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Purple is any of a variety of
color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Engli ...

color
s with
hue In color theory, hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception described through color ''c ...

hue
between
red Red is the color at the long wavelength end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength Image:dominant wavelength.png, frame, Dominant/complementary wavelength example on the CIE color ...

red
and
blue Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory In the visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pig ...

blue
. In the
RGB color model The RGB color model is an additive Additive may refer to: Mathematics * Additive function In number theory, an additive function is an arithmetic function ''f''(''n'') of the positive integer ''n'' such that whenever ''a'' and ''b'' are c ...

RGB color model
used in computer and television screens, purples are produced by
mixing
mixing
red and blue light. In the
RYB color model RYB (an abbreviation of red–yellow–blue) is a subtractive color model used in art and applied design in which red, yellow, and blue pigments are considered primary colors. Under traditional color theory, (which some artists see as the “corre ...

RYB color model
historically used by painters, purples are created with a combination of red and blue pigments. In the
CMYK color model The CMYK color model (also known as process color, or four color) is a subtractive color model A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or four v ...
used in printing, purples are made by combining magenta pigment with either cyan pigment, black pigment, or both. Purple has long been associated with royalty, originally because
Tyrian purple Tyrian purple ( grc, πορφύρα ''porphúra''; la, purpura), also known as Phoenician red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple, or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple Purple is any of a variety of color Color (Ame ...
dye, made from crushed shells, was extremely expensive in antiquity. Purple was the color worn by Roman magistrates; it became the imperial color worn by the rulers of the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
and the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, and later by Roman Catholic
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
s. Similarly in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, the color is traditionally associated with the
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...
and aristocracy. According to contemporary surveys in Europe and the United States, purple is the color most often associated with rarity, royalty, magic, mystery and
piety Piety is a virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome. It carries connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin ''vir'', "man" ...
. When combined with pink, it is associated with
eroticism Eroticism (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ...
,
femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is an adult female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that ...

femininity
, and
seduction Seduction has multiple meanings. Platonically, it can mean "to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty", or "to lead astray, usually by persuasion or false promises". Strategies of seduction include conversation and sexual scripts, paralingual fe ...
.


Etymology and definitions

The modern English word ''purple'' comes from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
''purpul,'' which derives from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
''purpura'', which, in turn, derives from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(''porphura''), the name of the
Tyrian purple Tyrian purple ( grc, πορφύρα ''porphúra''; la, purpura), also known as Phoenician red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple, or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple Purple is any of a variety of color Color (Ame ...
dye A dye is a color Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the visual perception, visual perceptual Physical property, property corresponding in humans to the categories called ''blue'', ''green'', ''red'', etc. Colo ...
manufactured in classical antiquity from a mucus secreted by the spiny dye-murex snail. The first recorded use of the word ''purple'' dates to the late 900s AD.


Relationship to violet

Purple is closely associated with
violet Violet may refer to: Common meanings * Violet (color), a spectral color with wavelengths shorter than blue * One of a list of plants known as violet, particularly: ** Viola (plant), ''Viola'' (plant), a genus of flowering plants Places United ...
. In common usage, both refer to a variety of colors between blue and red in
hue In color theory, hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color Color ( American English), or colour ( Commonwealth English), is the characteristic of visual perception described through color ''c ...

hue
. Historically, purple has tended to be used for redder hues and violet for bluer hues. In
optics Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of optical instruments, instruments that use or Photodetector, detect it. Optics usually describes t ...

optics
, violet is a
spectral color A spectral color is a color that is evoked in a typical human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as Monochromatic radiation, monochromatic light. Every wavelength ...
: It refers to the color of any different single wavelength of light on the short wavelength end of the visible spectrum, between approximately 380 and 450 nanometers, whereas purple is the color of various combinations of red, blue, and violet light, some of which humans perceive as similar to violet.


In art, history, and fashion


In prehistory and the ancient world: Tyrian purple

Purple first appeared in prehistoric art during the Neolithic era. The artists of
Pech Merle Pech Merle is a cave which opens onto a hillside at Cabrerets in the Lot département of the Occitania Occitania ( oc, Occitània, , or ) is the historical region in southern Europe Southern Europe is the southern subregion of Europe ...
cave and other
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
sites in France used sticks of
manganese Manganese is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical e ...

manganese
and
hematite Hematite (), also spelled as haematite, is a common iron oxide Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member o ...

hematite
powder to draw and paint animals and the outlines of their own hands on the walls of their caves. These works have been dated to between 16,000 and 25,000 BC. As early as the 15th century BC the citizens of
Sidon Sidon ( ), known locally as Sayda or Saida ( ar, صيدا), is the third-largest city in Lebanon Lebanon ( , ar, لُبْنَان, translit=lubnān, ), officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western A ...

Sidon
and
Tyre Tyre may refer to: * Tire, the outer part of a wheel Places * Tyre, Lebanon, a city ** See of Tyre, a Christian diocese seated in Tyre, Lebanon ** Tyre Hippodrome, a UNESCO World Heritage site * Tyre District, Lebanon * Tyre, New York, a town in t ...
, two cities on the coast of Ancient
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
, (present day Lebanon), were producing purple dye from a sea snail called the spiny dye-murex.Ball, Philip, ''Bright Earth; Art and the Invention of Colour''. p. 290 Clothing colored with the Tyrian dye was mentioned in both the ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an in , traditionally attributed to . Usually considered to have been written down circa the 8th century BC, the ''Iliad'' i ...

Iliad
'' of
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
and the ''
Aeneid The ''Aeneid'' ( ; la, Aenē̆is ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
'' of
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Rome, ancient Roman poet of the Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustan period. He composed three ...

Virgil
. The deep, rich purple dye made from this snail became known as Tyrian purple. The process of making the dye was long, difficult and expensive. Thousands of the tiny snails had to be found, their shells cracked, the snail removed. Mountains of empty shells have been found at the ancient sites of Sidon and Tyre. The snails were left to soak, then a tiny gland was removed and the juice extracted and put in a basin, which was placed in the sunlight. There, a remarkable transformation took place. In the sunlight the juice turned white, then yellow-green, then green, then violet, then a red which turned darker and darker. The process had to be stopped at exactly the right time to obtain the desired color, which could range from a bright crimson to a dark purple, the color of dried blood. Then either wool, linen or silk would be dyed. The exact hue varied between crimson and violet, but it was always rich, bright and lasting. Tyrian purple became the color of kings, nobles, priests and magistrates all around the Mediterranean. It was mentioned in the Old Testament; in the
Book of Exodus The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Torah and of the Old Testament. Starting with the deliverance of Moses by Pharaoh's daughter (Exodus), Pharaoh's daughter, it recounts the revelation at the Burning bush where he was called by Yahweh ...
, God instructs
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
to have the Israelites bring him an offering including cloth "of blue, and purple, and scarlet," to be used in the curtains of the
Tabernacle According to the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are almost exclusively in , with a few passages in (in the books of and , the verse 10:11, and som ...

