal European nations; these emigrants were known as the
Forty-Eighters The Forty-Eighters were Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as ...
. File:General Blenker.jpg, Louis Blenker [Germany] File:Alexander Schimmelfennig.jpg, Alexander Schimmelfennig (Germany) File:Carl Schurz as a young man.jpg, Carl Schurz (Germany) File:Franz Sigel.jpg, Franz Sigel (Germany) File:August Willich.jpg, August Willich (Germany) File:ASAsboth.jpg, Alexander Asboth (Hungary) File:Kossuth photograph 1847.png, Lajos Kossuth (Hungary) File:AlbinFSchoepf.jpg, Albin Francisco Schoepf (Hungary) File:Julius Stahel.jpg, Julius Stahel (Hungary) File:Zágonyi Károly.jpg, Charles Zagonyi (Hungary) File:Meagher4s.jpg, Thomas Francis Meagher (Ireland) File:Wlodzimierz Krzyzanowski.jpg, Włodzimierz Krzyżanowski (Poland)


In popular culture

Steven Brust and Emma Bull's 1997 epistolary novel ''Freedom & Necessity'' is set in England in the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1848.


See also

* Age of Revolution * Arab Spring * Color Revolutions * Protests of 1968 * Revolutions of 1830 * Revolutions of 1917–23 * Revolutions of 1989


References


Bibliography


Surveys

* Breunig, Charles (1977), ''The Age of Revolution and Reaction, 1789–1850'' () * Chastain, James, ed. (2005) ''Encyclopedia of Revolutions of 1848'
online from Ohio State U.
* Dowe, Dieter, ed. ''Europe in 1848: Revolution and Reform'' (Berghahn Books, 2000) * Evans, R. J. W., and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann, eds. ''The Revolutions in Europe, 1848–1849: From Reform to Reaction'' (2000), 10 essays by scholar
excerpt and text search
* Pouthas, Charles. "The Revolutions of 1848" in J. P. T. Bury, ed. ''New Cambridge Modern History: The Zenith of European Power 1830–70'' (1960) pp. 389–41
online excerpts
* Langer, William. ''The Revolutions of 1848'' (Harper, 1971), standard overview * ''Political and social upheaval, 1832-1852'' (1969), standard overvie
online
* Namier, Lewis. ''1848: The Revolution of the Intellectuals'' (Doubleday Anchor Books, 1964), first published by the British Academy in 1944. * Rapport, Mike (2009), ''1848: Year of Revolution''
online review
a standard survey * Robertson, Priscilla (1952), ''Revolutions of 1848: A Social History'' (), despite the subtitle this is a traditional political narrative * Sperber, Jonathan. ''The European revolutions, 1848–1851'' (1994
online edition
* Stearns, Peter N. ''The Revolutions of 1848'' (1974)
online edition
* Weyland, Kurt. "The Diffusion of Revolution: '1848' in Europe and Latin America", ''International Organization'' Vol. 63, No. 3 (Summer, 2009) pp. 391–423 .


France

* Clark, Timothy J. ''Image of the people: Gustave Courbet and the 1848 revolution'' (Univ of California Press, 1999), his paintings. * Duveau, Georges. ''1848: The Making of a Revolution'' (1966) * Fasel, George. "The Wrong Revolution: French Republicanism in 1848," ''French Historical Studies'' Vol. 8, No. 4 (Autumn, 1974), pp. 654–7
in JSTOR
* Loubère, Leo. "The Emergence of the Extreme Left in Lower Languedoc, 1848–1851: Social and Economic Factors in Politics," ''American Historical Review'' (1968), v. 73#4 1019–5
in JSTOR
* Merriman, John M. ''The Agony of the Republic: The Repression of the Left in Revolutionary France, 1848-1851'' (Yale UP, 1978).


Germany and Austria

* Deak, Istvan. ''The Lawful Revolution: Louis Kossuth and the Hungarians, 1848–1849'' (1979) * Hahs, Hans J. ''The 1848 Revolutions in German-speaking Europe'' (2001) * Hamerow, Theodore S. "History and the German Revolution of 1848." ''American Historical Review'' 60.1 (1954): 27-44
online
* Hewitson, Mark. "'The Old Forms are Breaking Up, ... Our New Germany is Rebuilding Itself': Constitutionalism, Nationalism and the Creation of a German Polity during the Revolutions of 1848–49," ''English Historical Review,'' Oct 2010, Vol. 125 Issue 516, pp. 1173–121
online
* Macartney, C. A. "1848 in the Habsburg Monarchy," ''European Studies Review,'' 1977, Vol. 7 Issue 3, pp. 285–30
online
* O'Boyle Lenore. "The Democratic Left in Germany, 1848," ''Journal of Modern History'' Vol. 33, No. 4 (Dec. 1961), pp. 374–8
in JSTOR
* Robertson, Priscilla. ''Revolutions of 1848: A Social History'' (1952), pp 105–85 on Germany, pp. 187–307 on Austria * Sked, Alan. ''The Survival of the Habsburg Empire: Radetzky, the Imperial Army and the Class War, 1848'' (1979) * Vick, Brian. ''Defining Germany The 1848 Frankfurt Parliamentarians and National Identity'' (Harvard University Press, 2002) ).


Italy

* Ginsborg, Paul. "Peasants and Revolutionaries in Venice and the Veneto, 1848," ''Historical Journal,'' Sep 1974, Vol. 17 Issue 3, pp. 503–5
in JSTOR
* Ginsborg, Paul. ''Daniele Manin and the Venetian Revolution of 1848–49'' (1979) * Robertson, Priscilla (1952). ''Revolutions of 1848: A Social History'' (1952) pp. 309–401


Other

* Feyzioğlu, Hamiyet Sezer et al. "Revolutions of 1848 and the Ottoman Empire," ''Bulgarian Historical Review,'' 2009, Vol. 37 Issue 3/4, pp. 196–205


Historiography

* Dénes, Iván Zoltán. "Reinterpreting a 'Founding Father': Kossuth Images and Their Contexts, 1848–2009," ''East Central Europe,'' April 2010, Vol. 37 Issue 1, pp. 90–117 * Hamerow, Theodore S. "History and the German Revolution of 1848," ''American Historical Review'' Vol. 60, No. 1 (Oct. 1954), pp. 27–4
in JSTOR
* Jones, Peter (1981), ''The 1848 Revolutions (Seminar Studies in History)'' () * Mattheisen, Donald J. "History as Current Events: Recent Works on the German Revolution of 1848," ''American Historical Review,'' Dec 1983, Vol. 88 Issue 5, pp. 1219–3
in JSTOR
* Rothfels, Hans. "1848 – One Hundred Years After," ''Journal of Modern History,'' Dec 1948, Vol. 20 Issue 4, pp. 291–31
in JSTOR


External links




Maps of Europe showing the Revolutions of 1848–1849 at omniatlas.com
{{Authority control Revolutions of 1848, Revolutionary waves, 1848 19th-century revolutions, 1848 1848 in Europe, .Revolutions Conflicts in 1848, 1848 Revolutions European political history History of Central Europe History of socialism History of liberalism Nationalist movements Romanticism