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Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, is the entire spectrum of
rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordained by another rabbi, following a course of study of Jewish texts such as the Talmud. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisees, Phar ...

rabbi
nic writings throughout
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...
history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of and the primary source of Jewish religious law (') and . Until the advent of , in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of and was foundation ...

Talmud
ic era, as opposed to
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
term ''Sifrut Chazal'' ( he, ספרות חז״ל "Literature f oursages," where '' Hazal'' normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of and the primary source of Jewish religious law (') and . Until the advent of , in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of and was foundation ...

Talmud
im,
Midrash ''Midrash'' (;"midrash"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
he, מִדְרָשׁ; ...

Midrash
( he, מדרש), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. The terms ''meforshim'' and ''parshanim'' (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of rabbinic glosses on
Biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...

Biblical
and Talmudic texts.


Mishnaic literature

The
Mishnah The Mishnah or the Mishna (; he, מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb ''shanah'' , or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral tradition Oral tradition, or oral lore, i ...
and the
Tosefta The Tosefta (Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Jewish Babylonian Aramaic was the form of Middle Aramaic employed by writers in Lower Mesopotamia between the fourth and eleventh centuries. It is most commonly identified with the language of the Babylo ...
(compiled from materials pre-dating the year 200 CE) are the earliest extant works of rabbinic literature, expounding and developing Judaism's
Oral Law An oral law is a code of conduct A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the norms Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy ...
, as well as ethical teachings. Following these came the two Talmuds: *The
Gemara The Gemara (also transliterated Gemarah, or in Ashkenazi pronunciation Gemore; from Aramaic , from the Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic langua ...
, analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah, c. 350–400 CE. *The
Jerusalem Talmud The Jerusalem Talmud ( he, תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, ''Talmud Yerushalmi'', often ''Yerushalmi'' for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or ''Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael'' (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection o ...
, c. 450 CE *The
Babylonian Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (''halakha ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ; also Romanization of Hebrew, transliterated as ''ha ...

Babylonian Talmud
, full canonization of the all previous texts c. 600 CE. *The
minor tractates The minor tractates (Hebrew: מסכתות קטנות, ''masechtot qetanot'') are essays from the Talmudic period or later dealing with topics about which no formal tractate exists in the Mishnah. They may thus be contrasted to the Tosefta, whose tr ...
(part of the Babylonian Talmud)


The Midrash

Midrash (pl. ''Midrashim'') is a Hebrew word referring to a method of reading details into, or out of, a biblical text. The term ''midrash'' also can refer to a compilation of Midrashic teachings, in the form of legal, exegetical, homiletical, or narrative writing, often configured as a commentary on the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
or
Mishnah The Mishnah or the Mishna (; he, מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb ''shanah'' , or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral tradition Oral tradition, or oral lore, i ...
. There are a large number of "classical" Midrashic works spanning a period from
Mishnaic The Mishnah or the Mishna (; he, מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb ''shanah'' , or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions which is known as the Oral Torah. ...
to
Geonic ''Geonim'' ( he, גאונים; ; also transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus '' trans-'' + '' liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyri ...
times, often showing evidence of having been worked and reworked from earlier materials, and frequently coming to us in multiple variants. A compact list of these works ased on is given below; a more thorough annotated list can be found under Midrash. The timeline below must be approximate because many of these works were composed over a long span of time, borrowing and collating material from earlier versions; their histories are therefore somewhat uncertain and the subject of scholarly debate. In the table, "n.e." designates that the work in question is not extant except in secondary references.