Tabernacle
and the garments of priests. The term used for purple in the 4th-century
Latin Vulgate The Vulgate (; also called , ) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, H ...
version of the Bible passage is ''purpura'' or Tyrian purple. In the ''
Iliad The ''Iliad'' (; grc, Ἰλιάς, Iliás, ; sometimes referred to as the ''Song of Ilion'' or ''Song of Ilium'') is an in , traditionally attributed to . Usually considered to have been written down circa the 8th century BC, the ''Iliad'' i ...

Iliad
'' of
Homer Homer (; grc, Ὅμηρος , ''Hómēros'') was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally re ...

Homer
, the belt of
Ajax Ajax (also AJAX ; short for "Asynchronous JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produ ...
is purple, and the tails of the horses of Trojan warriors are dipped in purple. In the ''
Odyssey The ''Odyssey'' (; grc, Ὀδύσσεια, Odýsseia, ) is one of two major ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí ...
'', the blankets on the wedding bed of
Odysseus Odysseus ( ; grc-gre, Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς, OdysseúsOdyseús, ), also known by the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken ...

Odysseus
are purple. In the poems of
Sappho Sappho (; el, Σαπφώ ''Sapphō'' ; Aeolic Greek In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling t ...

Sappho
(6th century BC) she celebrates the skill of the dyers of the Greek kingdom of
Lydia Lydia (Lydian language, Lydian: ‎𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤠, ''Śfarda''; Aramaic: ''Lydia''; el, Λυδία, ''Lȳdíā''; tr, Lidya) was an Iron Age Monarchy, kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the mod ...

Lydia
who made purple footwear, and in the play of
Aeschylus Aeschylus (, ; grc-gre, Αἰσχύλος ''Aiskhylos'', ; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kin ...
(525–456 BC), Queen
Clytemnestra Clytemnestra (; grc-gre, Κλυταιμνήστρα, ''Klytaimnḗstrā'', ), in Greek mythology, was the wife of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, and the sister of Helen of Troy. In Aeschylus' ''Oresteia'', she murders Agamemnon – said by Euripid ...
welcomes back her husband
Agamemnon In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...
by decorating the palace with purple carpets. In 950 BC,
King Solomon of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco (altepetl), Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female eq ...

King Solomon
was reported to have brought artisans from Tyre to provide purple fabrics to decorate the
Temple of Jerusalem The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque. These successive temples stood at this location and func ...
.
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title ...

Alexander the Great
(when giving imperial audiences as the
basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic quali ...
of the
Macedonian Empire Macedonia (; grc-gre, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an Classical antiquity, ancient monarchy, kingdom on the periphery of Archaic Greece, Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The ...
), the basileus of the
Seleucid Empire The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), off ...
, and the kings of Ptolemaic Egypt all wore Tyrian purple. The Roman custom of wearing purple
togas The toga (, ), a distinctive garment of ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest histori ...
may have come from the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna ...

Etruscans
; an Etruscan tomb painting from the 4th century BC shows a nobleman wearing a deep purple and embroidered toga. In Ancient Rome, the ''Toga praetexta'' was an ordinary white toga with a broad purple stripe on its border. It was worn by freeborn Roman boys who had not yet come of age, curule magistrates, certain categories of priests, and a few other categories of citizens. The ''Toga picta'' was solid purple, embroidered with gold. During the
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
, it was worn by generals in their
triumphs ''Triumphs'' (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, r ...
, and by the
Praetor Urbanus Praetor ( , ), also spelled prætor or pretor in English, was a Title#Titles for heads of state, title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often ...
when he rode in the chariot of the gods into the circus at the
Ludi ApollinaresThe ''Ludi Apollinares'' were solemn games (''ludi ''Ludi'' (Latin plural) were public games held for the benefit and entertainment of the SPQR, Roman people (''populus Romanus''). ''Ludi'' were held in conjunction with, or sometimes as the major f ...
. During the Empire, the ''toga picta'' was worn by magistrates giving public
gladiator A gladiator ( la, gladiator, "swordsman", from , "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals. Some glad ...

gladiator
ial games, and by the
consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...

consul
s, as well as by the emperor on special occasions. During the Roman Republic, when a triumph was held, the general being honored wore an entirely purple toga bordered in gold, and Roman Senators wore a toga with a purple stripe. However, during the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
, purple was more and more associated exclusively with the emperors and their officers. Suetonius claims that the early emperor
Caligula Caligula (; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD), formally known as Gaius (Gaius Gaius, sometimes spelled ''Gajus'', Cajus, Caius, was a common Latin praenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a given name, personal name chosen by th ...

Caligula
had the King of Mauretania murdered for the splendour of his purple cloak, and that
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth emperor of Rome. He was Adoption in Ancient Rome, adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and s ...

Nero
forbade the use of certain purple dyes. In the late empire the sale of purple cloth became a state monopoly protected by the death penalty.
Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Jesus Christ
, in the hours leading up to his crucifixion, was dressed in purple (πορφύρα: ''porphura'') by the Roman garrison to mock his claim to be 'King of the Jews'. The actual color of Tyrian purple seems to have varied from a reddish to a bluish purple. According to the Roman writer
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') i ...

Vitruvius
, (1st century BC), the
murex ''Murex'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their a ...
shells coming from northern waters, probably ''
Bolinus brandaris ''Bolinus brandaris'' (originally called ''Murex brandaris'' by Linnaeus and also Haustellum brandaris), and commonly known as the ''purple dye murex'' or the ''spiny dye-murex'', is a species of medium-sized predatory Predation is a biologi ...
'', produced a more bluish color than those of the south, probably ''
Hexaplex trunculus ''Hexaplex trunculus'' (also known as ''Murex trunculus'', ''Phyllonotus trunculus'', or the banded dye-murex) is a medium-sized sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk Mollusca is the second-largest phylum of invertebrate Invertebrates ...

Hexaplex trunculus
''. The most valued shades were said to be those closer to the color of dried blood, as seen in the mosaics of the robes of the
Emperor Justinian Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός ; 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation o ...
in
Ravenna Ravenna ( , , also ; rgn, Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna The province of Ravenna ( it, provincia di Ravenna; ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, admin ...

Ravenna
. The chemical composition of the dye from the murex is close to that of the dye from
indigo InterGlobe Aviation Ltd d/b/a IndiGo is an Indian low-cost airline headquartered in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. It is the largest List of airlines of India, airline in India by passengers carried and fleet size, with a 57% domestic market shar ...

indigo
, and indigo was sometimes used to make a counterfeit Tyrian purple, a crime which was severely punished. What seems to have mattered about Tyrian purple was not its color, but its luster, richness, its resistance to weather and light, and its high price. In modern times, Tyrian purple has been recreated, at great expense. When the German chemist Paul Friedander tried to recreate Tyrian purple in 2008, he needed twelve thousand mollusks to create 1.4 ounces of dye, enough to color a handkerchief. In the year 2000, a gram of Tyrian purple made from ten thousand mollusks according to the original formula cost two thousand euros.


China

In ancient China, purple was obtained not through the Mediterranean mollusc, but . The dye obtained did not easily adhere to fabrics, making purple fabrics expensive. Purple became a fashionable color in the
state of Qi Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and ...
(齊) because its ruler developed a preference for it. As a result, the price of a purple spoke of fabric was in excess of five times that of a plain spoke. His minister,
Guan Zhong Guan Zhong (; c. 720–645 BC) was a Chinese philosopher and politician. He served as Grand chancellor (China), chancellor and was a reformer of the Qi (state), State of Qi during the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. His given name wa ...

