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Punk rock (or simply punk) is a
music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal ...
that emerged in the mid-1970s. Rooted in 1960s
garage rock Garage rock (sometimes called garage punk or 60s punk) is a raw and energetic style of rock and roll that flourished in the mid-1960s, most notably in the United States and Canada, and has experienced a series of subsequent revivals. The styl ...
, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often shouted political,
anti-establishment An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social, political, and economic principles of a society. The term was first used in the modern sense in 1958, by the British magazine '' New Statesman' ...
lyrics. Punk embraces a
DIY ethic DIY ethic is the ethic of self-sufficiency through completing tasks without the aid of a paid expert. The " do it yourself" (DIY) ethic promotes the idea that anyone is capable of performing a variety of tasks rather than relying on paid speci ...
; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through
independent record label An independent record label (or indie label) is a record label A record label, or record company, is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from thos ...
s. The term "punk rock" was previously used by American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe the mid-1960s garage bands. Certain late 1960s and early 1970s Detroit acts, such as
MC5 MC5 was an American rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical ...

MC5
and
Iggy and The Stooges
Iggy and The Stooges
, and others from elsewhere created out-of-the-mainstream music that became highly influential on what was to come.
Glam rock Glam rock is a style of rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different styles in the mid-1960s and later, ...
in the UK and
The New York Dolls New York Dolls were an American rock band formed in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 popula ...
from New York have also been cited as key influences. When the movement now bearing the name developed from 1974 to 1976, prominent acts included
Television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, and in two or 3D television, three dimensions and sound. The ...
,
Patti Smith Patricia Lee Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American singer-songwriter, musician, author, and poet who became an influential component of the New York City punk rock movement with her 1975 debut album ''Horses (album), Horses''. Called ...

Patti Smith
, and the
Ramones The Ramones were an American punk rock band that formed in the New York City neighborhood of Forest Hills, Queens, in 1974. They are often cited as the first true punk rock group. Despite achieving only limited commercial success initially, t ...
in New York City;
The Saints
The Saints
in
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...
; and the
Sex Pistols The Sex Pistols were an English punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a compos ...

Sex Pistols
,
the Clash The Clash were an English band formed in in 1976 who were key players in the original wave of British . Billed as "The Only Band That Matters", they also contributed to the and movements that emerged in the wake of punk and employed elemen ...
, and the Damned in London, and the
Buzzcocks Buzzcocks are an English punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition th ...

Buzzcocks
in Manchester. By late 1976, punk became a major cultural phenomenon in the UK. It led to a
punk subculture The punk subculture includes a diverse and widely known array of ideologies An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, tru ...
expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing, such as deliberately offensive T-shirts, leather jackets, studded or spiked bands and jewellery, safety pins, and bondage and S&M clothes. In 1977, the influence of the music and subculture spread worldwide. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that often rejected affiliation with the
mainstreamThe mainstream is the prevalent current thought In their most common sense, the terms thought and thinking refer to conscious cognitive processes that can happen independently of sensory stimulation. Their most paradigmatic forms are judging, rea ...
. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as
hardcore punk Hardcore punk (often abbreviated to hardcore) is a punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to ...
(e.g.
Minor Threat Minor Threat was an American hardcore punk band, formed in 1980 in Washington, D.C. by vocalist Ian MacKaye and drummer Jeff Nelson. MacKaye and Nelson had played in several other bands together, and recruited bassist Brian Baker and guitari ...

Minor Threat
),
Oi! Oi! is a subgenre of punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s. Rooted in 1960s garage rock, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, fast-pac ...
(e.g.
the Exploited The Exploited are a Scottish punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s. Rooted in 1960s garage rock, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, f ...
) and
anarcho-punk Anarcho-punk (or anarchist punk) is punk rock that promotes anarchism. Some use the term broadly to refer to any punk music with anarchist lyrical content, which may figure in crust punk, hardcore punk, folk punk, and other styles. History Befo ...
(e.g.
Crass Crass were an English and band formed in in 1977, who promoted as a political ideology, a , and a . Crass popularised the movement of the , advocating , , , , and . The band used and advocated a approach to its albums, s, leaflets, and ...
) became the predominant modes of punk rock. Many musicians identifying with or inspired by punk went on to pursue other musical directions, giving rise to movements such as
post-punk Post-punk (originally called new musick) is a broad genre Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Eu ...
,
new wave New Wave may refer to: Music * New wave music, a genre of popular music that originated in the 1970s Albums * ''New Wave'' (Against Me! album) or the title song, 2007 * ''New Wave'' (The Auteurs album), 1993 * New Wave (Dizzy Gillespie album ...
, and
alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of that emerged from the underground of the 1970s and became widely popular in the 1990s. "Alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from ...
.