Later works by category


Aggada

* Alphabet of Rabbi Akiva *
Ein Yaakov ''Ein Yaakov'' () is a 16th-century compilation of all the Aggadic Aggadah ( he, אַגָּדָה or ; Jewish Babylonian Aramaic אַגָּדְתָא; "tales, fairytale, lore") is the non-legalistic pardes (Jewish exegesis), exegesis which app ...
*
Legends of the Jews ''The Legends of the Jews'' is a chronological compilation of aggadah from hundreds of Bible, biblical legends in Mishnah, Talmud and Midrash. The compilation consists of seven volumes (four volumes of narrative texts and two volumes of footnotes ...
* Midrash HaGadol * Midrash Hashkem *
Midrash Rabba Midrash Rabba or Midrash Rabbah can refer to part of or the collective whole of specific aggadic midrashim on the books of the Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most sp ...
* Midrash Shmuel *
Midrash Tehillim Midrash Tehillim (Hebrew language, Hebrew: מדרש תהלים), also known as Midrash Shocher Tov or the Midrash to Psalms, is an aggadic midrash to Psalms. It is known since the 11th century, when it was quoted by Nathan of Rome, by R. Isaac ben ...
*
Pesikta de-Rav Kahana Pesikta de-Rab Kahana (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans ...
*
Pesikta Rabbati ''Pesikta Rabbati'' (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans an ...
*
Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer (Pirkei DeRabbi Eliezer, Aramaic Aramaic ( Classical Syriac: ''Arāmāyā''; Old Aramaic: ; Imperial Aramaic: ; square script ) is a language that originated among the Arameans The Arameans (Old Aramaic language, ...
*
Seder Olam Rabbah ''Seder Olam Rabbah'' ( he, סדר עולם רבה, "The Great Order of the World") is a 2nd-century AD Hebrew language Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic ...
*
Seder Olam Zutta Seder Olam Zutta (Hebrew language, Hebrew: ) is an anonymous chronicle from 803 CE, called "Zuta" (= "smaller," or "younger") to distinguish it from the older ''Seder Olam Rabbah.'' This work is based upon, and to a certain extent completes and co ...
* Sefer HaAggadah *
Sefer haYashar (midrash) Sefer haYashar (ספר הישר) is a medieval Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spo ...
*
Smaller midrashim A number of midrash ''Midrash'' (;"midrash"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
h ...
*
Tanhuma Midrash Tanhuma ( he, מִדְרָשׁ תַּנְחוּמָא) is the name given to three different collections of Pentateuch The Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") includes the first five books of the Hebr ...
* Tanna Devei Eliyahu *
Tseno Ureno The ''Tseno Ureno'' ( yi, צאנה וראינה), also spelt Tsene-rene, Tz'enah Ur'enah, sometimes called the ''Women's Bible'', is a Yiddish Yiddish (, or , ''yidish'' or ''idish'', , ; , ''Yidish-Taytsh'', ) is a High German languages, High ...

Tseno Ureno
*
Yalkut Shimoni The ''Yalkut Shimoni'' ( he, ילקוט שמעוני), or simply ''Yalkut'', is an aggadic compilation on the books of the Hebrew Bible. It is a compilation of older interpretations and explanations of Biblical passages, arranged according to the ...


Hasidic thought

* Toldot Yaakov Yosef * Magid Devarav L'Yaakov * Kedushas Levi *
Noam Elimelech
 Noam Elimelech
* Tanya - Likutei Amarim * Meor Einayim * Likutei Moharan * Shem Mishmuel * Siduro Shel Shabbos *
Tzavaat HaRivashTzavaat HaRivash (Hebrew: , "Testament of the Rabbi Yisroel Baal Shem"), is a book of collected teachings from the Baal Shem Tov regarding Divine service, personal refinement, and understanding the Divine. The title of the book is derived from its op ...


Hebrew poetry

*
Biblical poetry The ancient Hebrews The terms ''Hebrews'' ( / , Modern Hebrew, Modern: ' / ', Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian: ' / '; ISO 259-3: ' / ') and ''Hebrew people'' are mostly taken as synonymous with the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Semitic-spe ...
*
Medieval Hebrew poetry Hebrew literature consists of ancient, medieval, and modern writings in the Hebrew language. It is one of the primary forms of Jewish literature, though there have been cases of literature written in Hebrew by non-Jews. Hebrew literature was prod ...