Guan Zhong
(管仲), eventually convinced him to relinquish this preference. Purple was regarded as a secondary color in ancient China. In classical times, secondary colors were not as highly prized as the five primary colors of the Chinese spectrum, and purple was used to allude to impropriety, compared to crimson, which was deemed a primary color and thus symbolized legitimacy. Nevertheless, by the 6th Century, purple was ranked above crimson. Several changes to the ranks of colors occurred after that time. File:Egyptian - Faience Bowl - Walters 48451 - Interior.jpg, An Egyptian bowl colored with Egyptian blue, with motifs painted in dark manganese purple. (between 1550 and 1450 BC) File:Contemporary portrayal of a toga picta.jpg, Painting of a man wearing an all-purple ''toga picta'', from an
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
tomb (about 350 BC). File:Compitalia fresco.jpg, Roman men wearing ''togae praetextae'' with reddish-purple stripes during a religious procession (1st century BC). File:Purple_Purpur_(retouched).jpg, Different purple hues obtained from three types of sea snails File:Purpurküpe.jpg, Dye bath of Tyrian purple File:Purpur-mit-Ausfaerbung.png, Cloth dyed with Tyrian purple. The color could vary from crimson to deep purple, depending upon the type of
murex ''Murex'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their a ...
sea-snail and how it was made.


Purple in the Byzantine Empire and Carolingian Europe

Through the early Christian era, the rulers of the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
continued the use of purple as the imperial color, for diplomatic gifts, and even for imperial documents and the pages of the Bible.
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Te ...
manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriter A typewriter is a or machine for characters. Typically, a typewriter has an array ...

manuscript
s were written in gold lettering on
parchment Parchment is a writing material Writing material refers to the materials that provide the surfaces on which humans use writing instruments A writing implement or writing instrument is an object used to produce writing Writing is a mediu ...

parchment
that was colored Tyrian purple. Empresses gave birth in the Purple Chamber, and the emperors born there were known as "born to the purple," to separate them from emperors who won or seized the title through political intrigue or military force. Bishops of the Byzantine church wore white robes with stripes of purple, while government officials wore squares of purple fabric to show their rank. In western Europe, the Emperor
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
was crowned in 800 wearing a mantle of Tyrian purple, and was buried in 814 in a shroud of the same color, which still exists (see below). However, after the fall of
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
to the
Ottoman Turks The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, tr, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish language , Turkish-speaking people of the Ottoman Empire ( 1299–1922/1923). Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks remains scarce, but the ...
in 1453, the color lost its imperial status. The great dye works of Constantinople were destroyed, and gradually scarlet, made with dye from the
cochineal The cochineal ( ; ; scientific name: ''Dactylopius coccus'') is a scale insect Scale insects are small insects of the Order (biology), order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha. Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphi ...
insect, became the royal color in Europe. File:Theodora mosaic - Basilica San Vitale (Ravenna) v2.jpg, The Empress Theodora, the wife of the Emperor
Justinian I Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός ; 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation o ...
, dressed in Tyrian purple. (6th century). File:11th century Byzantine griffins.gif, 11th-century
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
robe, dyed
Tyrian purple Tyrian purple ( grc, πορφύρα ''porphúra''; la, purpura), also known as Phoenician red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple, or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple Purple is any of a variety of color Color (Ame ...
with
murex ''Murex'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their a ...
dye. Creatures are
griffin The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...

griffin
s File:Karl den store krons av leo III.jpg, A medieval depiction of the coronation of the Emperor
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
in 800. The bishops and cardinals wear purple, and the Pope wears white. File:Shroud of Charlemagne manufactured in Constantinople 814.jpg, A fragment of the shroud in which the Emperor
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
was buried in 814. It was made of gold and Tyrian purple from Constantinople.


The Middle Ages and Renaissance

In 1464,
Pope Paul II Pope Paul II ( la, Paulus II; 23 February 1417 – 26 July 1471), born Pietro Barbo, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the wor ...

Pope Paul II
decreed that cardinals should no longer wear Tyrian purple, and instead wear scarlet, from
kermesKermes may refer to : * Kermes (genus), ''Kermes'' (genus), a genus of insects * Kermes (dye), a red dye made from the bodies of Kermes insects * Kermes oak also called ''Quercus coccifera'', the tree on which the Kermes insects traditionally fed * ...
and alum, since the dye from Byzantium was no longer available. Bishops and archbishops, of a lower status than cardinals, were assigned the color purple, but not the rich Tyrian purple. They wore cloth dyed first with the less expensive
indigo InterGlobe Aviation Ltd d/b/a IndiGo is an Indian low-cost airline headquartered in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. It is the largest List of airlines of India, airline in India by passengers carried and fleet size, with a 57% domestic market shar ...

indigo
blue, then overlaid with red made from
kermesKermes may refer to : * Kermes (genus), ''Kermes'' (genus), a genus of insects * Kermes (dye), a red dye made from the bodies of Kermes insects * Kermes oak also called ''Quercus coccifera'', the tree on which the Kermes insects traditionally fed * ...
dye. While purple was worn less frequently by Medieval and
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
kings and princes, it was worn by the professors of many of Europe's new universities. Their robes were modeled after those of the clergy, and they often wore square/violet or purple/violet caps and robes, or black robes with purple/violet trim. Purple/violet robes were particularly worn by students of divinity. Purple and/or violet also played an important part in the religious paintings of the Renaissance. Angels and the
Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrat ...

Virgin Mary
were often portrayed wearing purple or violet robes. File:Aquileia Basilica - Krypta Fresco Bischofsweihe Hermagoras.jpg, A 12th-century painting of
Saint Peter Saint Peter; he, שמעון בר יונה, Šimʿōn bar Yōnāh; ar, سِمعَان بُطرُس, translit=Simʿa̅n Buṭrus; grc-gre, Πέτρος, Petros; cop, Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ, Petros; lat, Petrus; ar, شمعون الصفـا, Sham ...

Saint Peter
consecrating Hermagoras, wearing purple, as a bishop. File:Ghent Altarpiece D - Popes - Bishops.jpg, In the ''
Ghent Altarpiece 340px, Closed view, back panels The ''Ghent Altarpiece'' (or the ''Adoration of the Mystic Lamb'', nl, Het Lam Gods) is a large and complex 15th-century polyptych altarpiece An altarpiece is an artwork such as a painting, sculpture Scul ...
'' (1422) by
Jan van Eyck Jan van Eyck ( , ; – 9 July 1441) was a painter active in Bruges who was one of the early innovators of what became known as Early Netherlandish painting, and one of the most significant representatives of Early Northern Renaissance art. Acc ...
, the popes and bishops are wearing purple robes. File:Rafael - Ressurreição de Cristo (detalhe - anjo).jpg, A purple-clad angel from the ''Resurrection of Christ'' by Raphael (1483–1520)


18th and 19th centuries

In the 18th century, purple was still worn on occasion by
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst , mother ...
and other rulers, by bishops and, in lighter shades, by members of the aristocracy, but rarely by ordinary people, because of its high cost. But in the 19th century, that changed. In 1856, an eighteen-year-old British chemistry student named
William Henry Perkin Sir William Henry Perkin (12 March 1838 – 14 July 1907) was a British chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin ''alchemist'') is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scien ...