Characteristics


Outlook

The first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before.Robb (2006), p. xi. According to
Ramones The Ramones were an American punk rock band that formed in the New York City neighborhood of Forest Hills, Queens, in 1974. They are often cited as the first true punk rock group. Despite achieving only limited commercial success initially, t ...
drummer
Tommy Ramone Thomas Erdelyi (born Tamás Erdélyi; January 29, 1949 – July 11, 2014), known professionally as Tommy Ramone, was a Hungarian American record producer, musician, and songwriter. He was the second drummer for the punk rock band the Ramone ...
, "In its initial form, a lot of
960s The 960s decade ran from January 1, 960, to December 31, 969. Significant people References {{Reflist ...
stuff was innovative and exciting. Unfortunately, what happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of
Hendrix James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix; November 27, 1942September 18, 1970) was an American musician, singer, and songwriter. Although his mainstream career spanned only four years, he is widely regarded as one of the most ...

Hendrix
started noodling away. Soon you had endless solos that went nowhere. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock 'n' roll."
John Holmstrom John Holmstrom (born 1954) is an American underground cartoonist and writer. He is best known for illustrating the covers of the Ramones albums '' Rocket to Russia'' and '' Road to Ruin'', as well as his characters Bosko and Joe (published in Sc ...

John Holmstrom
, founding editor of ''
Punk Punk or punks may refer to: Genres, subculture, and related aspects * Punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s. Rooted in 1960s garage rock, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1 ...
'' magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that
cts Cts or CTS may refer to: Arts and entertainment Television * Chinese Television System, a Taiwanese broadcast television station, including: ** CTS Main Channel () ** CTS Education and Culture () ** CTS Recreation () ** CTS News and Info () ( ...

cts
like
Billy Joel William Martin Joel (born May 9, 1949) is an American musician, singer-songwriter, and composer. Commonly nicknamed the "Piano Man" after his first major hit and signature song of the same name as well as the similarly named Piano Man (Billy Joe ...
and
Simon and Garfunkel Simon & Garfunkel were an American folk rock, folk-rock duo consisting of singer-songwriter Paul Simon and singer Art Garfunkel. They were one of the best-selling music groups of the 1960s, and their biggest hits—including "The Sound of Silence" ...

Simon and Garfunkel
were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans, rock and roll meant this wild and rebellious music."McLaren, Malcolm
"Punk Celebrates 30 Years of Subversion"
, BBC News, August 18, 2006. Retrieved on January 17, 2006.
According to
Robert Christgau Robert Thomas Christgau (; born April 18, 1942) is an American music journalist Music journalism (or music criticism) is media criticism and reporting about music topics, including popular music, classical music, and traditional music. Journal ...

Robert Christgau
, punk "scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of
hippie A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in UK English, was a member of the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The word ...

hippie
myth." Technical accessibility and a
do it yourself "Do it yourself" ("DIY") is the method of building, wikt:modification, modifying, or repairing things by themself without the direct aid of experts or professionals. Academic research has described DIY as behaviors where "individuals engage R ...
(DIY) spirit are prized in punk rock. UK pub rock from 1972 to 1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play.Laing, Dave. ''One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in Punk Rock''. PM Press, 2015. p. 18 Pub rock also introduced the idea of
independent record label An independent record label (or indie label) is a record label A record label, or record company, is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from thos ...
s, such as
Stiff Records Stiff Records is a British independent record label An independent record label (or indie label) is a record label that operates without the funding of major record labels; they are a type of small and medium-sized enterprise, small to mediu ...
, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands organized their own small venue tours and put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands. Musical virtuosity was often looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have very many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English
fanzine A fanzine ( of ' and ''magazine'' or ''-'') is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by of a particular cultural (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest. The term was coined in ...

fanzine
''Sideburns'' published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band". British punk rejected contemporary mainstream rock, the broader culture it represented, and their music predecessors: "No
Elvis Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor. Dubbed the " King of Rock and Roll", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century. His energized interpreta ...

Elvis
,
Beatles The Beatles were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compoun ...