Jewish liturgy

*
Piyyut A ''piyyut'' or ''piyut'' (plural piyyutim or piyutim, he, פִּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פִּיּוּט / פיוט ; from Greek ποιητής ''poiētḗs'' "poet") is a liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, ...
*
Siddur Siddur ( he, סִדּוּר , ; plural siddurim , ) is a term for a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards ...


Jewish philosophy

* Bachya ibn Pakuda *
Chovot HaLevavot ''Chovot HaLevavot'', or ''Ḥobot HaLebabot'' (; he, חובות הלבבות; English: ''Duties of the Hearts''), is the primary work of the Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are me ...
* Emunot v'Dayyot *
Guide for the Perplexed ''The Guide for the Perplexed'' ( ar, دلالة الحائرين, ''Dalālat al-ḥā’irīn'', ; Hebrew translation, ''Moreh Nevukhim'' he, מורה נבוכים) is a work of theology by Maimonides Moses ben Maimon ; (1138–1204), co ...
*
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon Isaac Israeli ben Solomon (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judean ...
*
Kuzari The ''Kuzari'', full title ''Book of Refutation and Proof on Behalf of the Despised Religion'' ( ar, كتاب الحجة والدليل في نصرة الدين الذليل: ''Kitâb al-ḥujja wa'l-dalîl fi naṣr al-dîn al-dhalîl''), also k ...
* Or Adonai *
Philo Philo of Alexandria (; grc, Φίλων, Phílōn; he, , Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen; ), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is t ...

Philo
*
Sefer ha-Ikkarim ''Sefer HaIkkarim'' ("Book of Principles") is a fifteenth-century work by rabbi Joseph Albo, a student of Hasdai Crescas. It is an eclectic, popular work, whose central task is the exposition of the principles of Judaism. The work contains a numbe ...
* Wars of the Lord


Kabbalah

*
Etz Chaim Etz Hayim, also transliterated as Eitz Chaim ( , meaning "Tree of Life"), is a common term used in Judaism. The expression can be found in , referring to the Tree of life (biblical), Tree of Life in the Garden of Eden. It is also found in the Boo ...
* Maggid Mesharim *
Pardes Rimonim Pardes Rimonim (meaning " Pardes-Orchard of Pomegranates", sometimes known as the Pardes) is a primary text of Kabbalah, composed in 1548 by the Jewish mystic Moses ben Jacob Cordovero Moses ben Jacob Cordovero ( he, משה קורדובירו '' ...
*
Sefer haBahir
Sefer haBahir
*
Sefer Raziel HaMalakh ''Sefer Raziel HaMalakh'', (Hebrew language, Hebrew:, "the book of Raziel the angel''"''), is a grimoire of Practical Kabbalah from the Middle Ages written primarily in Hebrew language, Hebrew and Aramaic. ''Liber Razielis Archangeli'', its 13th ...
*
Sefer Yetzirah ''Sefer Yetzirah'' ( ''Sēp̄er Yəṣīrā'', ''Book of Formation'', or ''Book of Creation'') is the title of the earliest extant book on Jewish mysticism Academic study of Jewish mysticism, especially since Gershom Scholem's ''Major Trends i ...
* Tikunei haZohar *
Tomer Devorah ''Tomer Devorah'' (Hebrew: תומר דבורה, English: ''The Palm Tree of Deborah'') was written in Hebrew in the middle of the 16th century by Moses ben Jacob Cordovero, Moses Cordovero, a Jewish kabbalist in Safed, Israel. This short text dea ...
*
Zohar The ''Zohar'' ( he, זֹהַר, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance"; yi, דער זוהר, der Zoyer) is a foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah Kabbalah ( he, קַבָּלָה, links=no ''Qabālā'', l ...

Zohar


Jewish law

*
Arba'ah Turim ''Arba'ah Turim'' ( he, אַרְבָּעָה טוּרִים), often called simply the ''Tur'', is an important Halakha#Codes of Jewish law, Halakhic code composed by Yaakov ben Asher (Cologne, 1270 – Toledo, Spain c. 1340, also referred to as '' ...

Arba'ah Turim
*
Aruch HaShulchan ''Aruch HaShulchan'' (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and ...