William Henry Perkin
was trying to make a synthetic
quinine Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced sympto ...

quinine
. His experiments produced instead the first synthetic
aniline dye Aniline is an organic compound with the chemical formula, formula Carbon, C6Hydrogen, H5Nitrogen, NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the simplest aromatic amine. It is an industrially significant Commodity che ...
, a purple shade called
mauveine Mauveine, also known as aniline purple and Perkin's mauve, was one of the first synthetic dyes. It was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin in 1856 while he was attempting to synthesise the phytochemical quinine for the treatment o ...
, shortened simply to
mauve Mauve (, ; , ) is a pale purple color named after the Malva, mallow flower (French: ''mauve''). The first use of the word ''mauve'' as a color was in 1796–98 according to the ''Oxford English Dictionary'', but its use seems to have been rare ...

mauve
. It took its name from the mallow flower, which is the same color. The new color quickly became fashionable, particularly after
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
wore a silk gown dyed with mauveine to the Royal Exhibition of 1862. Prior to Perkin's discovery, mauve was a color which only the aristocracy and rich could afford to wear. Perkin developed an industrial process, built a factory, and produced the dye by the ton, so almost anyone could wear mauve. It was the first of a series of modern industrial dyes which completely transformed both the chemical industry and fashion. Purple was popular with the
pre-Raphaelite The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, James ...

pre-Raphaelite
painters in Britain, including Arthur Hughes, who loved bright colors and romantic scenes. File:Rokotov ekaterina.jpg, Portrait of Empress
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst , mother ...
of Russia, by
Fyodor Rokotov Fyodor Stepanovich Rokotov (Fedor Rokotov) (russian: Фёдор Степа́нович Ро́котов) (1736–December 24, 1808) was a distinguished Russian painter who specialized in portraits. Fyodor Rokotov was born into a family of peas ...
. (State Hermitage Museum). File:Arthur Hughes - April Love - Google Art Project.jpg, In England,
pre-Raphaelite The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, James ...

pre-Raphaelite
painters like Arthur Hughes were particularly enchanted by purple and/or violet. This is ''April Love (painting), April Love'' (1856). File:Uniform Albert I, Koning der Belgen.JPG, Order of Leopold (Belgium), Order of Leopold founded in 1830.


20th and 21st centuries

At the turn of the century, purple was a favorite color of the Austrian painter Gustav Klimt, who flooded his pictures with sensual purples and violets. In the 20th century, purple retained its historic connection with royalty; George VI (1896–1952), wore purple in his official portrait, and it was prominent in every feature of the coronation of Elizabeth II in 1953, from the invitations to the stage design inside Westminster Abbey. But at the same time, it was becoming associated with social change; with the Women's Suffrage movement for the right to vote for women in the early decades of the century, with Feminism in the 1970s, and with the psychedelic drug culture of the 1960s. In the early 20th century, purple, green, and white were the colors of the Women's Suffrage movement, which fought to win the right to vote for women, finally succeeding with the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. Later, in the 1970s, in a tribute to the Suffragettes, it became the color of the women's liberation movement. In the concentration camps of Nazi Germany, prisoners who were members of non-conformist religious groups, such as the Jehovah's Witnesses, were required to wear a purple triangle. During the 1960s and early 1970s, it was also associated with counterculture, psychedelics, and musicians like Jimi Hendrix with his 1967 song "Purple Haze", or the English psychedelic rock, rock band of Deep Purple which formed in 1968. Later, in the 1980s, it was featured in the song and album ''Purple Rain (album), Purple Rain'' (1984) by the American musician Prince (musician), Prince. The Purple Rain Protest was a protest against apartheid that took place in Cape Town, South Africa on 2 September 1989, in which a police water cannon with purple dye sprayed thousands of demonstrators. This led to the slogan ''The Purple Shall Govern''. The violet or purple necktie became very popular at the end of the first decade of the 21st century, particularly among political and business leaders. It combined the assertiveness and confidence of a red necktie with the sense of peace and cooperation of a blue necktie, and it went well with the blue business suit worn by most national and corporate leaders.Eva Heller, Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques. File:Gustav Klimt 009.jpg, Gustav Klimt portrait of woman with a purple hat (1912). File:George VI.jpg, George VI (1895–1952) wore purple in his official portrait. File:Elizabeth and Philip 1953.jpg, The Coronation portrait of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, The Duke of Edinburgh (1953) has three different shades of purple in the train, curtains and crown. File:Official Program Woman Suffrage Procession - March 3, 1913.jpg, Program from the Woman Suffrage Procession, a 1913 Women's Suffrage march. File:The Childrens Museum of Indianapolis - Votes for women pennant.jpg, A pennant from the Women's Suffrage movement in the state of Indiana. File:Feminism symbol.svg, Symbol of the Feminist movement in the United States (1970s). The purple color was chosen as a tribute to the Suffragette movement a half-century earlier.


In science and nature


Optics

The meanings of the color terms violet and purple varies even among native speakers of English, for example between United Kingdom and United States Since this Wikipedia page contains contributions from authors from different countries and different native languages, it is likely to be not consistent in the use of the color terms violet and purple. According to some speakers/authors of English, purple, unlike violet, is not one of the colors of the visible spectrum. It was not one of the colors of the rainbow identified by Isaac Newton, although in earlier versions of Newton's work the word purple was used where violet was used in the final version. According to some authors, purple does not have its own wavelength of light. For this reason, it is sometimes called a ''non-spectral color''. It exists in culture and art, but not, in the same way that violet does, in optics. According to some speakers of English, purple is simply a combination, in various proportions, of two primary colors, red and blue. According to other speakers of English, the same range of colors is called violet. In some textbooks of color theory, and depending on the geographical-cultural origin of the author, a "purple" is defined as any Spectral color#Non-spectral colors, non-spectral color between
violet Violet may refer to: Common meanings * Violet (color), a spectral color with wavelengths shorter than blue * One of a list of plants known as violet, particularly: ** Viola (plant), ''Viola'' (plant), a genus of flowering plants Places United ...
and red (excluding violet and red themselves). The
spectral color A spectral color is a color that is evoked in a typical human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as Monochromatic radiation, monochromatic light. Every wavelength ...
s violet and indigo would in that case not be purples. For other speakers of English, these colors are purples. In the traditional color wheel long used by painters, purple is placed between crimson and violet. However, also here there is much variation in color terminology depending on cultural background of the painters and authors, and sometimes the term violet is used and placed in between red and blue on the traditional color wheel. In a slightly different variation, on the HSV color space, color wheel, purple is placed between magenta and violet. This shade is sometimes called electric purple (See shades of purple). In the
RGB color model The RGB color model is an additive Additive may refer to: Mathematics * Additive function In number theory, an additive function is an arithmetic function ''f''(''n'') of the positive integer ''n'' such that whenever ''a'' and ''b'' are c ...