Beatles
or
the Rolling Stones The Rolling Stones are an English band formed in London in 1962. Active for almost six decades, they are one of the most popular and enduring bands of the rock era. In the early 1960s, the Rolling Stones pioneered the gritty, heavier-drive ...

the Rolling Stones
in 1977", declared
the Clash The Clash were an English band formed in in 1976 who were key players in the original wave of British . Billed as "The Only Band That Matters", they also contributed to the and movements that emerged in the wake of punk and employed elemen ...
song "1977". 1976, when the punk revolution began in Britain, became a musical and a cultural "Year Zero".Reynolds (2005), p. 4. As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a
nihilistic Nihilism (; ) is a philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosop ...
attitude summed up by the
Sex Pistols The Sex Pistols were an English punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a compos ...

Sex Pistols
slogan "No Future"; in the later words of one observer, amid the unemployment and social unrest in 1977, "punk's nihilistic swagger was the most thrilling thing in England." While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as
Crass Crass were an English and band formed in in 1977, who promoted as a political ideology, a , and a . Crass popularised the movement of the , advocating , , , , and . The band used and advocated a approach to its albums, s, leaflets, and ...
, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer
Joe Strummer John Graham Mellor (21 August 1952 – 22 December 2002), better known as Joe Strummer, was a British musician, singer, songwriter, composer, actor, and radio host who was best known as the co-founder, lyricist, rhythm guitarist, and co-lead vo ...
's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."
Authenticity Authenticity or authentic may refer to: * Authentication, the act of confirming the truth of an attribute Arts and entertainment * Authenticity in art, ways in which a work of art or an artistic performance may be considered authentic Music * Au ...
has always been important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "
poseur A poseur is someone who poses for effect, or behaves affectedly, who affects a particular attitude, character or manner to impress others, or who pretends to belong to a particular group.
" is applied to those who adopt its stylistic attributes but do not to share or understand its underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult"; as the punk scene matured, he observes, eventually "everyone got called a poseur".


Musical and lyrical elements

The early punk bands emulated the minimal musical arrangements of 1960s
garage rock Garage rock (sometimes called garage punk or 60s punk) is a raw and energetic style of rock and roll that flourished in the mid-1960s, most notably in the United States and Canada, and has experienced a series of subsequent revivals. The styl ...
. Typical punk rock instrumentation is stripped down to one or two guitars, bass, drums and vocals. Songs tend to be shorter than those of other rock genres, and played at fast tempos. Most early punk rock songs retained a traditional rock 'n' roll verse-chorus form and 4/4
time signature The time signature (also known as meter signature, metre signature, or measure signature) is a notational convention used in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the U ...
. However, later bands often broke from this format. Blush, Steven, "Move Over My Chemical Romance: The Dynamic Beginnings of US Punk," '' Uncut'', January 2007. The vocals are sometimes nasal, and the lyrics often shouted in an "arrogant snarl", rather than conventionally sung.Shuker (2002), p. 159.Laing, Dave. ''One Chord Wonders: Power and Meaning in Punk Rock''. PM Press, 2015. p. 21 Complicated
guitar solo A guitar solo is a melodic A melody (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast E ...
s were considered self-indulgent, although basic guitar breaks were common. Guitar parts tend to include highly
distorted Distorted may refer to: * Anything subject to distortion * Distorted (band), a progressive deathdoom metal band from Bat-Yam, Israel * Distorted (EP), ''Distorted'' (EP), an extended play by the band Distorted * Distorted (film), ''Distorted'' (film ...
power chord A power chord (also fifth chord) is a colloquial name for a chord in guitar music, especially electric guitar An electric guitar is a guitar The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that typically has six string instrument, stri ...
s or
barre chord In music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the so ...