Aruch HaShulchan
* Beit Yosef *
Chayei Adam Chayei Adam (חיי אדם "The Life of Man") is a work of Jewish law ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ), also transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters ( ...
* Darkhei Moshe *
Halachot GedolotHalachoth Gedoloth (lit. great halachoth) is a work on Jewish law dating from the Geonic ''Geonim'' ( he, גאונים; ; also Romanization of Hebrew, transliterated ''Gaonim- singular Gaon'') were the presidents of the two great Talmudic Academie ...
* Hilchot HaRif *
Kessef Mishneh Joseph ben Ephraim Karo, also spelled Yosef Caro, or Qaro ( he, יוסף קארו; 1488 – March 24, 1575, 13 Nisan 5335 Anno mundi, A.M.), was author of the last great codification of Jewish law, the ''Shulchan Aruch'', which is still authoritati ...
* Kitzur Shulchan Aruch *
Minchat Chinuch Joseph ben Moses Babad (1801 in Przeworsk – 1874 in Ternopil) was a rabbi, ''posek'' and Talmudist, best known for his work, the ''Minchat Chinuch'', a commentary on the ''Sefer Hachinuch''. Babad served as rabbi at Bohorodchany, Bohorodczany, ...
*
Mishnah Berurah The ''Mishnah Berurah'' ( he, משנה ברורה "Clarified Teaching") is a work of ''halakha ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ; also Romanization of Hebrew, transliterated as ''halacha'', ''halakhah'', ''halachah'', or ''halocho''; ) is the ...
*
Mishneh Torah The ''Mishneh Torah'' ( he, מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), also known as ''Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka'' (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a Legal code, code of Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic Jewish religio ...
*
Responsa ''Responsa'' (plural of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
literature *
Sefer ha-Chinuch ''Sefer ha-Chinuch'' ( he, ספר החינוך, "Book of Education") is a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Is ...
*
Sefer Hamitzvot ''Sefer Hamitzvot'' ("Book of Commandments", Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoke ...
*
Sefer Mitzvot Gadol Sefer Mitzvot Gadol ( he, ספר מצוות גדול; in english: "The Great Book of Commandments"; abbreviated: , "SeMaG") work of halakha ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ; also Romanization of Hebrew, transliterated as ''halacha'', ''halakh ...
*
Shulchan Aruch The ''Shulchan Aruch'' ( he, שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך , literally: "Set Table"), sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most widely consulted of the various legal codes A code of law, also called a law code or lega ...

Shulchan Aruch
*
Shulchan Aruch HaRav 100px, 1895 edition of the Shulchan Aruch HaRav The ''Shulchan Aruch HaRav'' ( he, שולחן ערוך הרב, , Shulchan Aruch of the Rabbi; also romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scien ...

Shulchan Aruch HaRav


Musar literature

*
Mesillat Yesharim Cover of the first edition of ''Mesillat Yesharim''. ''Mesillat Yesharim'' or ''Mesillas Yeshorim'' ( he, מסילת ישרים, lit. "Path of the Upright") is an ethical (''musar literature, musar'') text composed by the influential Rabbi Moshe Ch ...
*
Orchot Tzaddikim ''Orchot Tzaddikim'' (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and ...
* Sefer Chasidim * Shaarei Teshuva


Later works by historical period


Works of the Geonim

The
Geonim ''Geonim'' ( he, גאונים; ; also Romanization of Hebrew, transliterated Gaonim, singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, Babylonian Talmudic Academies of Sura (city), Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abb ...
are the rabbis of Sura and Pumbeditha, in
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Babil'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili'' *Kassite The Kassites ...