RGB color model
, named for the colors red, green, and blue, used to create all the colors on a computer screen or television, the range of purples is created by mixing red and blue light of different intensities on a black screen. The standard HTML color purple is created by red and blue light of equal intensity, at a brightness that is halfway between full power and darkness. In color printing, purple is sometimes represented by the color magenta, or sometimes by mixing magenta with red or blue. It can also be created by mixing just red and blue alone, but in that case the purple is less bright, with lower saturation or intensity. A less bright purple can also be created with light or paint by adding a certain quantity of the third primary color (green for light or yellow for pigment). On a chromaticity diagram, the straight line connecting the extreme spectral colors (red and violet) is known as the line of purples (or 'purple boundary'); it represents one limit of human Color vision, color perception. The color magenta used in the CMYK printing process is near the center of the line of purples, but most people associate the term "purple" with a somewhat bluer tone, such as is displayed by the color "electric purple" (a color also directly on the line of purples), shown below. Some common confusion exists concerning the color names "purple" and "violet". Purple is a mixture of red and blue light, whereas violet is a
spectral color A spectral color is a color that is evoked in a typical human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as Monochromatic radiation, monochromatic light. Every wavelength ...
. On the CIE 1931 color space, CIE xy chromaticity diagram, violet is on the curved edge in the lower left, while purples are on the straight line connecting the extreme colors red and violet; this line is known as the line of purples, or the purple line. File:RGB illumination.jpg, On a computer or television screen, purple colors are created by mixing red and blue light. This is called the
RGB color model The RGB color model is an additive Additive may refer to: Mathematics * Additive function In number theory, an additive function is an arithmetic function ''f''(''n'') of the positive integer ''n'' such that whenever ''a'' and ''b'' are c ...

RGB color model
. File:CIExy1931.png, The CIE 1931 color space, CIE xy chromaticity diagram


Pigments

*Hematite and
manganese Manganese is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical e ...

manganese
are the oldest pigments used for the color purple. They were used by
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
artists in the form of sticks, like charcoal, or ground and powdered and mixed with fat, and used as a paint. Hematite is a reddish iron oxide which, when ground coarsely, makes a purple pigment. One such pigment is caput mortuum (pigment), caput mortuum, whose name is also used in reference to mummy brown. The latter is another pigment containing hematite and historically produced with the use of mummified corpses. Some of its compositions produce a purple color and may be called "mummy violet". Manganese was also used in Roman times to color glass purple. *Han purple was the first synthetic purple pigment, invented in China in about 700 BC. It was used in wall paintings and pottery and other applications. In color, it was very close to
indigo InterGlobe Aviation Ltd d/b/a IndiGo is an Indian low-cost airline headquartered in Gurgaon, Haryana, India. It is the largest List of airlines of India, airline in India by passengers carried and fleet size, with a 57% domestic market shar ...

indigo
, which had a similar chemical structure. Han purple was very unstable, and sometimes was the result of the chemical breakdown of Han blue. During the Middle Ages, artists usually made purple by combining red and blue pigments; most often blue azurite or lapis-lazuli with red ochre, cinnabar, or minium. They also combined lake colors made by mixing dye with powder; using woad or indigo dye for the blue, and dye made from
cochineal The cochineal ( ; ; scientific name: ''Dactylopius coccus'') is a scale insect Scale insects are small insects of the Order (biology), order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha. Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphi ...
for the red. *Cobalt violet was the first modern synthetic color in the purple family, manufactured in 1859. It was found, along with cobalt blue, in the palette of Claude Monet, Paul Signac, and Georges Seurat. It was stable, but had low tinting power and was expensive, so quickly went out of use. *Manganese violet was a stronger color than cobalt violet, and replaced it on the market. *Quinacridone violet, one of a modern synthetic organic family of colors, was discovered in 1896 but not marketed until 1955. It is sold today under a number of brand names. File:Lascaux painting.jpg, Manganese pigments were used in the neolithic paintings in the Lascaux cave, France. File:Hematite.jpg, Hematite was often used as the red-purple color in the cave paintings of
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, also known as world history, is t ...
artists. File:Purpurite-120161.jpg, A sample of purpurite, or manganese phosphate, from the Packrat Mine in Southern California. File:Cobaltviolet.jpg, A swatch of cobalt violet, popular among the French impressionists. File:Manganese violet.jpg, Manganese violet is a synthetic pigment invented in the mid-19th century. File:CI Pigment Violet 19 Beta.JPG, Quinacridone violet, a synthetic organic pigment sold under many different names.


Dyes

The most famous purple dye in the ancient world was
Tyrian purple Tyrian purple ( grc, πορφύρα ''porphúra''; la, purpura), also known as Phoenician red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple, or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple Purple is any of a variety of color Color (Ame ...
, made from a type of sea snail called the
murex ''Murex'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their a ...
, found around the Mediterranean. (See history section above). In western Polynesia, residents of the islands made a purple dye similar to Tyrian purple from the sea urchin. In Central America, the inhabitants made a dye from a different sea snail, the Purpura (gastropod), purpura, found on the coasts of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The Mayans used this color to dye fabric for religious ceremonies, while the Aztecs used it for paintings of ideograms, where it symbolized royalty.Anne Carichon (2000), ''Couleurs: pigments et teintures dans les mains des peuples''. p. 133. In the Middle Ages, those who worked with blue and black dyes belonged to separate guilds from those who worked with red and yellow dyes, and were often forbidden to dye any other colors than those of their own guild. Most purple fabric was made by the dyers who worked with red, and who used dye from Rubia, madder or
cochineal The cochineal ( ; ; scientific name: ''Dactylopius coccus'') is a scale insect Scale insects are small insects of the Order (biology), order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha. Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphi ...
, so Medieval violet colors were inclined toward red. Orcein, or ''purple moss'', was another common purple dye. It was known to the ancient Greeks and Hebrews, and was made from a Mediterranean lichen called archil or dyer's moss (Roccella tinctoria), combined with an ammoniac, usually urine. Orcein began to achieve popularity again in the 19th century, when violet and purple became the color of demi-mourning, worn after a widow or widower had worn black for a certain time, before he or she returned to wearing ordinary colors. From the Middle Ages onward, purple dyes for the clothing of common people were often made from the blackberry or other red fruit of the genus rubus, or from the mulberry. All of these dyes were more reddish than bluish, and faded easily with washing and exposure to sunlight. A popular new dye which arrived in Europe from the New World during the Renaissance was made from the wood of the logwood tree (H''aematoxylum campechianum''), which grew in Spanish Mexico. Depending on the different minerals added to the dye, it produced a blue, red, black or, with the addition of alum, a purple color, It made a good color, but, like earlier dyes, it did not resist sunlight or washing. In the 18th century, chemists in England, France and Germany began to create the first synthetic dyes. Two synthetic purple dyes were invented at about the same time. Cudbear is a
dye A dye is a color Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the visual perception, visual perceptual Physical property, property corresponding in humans to the categories called ''blue'', ''green'', ''red'', etc. Colo ...
extracted from orchil lichens that can be used to dye wool and silk, without the use of mordant. Cudbear was developed by Dr Cuthbert Gordon of Scotland: production began in 1758, The lichen is first boiled in a solution of ammonium carbonate. The mixture is then cooled and ammonia is added and the mixture is kept damp for 3–4 weeks. Then the lichen is dried and ground to powder. The manufacture details were carefully protected, with a ten-feet high wall being built around the manufacturing facility, and staff consisting of Highlanders sworn to secrecy. French purple was developed in France at about the same time. The lichen is extracted by urine or ammonia. Then the extract is acidified, the dissolved dye precipitates and is washed. Then it is dissolved in ammonia again, the solution is heated in air until it becomes purple, then it is precipitated with calcium chloride; the resulting dye was more solid and stable than other purples. Cobalt violet is a synthetic pigment that was invented in the second half of the 19th century, and is made by a similar process as cobalt blue, cerulean blue and cobalt green. It is the violet pigment most commonly used today by artists. In spite of its name, this pigment produces a purple rather than violet color Mauveine, also known as aniline purple and Perkin's
mauve Mauve (, ; , ) is a pale purple color named after the Malva, mallow flower (French: ''mauve''). The first use of the word ''mauve'' as a color was in 1796–98 according to the ''Oxford English Dictionary'', but its use seems to have been rare ...