barre chord
s, creating a characteristic sound described by Christgau as a "buzzsaw drone". Some punk rock bands take a
surf rock Surf music (also called surf rock or surf pop) is rock music associated with surf culture, particularly as found in Southern California. It was especially popular from 1962 to 1964 in two major forms. The first is instrumental surf, distinguished ...
approach with a lighter, twangier guitar tone. Others, such as
Robert Quine Robert Wolfe Quine (December 30, 1942 – May 31, 2004) was an American guitarist. A native of Akron, Ohio Akron () is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Summit County, Ohio, Summit County. It is located ...
, lead guitarist of
the Voidoids Richard Hell and the Voidoids were an American punk rock band, formed in New York City in 1976 and fronted by Richard Hell, a former member of the Neon Boys, Television (band), Television and the Heartbreakers. History Kentucky-born Richard Hell ...
, have employed a wild, "
gonzo Gonzo may refer to: People * Gonzo (nickname), a list of people with the nickname * Radislav Jovanov Gonzo (born 1964), Croatian music video director Radislav Jovanov, also known as Gonzo * Matthias Röhr (born 1962), German musician whose stage ...
" attack, a style that stretches back through
the Velvet Underground The Velvet Underground was an American rock band formed in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2 ...
to the 1950s' recordings of
Ike Turner Izear Luster "Ike" Turner Jr. (November 5, 1931 – December 12, 2007) was an American musician, bandleader, songwriter, record producer, and A&R, talent scout. An early pioneer of 1950s rock and roll, he is best known for his work in the 1960s a ...
. Bass guitar lines are often uncomplicated; the quintessential approach is a relentless, repetitive "forced rhythm", although some punk rock bass players—such as
Mike Watt Michael David Watt (born December 20, 1957) is an American bassist A bassist, or bass player, is a musician who plays a bass instrument range. Image:Mozart k545 opening.svg, 300px, tones of low (also called "deep") frequency, pitch (musi ...
of the Minutemen and
Firehose A fire hose (or firehose) is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardant (such as Firefighting foam, foam) to a fire to extinguish it. Outdoors, it attaches either to a Firefighting apparatus, fire engine or a fire hydrant. In ...
—emphasize more technical bass lines. Bassists often use a pick due to the rapid succession of notes, making
fingerpicking Fingerstyle guitar is the technique of guitar picking, playing the guitar or bass guitar by plucking the strings directly with the fingertips, fingernails, or picks attached to fingers, as opposed to flatpicking (plucking individual notes with a ...
impractical. Drums typically sound heavy and dry, and often have a minimal set-up. Compared to other forms of rock,
syncopation Syncopation is a musical term meaning a variety of rhythms played together to make a piece of music, making part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat. More simply, syncopation is "a disturbance or interruption of the regular flow of rh ...
is much less the rule. Hardcore drumming tends to be especially fast. Production tends to be minimalistic, with tracks sometimes laid down on home tape recorders or four-track portastudios. Punk rock lyrics are typically blunt and confrontational; compared to the lyrics of other popular music genres, they often focus on social and political issues. Trend-setting songs such as the Clash's " Career Opportunities" and
Chelsea Chelsea or Chelsey may refer to: Places Australia * Chelsea, Victoria Canada * Chelsea, Nova Scotia * Chelsea, Quebec United Kingdom * Chelsea, London, an affluent area of South West London, bounded to the south by the River Thames ** Chelsea ...
's "Right to Work" deal with unemployment and the grim realities of urban life. Especially in early British punk, a central goal was to outrage and shock the mainstream. The Sex Pistols' " Anarchy in the U.K." and "
God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the national anthem, national or royal anthem in most Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown dependencies. The ...
" openly disparaged the British political system and social mores. Anti-sentimental depictions of relationships and sex are common, as in "Love Comes in Spurts", recorded by the Voidoids.
Anomie In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The ...
, variously expressed in the poetic terms of Hell's " Blank Generation" and the bluntness of the Ramones' " Now I Wanna Sniff Some Glue", is a common theme. The controversial content of punk lyrics led to some punk records being banned by radio stations and refused shelf space in major chain stores. Christgau said that "Punk is so tied up with the disillusions of growing up that punks do often age poorly."


Visual and other elements

The classic punk rock look among male American musicians harkens back to the T-shirt, motorcycle jacket, and jeans ensemble favored by American greasers of the 1950s associated with the
rockabilly Rockabilly is one of the earliest styles of rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to la ...
scene and by British rockers of the 1960s. In addition to the T-shirt, and leather jackets they wore ripped jeans and boots, typically Doc Martens. The punk look was inspired to shock people.
Richard Hell Richard Lester Meyers (born October 2, 1949), better known by his stage name Richard Hell, is an American singer, songwriter, bass guitarist and writer. Hell was in several important, early punk bands, including Neon Boys, Television T ...
's more androgynous, ragamuffin look—and reputed invention of the —was a major influence on Sex Pistols impresario
Malcolm McLaren Malcolm Robert Andrew McLaren (22 January 1946 – 8 April 2010) was an English impresario, visual artist, performer, musician, clothes designer and boutique owner, notable for combining these activities in an inventive and provocative way. ...
and, in turn, British punk style. ( John D Morton of Cleveland's Electric Eels may have been the first rock musician to wear a safety-pin-covered jacket.) McLaren's partner, fashion designer
Vivienne Westwood Dame Vivienne Isabel Westwood (née Swire; born 8 April 1941) is an English fashion designer and businesswoman, largely responsible for bringing modern Punk fashion, punk and New wave music, new wave fashions into the mainstream. Westwood came t ...
, credits Johnny Rotten as the first British punk to rip his shirt, and Sex Pistols bassist
Sid Vicious Simon John Ritchie (10 May 1957 – 2 February 1979), known professionally as Sid Vicious, was an English musician best known as the bassist for the punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional ...