Babylon
(650 - 1250) : *''She'iltoth of Acha'i
aon
aon
' *''
Halachot GedolotHalachoth Gedoloth (lit. great halachoth) is a work on Jewish law dating from the Geonic ''Geonim'' ( he, גאונים; ; also Romanization of Hebrew, transliterated ''Gaonim- singular Gaon'') were the presidents of the two great Talmudic Academie ...
'' *'' Halachot Pesukot'', by Rav
Yehudai Gaon Yehudai ben Nahman (or Yehudai Gaon; Hebrew: יהודאי גאון, sometimes: Yehudai b. Nahman) was the head of the yeshiva in Sura (city), Sura from 757 to 761, during the Geonim, Gaonic period of Judaism. He was originally a member of the acad ...
*''
Emunoth ve-Deoth ''The Book of Beliefs and Opinions'' ( ar, كتاب الأمانات والاعتقادات, translit=Kitāb al-Amānāt wa l-Iʿtiqādāt) is a book written by Saadia Gaon (completed 933) which is the first :wikt:systematic, systematic presentati ...
'' (
Saadia Gaon Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon ( ar, سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي ''Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi''; he, סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון; alternative English Names: Rabbeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi heSaadia Gaon"), often ...
) *The ''
Siddur Siddur ( he, סִדּוּר , ; plural siddurim , ) is a term for a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards ...
'' by Amram Gaon *
Responsa ''Responsa'' (plural of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...


Works of the ''Rishonim'' (the "early" rabbinical commentators)

The
Rishonim Rishonim (; he, ; sing. he, , ''Rishon'', "the first ones") were the leading rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordained by another rabbi, following a course of study of Jewis ...
are the rabbis of the early medieval period (1000 - 1550) *The commentaries on the Torah, such as those by
Rashi Shlomo Yitzchaki ( he, רבי שלמה יצחקי; la, Salomon Isaacides; french: Salomon de Troyes, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105), today generally known by the acronym Rashi (see below), was a medieval French rabbi A rabbi is a spi ...
, Abraham ibn Ezra and
Nahmanides Moses ben Nahman ( he, מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן ''Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān'', "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (; el, Ναχμανίδης ''Nakhmanídēs''), and also referred to by the acronym Ramba ...
. *Commentaries on the Talmud, principally by
Rashi Shlomo Yitzchaki ( he, רבי שלמה יצחקי; la, Salomon Isaacides; french: Salomon de Troyes, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105), today generally known by the acronym Rashi (see below), was a medieval French rabbi A rabbi is a spi ...
, his grandson
Samuel ben Meir Samuel ben Meir (Troyes Troyes () is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube Aube () is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. As with sixty departments in France, this department is named afte ...
and
Nissim of Gerona Nissim ben Reuven (1320 – 9th of Shevat, 1376, he, נִסִּים בֶּן רְאוּבֵן) of Girona, Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spa ...
. *Commentaries on the
Mishnah The Mishnah or the Mishna (; he, מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb ''shanah'' , or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral tradition Oral tradition, or oral lore, i ...
, such as those composed by
Maimonides Moses ben Maimon ; (1138–1204), commonly known as Maimonides ( ) grc-gre, Μωυσής Μαϊμωνίδης ; la, Moses Maimonides and also referred to by the acronym Rambam ( he, רמב״ם),, for ''Rabbeinu Mōše bēn Maimun'', "Our Ra ...

Maimonides
, Obadiah of Bertinoro, and Nathan ben Abraham *Talmudic novellae (''
chiddushim Chidush ( he, חִדּוּשׁ; also Hebrew transliteration, transliterated as chiddush, hiddush or hidush), sometimes used in its plural form, chidushim ( he, חִדּוּשׁים), is a novel interpretation or approach to something. Historicall ...
'') by
Tosafists Tosafists were rabbis of France and Germany, who lived from the 12th to the mid-15th centuries, in the period of Rishonim. The Tosafists composed critical and explanatory gloss (annotation), glosses (questions, notes, interpretations, rulings and ...
,
Nahmanides Moses ben Nahman ( he, מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן ''Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān'', "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (; el, Ναχμανίδης ''Nakhmanídēs''), and also referred to by the acronym Ramba ...
,
Nissim of Gerona Nissim ben Reuven (1320 – 9th of Shevat, 1376, he, נִסִּים בֶּן רְאוּבֵן) of Girona, Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spa ...
, Solomon ben Aderet (RaShBA), Yomtov ben Ashbili (Ritva) *Works of ''
halakha ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ), also transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific ...
'' ( Asher ben Yechiel,
Mordechai ben HillelMordechai ben Hillel HaKohen ( he, "המָּרְדֳּכַי" ,רבי מרדכי בן הלל הכהן; c. 1250–1298), also known as The Mordechai, was a 13th-century German rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. ...
) *Codices by
Maimonides Moses ben Maimon ; (1138–1204), commonly known as Maimonides ( ) grc-gre, Μωυσής Μαϊμωνίδης ; la, Moses Maimonides and also referred to by the acronym Rambam ( he, רמב״ם),, for ''Rabbeinu Mōše bēn Maimun'', "Our Ra ...