mauve
, was the first synthetic organic chemistry, organic chemical
dye A dye is a color Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the visual perception, visual perceptual Physical property, property corresponding in humans to the categories called ''blue'', ''green'', ''red'', etc. Colo ...
, discovered serendipity, serendipitously in 1856. Its chemical name is 3-amino-2,±9-dimethyl-5-phenyl-7-(p-tolylamino)phenazinium acetate. Fuchsine was another synthetic dye made shortly after mauveine. It produced a brilliant fuchsia color. In the 1950s, a new family of purple and violet synthetic organic pigments called quinacridone came onto the market. It had originally been discovered in 1896, but were not synthetized until 1936, and not manufactured until the 1950s. The colors in the group range from deep red to bluish purple in color, and have the molecular formula C20H12N2O2. They have strong resistance to sunlight and washing, and are widely used today in oil paints, water colors, and acrylics, as well as in automobile coatings and other industrial coatings. File:Black Butte blackberry.jpg, Blackberry, Blackberries were sometimes used to make purple dye in the Middle Ages. File:A lichen - Ochrolechia tartarea - geograph.org.uk - 995354.jpg, This lichen, growing on a tree in Scotland, was used in the 18th century to make a common purple dye called Cudbear. File:Mauv2.jpg, A sample of silk dyed with the original mauveine dye. File:Basic Fuchsine in aqueous solution.jpg, A sample of fuchsine dye


Animals

File:Cinnyricinclus_leucogaster_-_20080321.jpg, The male violet-backed starling sports a very bright, iridescent purple plumage. File:Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis.jpg, The purple frog is a species of amphibian found in India. File:Pseudanthias pascalus.jpg, ''Pseudanthias pascalus'' or purple queenfish. File:PurpleUrchinPuertoVG.JPG, The purple sea urchin from Mexico. File:Purple Heron in flight.jpg, A purple heron in flight (South Africa). File:Carpodacus purpureus CT3.jpg, A purple finch (North America). File:Lorius domicella -Jurong Bird Park -upper body-8a.jpg, The ''Lorius domicella'', or purple-naped lory, from Indonesia.


Anthocyanins

Certain grapes, eggplants, pansies and other fruits, vegetables and flowers may appear purple due to the presence of natural pigments called anthocyanins. These pigments are found in the leaves, roots, stems, vegetables, fruits and flowers of all plants. They aid photosynthesis by blocking harmful wavelengths of light that would damage the leaves. In flowers, the purple anthocyanins help attract insects who pollinate the flowers. Not all anthocyanins are purple; they vary in color from red to purple to blue, green, or yellow, depending upon the level of their pH. File:Purplec.png, The purple colors of this cauliflower, grapes, fruits, vegetables and flowers comes from natural pigments called anthocyanins. File:Indicateur chou rouge.jpg, Anthocyanins range in color from red to purple to green, blue and yellow, depending upon the level of their pH. File:Img fagus sylvatica atropurpurea 1890.jpg, Anthocyanins also account for the purple color in these Fagus sylvatica, copper beech trees, and in purple autumn leaves. File:Blood orange sliced.jpg, Anthocyanins produce the purple color in blood oranges. File:Purple pansy flower.jpg, alt=Purple pansy, A purple pansy. File:Blue Hydrangea (common names hydrangea or hortensia).jpg, alt=“Blue” hydrangea is often actually purple., “Blue” hydrangea is often actually purple.


Plants and flowers

*Stipa, Purple needlegrass is the state grass of California. File:Artichoke in Dalat, Vietnam.jpg, An artichoke flower in blossom in Dalat, Vietnam File:Iris germanica10.jpg, ''Iris germanica'' flowers File:Lilac blossom Fliederblüte Syringa vulgaris 05.jpg, ''Syringa vulgaris'', or lilac blossoms File:MEDICAGO SATIVA - APIS - IB-125.JPG, ''Medicago sativa'', known as alfalfa in the U.S. and lucerne in the U.K. File:Aster alpinus 002.JPG, The ''Aster alpinus'', or alpine aster, is native to the European mountains, including the Alps, while a subspecies is found in Canada and the United States. File:Single lavender flower02.jpg, Lavender flowers. File:Purple Rose1.jpg, A purple rose. File:Wisteria floribunda5.jpg, alt=Wisteria is a pale purple color., Wisteria is a pale purple color. File:Purple_salsify_(7356683346).jpg, Tragopogon porrifolius, salsify


Microbiology

*Purple bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, that is, capable of producing energy through photosynthesis. *In April 2007 it was suggested that early archaea may have used retinal, a purple pigment, instead of chlorophyll, to extract energy from the sun. If so, large areas of the ocean and shoreline would have been colored purple; this is called the Purple Earth hypothesis.


Astronomy

* One of the stars in the Pleiades, called Pleione (star), Pleione, is sometimes called ''Purple Pleione'' because, being a fast spinning star, it has a purple hue caused by its blue-white color being obscured by a spinning ring of electrically excited red hydrogen gas. *The Purple Forbidden enclosure is a name used in traditional Chinese astronomy for those Chinese constellations that surround the North Celestial Pole.


Geography

*Purple Mountain (Nanjing), Purple Mountain is located on the eastern side of Nanjing. Its peaks are often found enveloped in purple clouds at dawn and dusk, hence comes its name "Purple Mountain". The Purple Mountain Observatory is located there. *Purple Mountain, County Kerry, Purple Mountain in County Kerry, Ireland, takes its name from the color of the shivered slate on its summit. *Purple Mountain (Wyoming), Purple Mountain in Wyoming (el. ) is a mountain peak in the southern section of the Gallatin Range in Yellowstone National Park. *Purple Mountain, Alaska *Purple Mountain, Oregon *Purple Mountain, Washington *Purple Peak, Colorado File:Purple Mountain View, Killarney.jpg, Purple Mountain, County Kerry, Purple Mountain near Killarney, Ireland. File:PurpleMountainYNP2010.jpg, Purple Mountain (Wyoming), Purple Mountain in Yellowstone National Park. File:PurpleMountain01.JPG, Purple Mountain (Nanjing), Purple Mountain, Nanjing.


