A reference ecosystem, also known as an ecological reference, is a "community (ecology), community of organisms able to act as a model or benchmark for ecological restoration, restoration." Reference ecosystems usually include remnant natural areas which have not been degraded by human activities such as agriculture, logging, land development, development, Fire_ecology#Some_examples_of_fire_in_different_ecosystems, fire suppression, or invasive species, non-native species invasion. Reference ecosystems are ideally complete with natural flora, fauna, abiotic elements, and ecological functions, processes, and succession (ecology), successional states. Multiple reference ecosystems may be pieced together to form the model upon which an ecological restoration project may be based.


Ecological restoration Conservation biology Ecology terminology Habitats {{ecology-stub