Maimonides
and
Jacob ben Asher Jacob ben Asher (c. 1269 - c. 1343), also known as Ba'al ha-Turim as well as Rabbi Yaakov ben Raash (Rabbeinu Asher), was an influential Medieval rabbi, rabbinic authority. He is often referred to as the Ba'al ha-Turim ("Master of the Columns"), ...
, and finally ''
Shulkhan Arukh The ''Shulchan Aruch'' ( he, שֻׁלְחָן עָרוּך , literally: "Set Table"), sometimes dubbed in English as the Code of Jewish Law, is the most widely consulted of the various Codification (law), legal codes in Judaism. It was authored i ...
'' *
Responsa ''Responsa'' (plural of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
, e.g. by Solomon ben Aderet (RaShBA) *
Kabbalistic Kabbalah ( he, קַבָּלָה, links=no ''Qabālā'', literally "reception, tradition" or "correspondence") is an esoteric Western esotericism, also known as esotericism, esoterism, and sometimes the Western mystery tradition, is a term ...

Kabbalistic
works (such as the
Zohar The ''Zohar'' ( he, זֹהַר, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance"; yi, דער זוהר, der Zoyer) is a foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah Kabbalah ( he, קַבָּלָה, links=no ''Qabālā'', l ...

Zohar
) *Philosophical works (
Maimonides Moses ben Maimon ; (1138–1204), commonly known as Maimonides ( ) grc-gre, Μωυσής Μαϊμωνίδης ; la, Moses Maimonides and also referred to by the acronym Rambam ( he, רמב״ם),, for ''Rabbeinu Mōše bēn Maimun'', "Our Ra ...

Maimonides
,
Gersonides Levi ben Gershon (1288 – 1344), better known by his Graecized name as Gersonides, or by his Latinized name Magister Leo Hebraeus, or in Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasia ...
,
Nahmanides Moses ben Nahman ( he, מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן ''Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān'', "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (; el, Ναχμανίδης ''Nakhmanídēs''), and also referred to by the acronym Ramba ...
) *Ethical works (
Bahya ibn Paquda Bahya ben Joseph ibn Paquda (also: Pakuda, Bakuda, Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the ...
, Jonah of Gerona)


Works of the ''Acharonim'' (the "later" rabbinical commentators)