Purple mountains phenomenon

It has been observed that the greater the distance between a viewers eyes and mountains, the lighter and more blue or purple they will appear. This phenomenon, long recognized by Leonardo da Vinci and other painters, is called aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective. The more distant the mountains are, the less contrast the eye sees between the mountains and the sky. The bluish color is caused by an optical effect called Rayleigh scattering. The sunlit sky is blue because air scatters short-wavelength light more than longer wavelengths. Since blue light is at the short wavelength end of the visible spectrum, it is more strongly scattered in the atmosphere than long wavelength red light. The result is that the human eye perceives blue when looking toward parts of the sky other than the sun. At sunrise and sunset, the light is passing through the atmosphere at a lower angle, and traveling a greater distance through a larger volume of air. Much of the green and blue is scattered away, and more red light comes to the eye, creating the colors of the sunrise and sunset and making the mountains look purple. The phenomenon is referenced in the song "America the Beautiful", where the lyrics refer to "purple mountains' majesty" among other features of the United States landscape. A List of Crayola crayon colors, Crayola crayon called Purple Mountain Majesty in reference to the lyric was first formulated in 1993. File:Aerial perspective 1.JPG, The more distant mountains are, the lighter and more blue they are. This is called atmospheric perspective or aerial perspective. File:Auke Bay Alaska 2.jpg, Sunset at Auke Bay, Alaska. Thanks to Rayleigh scattering, the mountains appear purple.


Mythology

Julius Pollux, a Greek grammarian who lived in the second century AD, attributed the discovery of purple to the Phoenician god and guardian of the city of Tyre, Heracles. According to his account, while walking along the shore with the nymph Tyrus, the god's dog bit into a murex shell, causing his mouth to turn purple. The nymph subsequently requested that Heracles create a garment for her of that same color, with Heracles obliging her demands giving birth to Tyrian purple.


Associations and symbolism


Royalty

In Europe, since the time that the Roman emperors wore a
Tyrian purple Tyrian purple ( grc, πορφύρα ''porphúra''; la, purpura), also known as Phoenician red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple, or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple Purple is any of a variety of color Color (Ame ...
(''purpura'') toga praetexta, purple has been the color most associated with power and royalty. The British Royal Family and other European royalty still use it as a ceremonial color on special occasions.Eva Heller, ''Psychologie de la couleur: effets et symboliques'', p. 162. In
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
, purple is associated with the
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...
and Japanese aristocracy. File:NorthernIrelandStamp1958 3D.jpg, A purple postage stamp honored Queen Elizabeth II in 1958 File:Dronning Margrethe II (crop).jpg, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark in 2010.


Piety, faith, penitence, and theology

In the West, purple or violet is the color most associated with piety and religious faith. In AD 1464, shortly after the Muslim conquest of
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
, which terminated the supply of
Tyrian purple Tyrian purple ( grc, πορφύρα ''porphúra''; la, purpura), also known as Phoenician red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple, or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple Purple is any of a variety of color Color (Ame ...
to Roman Catholic Europe,
Pope Paul II Pope Paul II ( la, Paulus II; 23 February 1417 – 26 July 1471), born Pietro Barbo, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the wor ...

Pope Paul II
decreed that cardinalate, cardinals should henceforth wear scarlet instead of purple, the scarlet being dyed with expensive
cochineal The cochineal ( ; ; scientific name: ''Dactylopius coccus'') is a scale insect Scale insects are small insects of the Order (biology), order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha. Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphi ...
. Catholic bishop, Bishops were assigned the color Amaranth (color)#Amaranth purple, amaranth, being a pale and pinkish purple made then from a less-expensive mixture of indigo and cochineal. In the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic liturgy, purple symbolizes penitence; Anglican Communion, Anglican and Catholic priests wear a purple stole (vestment), stole when they hear Confession (religion), confession and a purple stole and chasuble during Advent and Lent. Since the Second Vatican Council of 1962–5, priests may wear purple vestments, but may still wear black ones, when officiating at funerals. The ''Roman Missal'' permits black, purple (violet), or white vestments for the funeral Mass (liturgy), Mass. White is worn when a child dies before the Age of reason (canon law), age of reason. Students and faculty of theology also wear purple academic dress for graduations and other university ceremonies. Purple is also often worn by senior pastors of Protestant churches and bishops of the Anglican Communion. File:Cardinals and bishops in Bruges escorted by police.jpg, In the Roman Catholic Church, cardinals now wear Scarlet (color), scarlet and bishops wear amaranth. File:Katharine Jefferts Schori 2.jpg, Katharine Jefferts Schori, Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal Church of the United States The color purple is also associated with royalty in Christianity, being one of the three traditional offices of
Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it i ...

Jesus Christ
, i. e. king, although such a symbolism was assumed from the earlier Roman association or at least also employed by the ancient Romans.


Vanity, extravagance, individualism

In Europe and America, purple is the color most associated with vanity, extravagance, and individualism. Among the seven major sins, it represents vanity. It is a color which is used to attract attention.


The artificial, materialism and beauty

Purple is the color most often associated with the artificial and the unconventional. It is the major color that occurs the least frequently in nature, and was the first color to be synthesized.


Ambiguity and ambivalence

Purple is the color most associated with ambiguity. Like other colors made by combining two primary colors, it is seen as uncertain and equivocal.


Mourning

In Britain, purple is sometimes associated with mourning. In Victorian times, close relatives wore black for the first year following a death ("deep mourning"), and then replaced it with purple or dark green trimmed with black. This is rarely practised today.


In culture and society


Asian culture

* The Chinese word for purple, ''zi'', is connected with the North Star, Polaris, or ''zi Wei'' in Chinese. In Chinese astrology, the North Star was the home of the Celestial Emperor, the ruler of the heavens. The area around the North Star is called the Purple Forbidden Enclosure in Chinese astronomy. For that reason the Forbidden City in Beijing was also known as the Purple Forbidden City (''zi Jin cheng''). *Purple was a popular color introduced into Japanese dress during the Heian period (794–1185). The dye was made from the root of the alkanet plant (''Anchusa officinalis''), also known as ''murasaki'' in Japanese. At about the same time, Japanese painters began to use a pigment made from the same plant. *In Thailand, widows in mourning wear the color purple. Purple is also associated with Saturday on the Thai solar calendar. File:Eastern Han Luoyang Mural of Liubo players.jpg, Han purple and Han blue were synthetic colors made by artisans in China during the Han dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD) or even earlier. File:Geisha apprentice (15801544380).jpg, A Japanese woman in a kimono. File:Emperor Kōmyō.jpg, Emperor Komyo of Japan. (1322–1380). Purple was the color of the aristocracy in Japan and China.


Engineering

The color purple plays a significant role in the traditions of engineering schools across Canada. Purple is also the color of the Engineering Corp in the British Military.


Idioms and expressions

*Purple prose refers to pretentious or overly embellished writing. For example, a paragraph containing an excessive number of long and unusual words is called a purple passage. *Born in the purple, Born to the purple means someone who is born into a life of wealth and privilege. It originally was used to describe the rulers of the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
. *A purple patch is a period of exceptional success or good luck. The origins are obscure, but it may refer to the symbol of success of the Byzantine Court. Bishops in Byzantium wore a purple patch on their costume as a symbol of rank. *Purple haze refers to a state of mind induced by psychedelic drugs, particularly LSD. *Wearing purple is a military slang expression in the U.S., Canada and the U.K. for an officer who is serving in a joint assignment with another service, such as an Army officer on assignment to the Navy. The officer is symbolically putting aside his or her traditional uniform color and exclusive loyalty to their service during the joint assignment, though in fact they continue to wear their own service's uniform. *Purple squirrel is a term used by employment recruiters to describe a job candidate with precisely the right education, experience, and qualifications that perfectly fits a job's multifaceted requirements. The assumption is that the perfect candidate is as rare as a real-life purple squirrel.