The
Acharonim ''Acharonim'' (; he, אחרונים ''Aḥaronim''; sing. , ''Aḥaron''; lit. "last ones") in Halakha, Jewish law and history, are the leading rabbis and Posek, poskim (Jewish legal decisors) living from roughly the 16th century to the present, ...
are the rabbis from 1550 to the present day. *Important Torah commentaries include ''Keli Yakar'' ( Shlomo Ephraim Luntschitz), ''Ohr ha-Chayim'' by Chayim ben-Attar, the commentary of Samson Raphael Hirsch, and the commentary of Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin. *Important works of Talmudic novellae include: ''Pene Yehoshua (disambiguation), Pnei Yehoshua'', ''Hafla'ah'', ''Sha'agath Aryei'' *Responsa, e.g. by Moses Sofer, Moshe Feinstein *Works of ''
halakha ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ), also transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific ...
'' and codices e.g. ''
Mishnah Berurah The ''Mishnah Berurah'' ( he, משנה ברורה "Clarified Teaching") is a work of ''halakha ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ; also Romanization of Hebrew, transliterated as ''halacha'', ''halakhah'', ''halachah'', or ''halocho''; ) is the ...
'' by Yisrael Meir Kagan and the ''Yechiel Michel Epstein#Aruch ha-Shulchan, Aruch ha-Shulchan'' by Yechiel Michel Epstein *Ethical and philosophical works: Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, Yisrael Meir Kagan and the Mussar Movement *Hasidic Judaism, Hasidic works (''Kedushath Levi'', ''Sefath Emmeth'', ''Shem mi-Shemuel'') *Philosophical/metaphysical works (the works of the Maharal of Prague, Moshe Chaim Luzzatto and ''Nefesh ha-Chayim'' by Chaim Volozhin, Chaim of Volozhin) *Mystical works *Historical works, e.g. ''Shem ha-Gedolim'' by Chaim Joseph David Azulai.


Meforshim

''Meforshim'' is a
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
word meaning "commentators" (or roughly meaning "Exegesis, exegetes"), ''Perushim'' means "commentaries". In Judaism these words refer to commentaries on the Torah (five books of Moses), Tanakh,
Mishnah The Mishnah or the Mishna (; he, מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb ''shanah'' , or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral tradition Oral tradition, or oral lore, i ...
,
Talmud The Talmud (; he, תַּלְמוּד ''Tálmūḏ'') is the central text of and the primary source of Jewish religious law (') and . Until the advent of , in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of and was foundation ...

Talmud
, the responsa literature, or even the siddur (Jewish prayerbook), and more.


Classic Torah and Talmud commentaries

Classic Torah and/or Talmud commentaries have been written by the following individuals: *
Geonim ''Geonim'' ( he, גאונים; ; also Romanization of Hebrew, transliterated Gaonim, singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, Babylonian Talmudic Academies of Sura (city), Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abb ...
**
Saadia Gaon Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon ( ar, سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي ''Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi''; he, סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון; alternative English Names: Rabbeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi heSaadia Gaon"), often ...
, 10th century Babylon *
Rishonim Rishonim (; he, ; sing. he, , ''Rishon'', "the first ones") were the leading rabbi A rabbi is a spiritual leader or religious teacher in Judaism. One becomes a rabbi by being ordained by another rabbi, following a course of study of Jewis ...
**
Rashi Shlomo Yitzchaki ( he, רבי שלמה יצחקי; la, Salomon Isaacides; french: Salomon de Troyes, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105), today generally known by the acronym Rashi (see below), was a medieval French rabbi A rabbi is a spi ...
(Shlomo Yitzchaki), 12th century France ** Abraham ibn Ezra ** Nachmanides (Moshe ben Nahman) ** Samuel ben Meir, the Rashbam, 12th century France **
Gersonides Levi ben Gershon (1288 – 1344), better known by his Graecized name as Gersonides, or by his Latinized name Magister Leo Hebraeus, or in Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasia ...
, also known as Levi ben Gershom or Ralbag) ** David Kimhi, the Radak, 13th century France ** Joseph ben Isaac Bekhor Shor, 12th century France **
Nissim of Gerona Nissim ben Reuven (1320 – 9th of Shevat, 1376, he, נִסִּים בֶּן רְאוּבֵן) of Girona, Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spa ...
, also known as Nissim ben Reuben Gerondi, or the RaN, 14th century Spain ** Isaac Abarbanel (1437–1508) ** Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno, 16th century Italy *
Acharonim ''Acharonim'' (; he, אחרונים ''Aḥaronim''; sing. , ''Aḥaron''; lit. "last ones") in Halakha, Jewish law and history, are the leading rabbis and Posek, poskim (Jewish legal decisors) living from roughly the 16th century to the present, ...
** The Vilna Gaon, also known as Elijah ben Solomon Zalman, 18th century Lithuania ** The Malbim, Meir Leibush ben Yehiel Michel Wisser Classical Talmudic commentaries were written by Rashi. After Rashi the Tosafot were written, which was an omnibus commentary on the Talmud by the disciples and descendants of Rashi; this commentary was based on discussions done in the rabbinic academies of Germany and France.