Military

*The Purple Heart is a United States Awards and decorations of the United States military, military decoration awarded in the name of the President to those who have been wounded or killed during their service.


Politics

*In United States politics, a Red states and blue states#Purple states, ''purple state'' is a state roughly balanced between Republican Party (United States), Republicans (generally symbolized by red in the 21st century) and Democratic Party (United States), Democrats (symbolized by blue). *In the politics of the Netherlands, purple (government), Purple ( nl, paars) means a coalition government consisting of liberalism, liberals and social democracy, social democrats (symbolized by the colors blue and red, respectively), as opposed to the more common coalitions of the Christian democracy in the Netherlands, Christian Democrats with one of the other two. Between 1994 and 2002 there were two Purple cabinets, both led by Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Prime Minister Wim Kok. *In the politics of Belgium, as with the Netherlands, a purple government includes liberal and social-democratic parties in coalition. Belgium was governed by Purple governments from 1999 to 2007 under the leadership of Prime Minister of Belgium, Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt. *Purple is the primary color used by many European and American political parties, including Volt Europa, the UK Independence Party, the Social Democrats (Ireland), Social Democrats in the Republic of Ireland, the Liberal People's Party (Norway, 1992), Liberal People's Party in Norway, and the United States Pirate Party. The Left (Germany), The Left party in Germany, whose primary color is red, is traditionally portrayed in purple on election maps to distinguish it from the Social Democratic Party of Germany. *In the United Kingdom, the color scheme for the suffragette movement in Britain and Ireland was designed with purple for loyalty and dignity, white for purity, and green for hope.


Rhyme

*In the English language, the word "purple" has only one perfect rhyme, ''wikt:curple, curple.'' Others are List of English words without rhymes#Words with obscure perfect rhymes, obscure perfect rhymes, such as ''wikt:hirple, hirple.'' **Robert Burns rhymes purple with curple in his Epistle to Mrs. Scott. *Examples of Rhyme#General rhymes, imperfect rhymes or non-word rhymes with purple: ** In the song Grace Kelly (song), Grace Kelly by Mika (singer), Mika the word purple is rhymed with "hurtful". ** In his hit song "Dang Me," Roger Miller sings these lines:


Sexuality

Purple is sometimes associated with the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. It is the symbolic color worn on Spirit Day, a commemoration that began in 2010 to show support for young people who are bullied because of their sexual orientation. Purple is closely associated with bisexuality, largely in part to the bisexual pride flag which combines pink – representing homosexuality – and blue – representing heterosexuality – to create the bisexual purple. The purple hand is another symbol sometimes used by the LGBT community during parades and demonstrations.


Sports and games

*The National Basketball Association's Los Angeles Lakers, Phoenix Suns and Sacramento Kings use purple as their primary color. *In the Indian Premier League, purple is the primary color of the Kolkata Knight Riders. *The National Hockey League's Los Angeles Kings used purple as one of their primary colors. *In Major League Baseball, purple is one of the primary colors for the Colorado Rockies. *In the National Football League, the Minnesota Vikings and Baltimore Ravens use purple as main colors. *The Australian Football League's Fremantle Football Club use purple as one of their primary colors. *In association football (soccer), Italian Serie A club ACF Fiorentina, Belgian Pro League club and former Europa League winner R.S.C. Anderlecht, French Ligue 1 club Toulouse FC and Ligue 2 club FC Istres, Spanish La Liga club Real Valladolid, Austrian Football Bundesliga club FK Austria Wien, Hungarian Nemzeti Bajnokság I club Újpest FC, Slovenian PrvaLiga club NK Maribor, former Romanian Liga I clubs FC Politehnica Timișoara and FC Argeș Pitești, Andorran Primera Divisió club CE Principat, German club Tennis Borussia Berlin, Italian club A.S.D. Legnano Calcio 1913, Swedish club Fässbergs IF, Australian A-League Club Perth Glory FC, Perth Glory and American Major League Soccer club Orlando City SC, Orlando City use purple as one of their primary colors. *The Melbourne Storm from Australia's National Rugby League use purple as one of their primary colors. *Costa Rica's Primera División soccer team Deportivo Saprissa's main color is purple (actually a burgundy (color), burgundy like shade), and their nickname is the "Monstruo Morado", or "Purple Monster". *In tennis, the official colors of the Wimbledon championships are deep green and purple (traditionally called mauve). *In American college athletics, Louisiana State University, Kansas State University, Texas Christian University, the University of Central Arkansas, Northwestern University, the University of Washington, and East Carolina University all have purple as one of their main team colors. *The University of Western Ontario in London, Canada, and Bishop's University in Sherbrooke, Canada, have purple as one of its main team colors. *Purple is the color of the ball in Snooker Plus with a 10-point value. *In the game of pocket billiards, pool, purple is the color of the 4-solid and the 12-striped balls.


Business

The British chocolate company Cadbury chose purple as it was
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
’s favourite color. The company trademarked the color purple for chocolates with registrations in 1995 and 2004. However, the validity of these trademarks is the matter of an ongoing legal dispute following objections by Nestlé.


In flags

* Purple or violet appear in the flags of only two modern sovereign nations, and are merely ancillary colors in both cases. The Flag of Dominica features a sisserou parrot, a national symbol, while the Flag of Nicaragua displays a rainbow in the center, as part of the coat of arms of Nicaragua. * The lower band of the flag of the second Spanish republic (1931–39) was colored a tone of purple, to represent the common people as opposed to the red of the Spanish monarchy, unlike other nations of Europe where purple represented royalty and red represented the common people. * In Japan, the prefecture of Tokyo's flag is purple, as is the flag of Ichikawa, Chiba, Ichikawa. * Porpora, or purpure, a shade of purple, was added late to the list of colors of European heraldry. A purple lion was the symbol of the old Spanish Kingdom of León (910–1230), and it later appeared on the flag of Spain, when the Kingdom of Castile and Kingdom of León merged. File:Flag of Dominica.svg, Flag of Dominica, features a purple sisserou parrot. File:Flag of Nicaragua.svg, Flag of Nicaragua, although at this size the purple band of the rainbow is nearly indistinguishable. File:Flag of Spain 1931 1939.svg, Flag of the second Spanish republic (1931–39), known in Spanish as ', still widely used by left-wing political organizations.


See also

* Byzantium (color) * Carmine (color) * Cerise (color) * Lavender (color) * List of colors * Orchid (color) * Purple (cipher machine) * Purple Francis * Purple Mark * Raspberry (color) * Rose (color) * Ruby (color) * Shades of magenta * Shades of purple * Ultramarine * Violet (color)


References


Further references

* * * * * * * * * "The perception of color", from Schiffman, H.R. (1990). ''Sensation and perception: An integrated approach'' (3rd edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons.


Notes

{{Authority control Secondary colors Quaternary colors Shades of violet Web colors