Modern Torah commentaries

Modern Torah commentaries which have received wide acclaim in the Jewish community include: *''Haemek Davar'' by Rabbi Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin *The Yisrael Meir Kagan, Chofetz Chaim *''Torah Temimah'' of Baruch Epstein, Baruch ha-Levi Epstein *''Kerem HaTzvi'', by Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch Ferber *''Sefat Emet'' (Lips of Truth), Yehudah Aryeh Leib of Ger (Hasidic dynasty), Ger, 19th century Europe *The "Pentateuch and Haftaras" by Joseph H. Hertz *Samson_Raphael_Hirsch#Works_and_activism, ''Uebersetzung und Erklärung des Pentateuchs'' ("Translation and Commentary of the Pentateuch") by Samson Raphael Hirsch *Nechama Leibowitz, a noted woman scholar *Malbim#Methodology_and_style, ''HaTorah vehaMitzva'' ("The Torah and the Commandment") by Meïr Leibush, the "Malbim" *''Ha-Ketav veha-Kabbalah'' by Rabbi Yaakov Tzvi Mecklenburg *The Soncino Books of the Bible *Richard Elliot Friedman's ''Commentary on the Torah'' (2001)


Modern Siddur commentaries

Modern Siddur commentaries have been written by: *Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan HaCohen, ''The Chofetz Chaim's Siddur'' *Samson Raphael Hirsch, ''The Hirsch Siddur'', Feldheim *Abraham Isaac Kook, ''Olat Reyia'' *The Authorised Daily Prayer Book with commentary by Joseph H. Hertz *Elie Munk, ''The World of Prayer'', Elie Munk *Nosson Scherman, ''The Artscroll Siddur'', Mesorah Publications *Jonathan Sacks, in the ''Authorised Daily Prayer Book, Authorised Daily Prayer Book of the British Commonwealth'' (the new version of "Singer's Prayer Book") as well as the Koren Sacks Siddur. *Reuven Hammer, ''Or Hadash'', a siddur commentary built around the text of Siddur Sim Shalom, United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism *''My Peoples Prayer Book'', Jewish Lights Publishing, written by a team of non-Orthodox rabbis and Talmud scholars.


See also

* Jewish commentaries on the Bible * Judaism #Jewish religious texts * List of Jewish prayers and blessings * List of rabbis * Rabbinic Judaism * Torah databases (electronic versions of traditional Jewish texts) * Yeshiva #Curriculum


Biblical figures in rabbinic literature

* Adam in rabbinic literature * Daniel in rabbinic literature * Esther in rabbinic literature * Ezra in rabbinic literature * Haman in rabbinic literature * Jethro in rabbinic literature * Joab in rabbinic literature * Job in rabbinic literature * Moses in rabbinic literature * Noah in rabbinic literature * Samson in rabbinic literature * Simeon in rabbinic literature


Bibliography

*''Back to the Sources: Reading the Classic Jewish Texts'', Barry W. Holtz, (Summit Books) *''Introduction to Rabbinic Literature'' Jacob Neusner, (Anchor Bible Reference Library/Doubleday) *''Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash'', H. L. Strack and G. Stemberger, (Fortress Press) *''The Literature of the Sages: Oral Torah, Halakha, Mishnah, Tosefta, Talmud, External Tractates,'' Shemuel Safrai and Peter J. Tomson (Fortress, 1987)


External links


General


A survey of rabbinic literatureComprehensive listing by category - Global Jewish DatabaseOnline Resources for the Study of Rabbinic Literature


Links to full text resources


The Sefaria LibraryMechon MamreSages of Ashkenaz DatabaseThe Electronic Torah Warehousehebrewbooks.orgseforimonline.org


Glossaries


Sources@JTS
{{Authority control Rabbinic literature, Ancient Hebrew texts Chazal