Sid Vicious
as the first to use safety pins, although few of those following punk could afford to buy McLaren and Westwood's designs so famously worn by the Pistols, so they made their own, diversifying the 'look' with various different styles based on these designs. Young women in punk demolished the typical female types in rock of either "coy sex kittens or wronged blues belters" in their fashion. Early female punk musicians displayed styles ranging from
Siouxsie Sioux Susan Janet Ballion (born 27 May 1957), known professionally as Siouxsie Sioux, is an English singer, songwriter, musician and record producer. She is best known as the lead singer of the rock band Siouxsie and the Banshees Siouxsie and th ...

Siouxsie Sioux
's bondage gear to Patti Smith's "straight-from-the-gutter androgyny".Strohm (2004), p. 188. The former proved much more influential on female fan styles. Over time, tattoos, piercings, and metal-studded and -spiked accessories became increasingly common elements of
punk fashion Punk fashion is the clothing File:KangaSiyu1.jpg, A kanga (African garment), kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of ...
among both musicians and fans, a "style of adornment calculated to disturb and outrage". Among the other facets of the punk rock scene, a punk's hair is an important way of showing their freedom of expression. The typical male punk haircut was originally short and choppy; the
mohawkMohawk may refer to: Related to Native Americans *Mohawk people, an indigenous people of North America (Canada and New York) *Mohawk language, the language spoken by the Mohawk people *Mohawk hairstyle, from a hairstyle once thought to have been tr ...
later emerged as a characteristic style. Along with the mohawk, long spikes have been associated with the punk rock genre.


Precursors


Garage rock and beat

The early to mid-1960s garage rock bands in the United States and elsewhere are often recognized as punk rock's progenitors.
The Kingsmen The Kingsmen are a 1960s garage rock band from Portland, Oregon, United States. They are best known for their 1963 recording of Richard Berry's " Louie Louie", which held the No. 2 spot on the '' Billboard'' charts for six weeks and has ...
's "
Louie, Louie "Louie Louie" is a rhythm and blues Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African-American communities in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordin ...
" is often cited as punk rock's defining " ur-text". After the success of the
British Invasion The British Invasion was a cultural phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis' ...
, the garage phenomenon gathered momentum around the US. By 1965, the harder-edged sound of British acts, such as
the Rolling Stones The Rolling Stones are an English band formed in London in 1962. Active for almost six decades, they are one of the most popular and enduring bands of the rock era. In the early 1960s, the Rolling Stones pioneered the gritty, heavier-drive ...

the Rolling Stones
,
the Kinks The Kinks were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, ...
, and
the Who The Who are a British rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chem ...
, became increasingly influential with American garage bands. The raw sound of US groups such as
the Sonics The Sonics are an American garage rock Garage rock (sometimes called garage punk or 60s punk) is a raw and energetic style of rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a genre of pop ...
and
the Seeds The Seeds were an American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1965. The group became known for psychedelic rock music and is considered a prototype for garage punk rock bands. Formation The Seeds were formed in 1965 when lead sing ...
predicted the style of later acts. In the early 1970s some rock
critic A critic is a person who communicates an assessment and an opinion of various forms of creative works such as art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widesp ...
s used the term "punk rock" to refer to the mid-1960s garage genre, as well as for subsequent acts perceived to be in that stylistic tradition, such as the Stooges and others. In England, largely under the influence of the mod movement and beat groups, the Kinks' 1964 hit singles "
You Really Got Me "You Really Got Me" is a song written by Ray Davies for English rock band the Kinks The Kinks were an English rock band formed in Muswell Hill, north London, in 1964 by brothers Ray and Dave Davies. They are regarded as one of the mos ...
" and "
All Day and All of the Night "All Day and All of the Night" is a song by the English rock band the Kinks The Kinks were an English rock band formed in Muswell Hill, north London, in 1964 by brothers Ray and Dave Davies. They are regarded as one of the most influent ...
," were both influenced by "Louie, Louie". In 1965,
the Who The Who are a British rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chem ...
released the mod anthem, "
My Generation "My Generation" is a song by the English rock band the Who The Who are an English Rock music, rock band formed in London in 1964. Their classic lineup consisted of lead singer Roger Daltrey, guitarist and singer Pete Townshend, bass guitar ...
", which according to John Reed, anticipated the kind of "cerebral mix of musical ferocity and rebellious posture" that would characterize much of the later British punk rock of the 1970s. The garage/beat phenomenon extended beyond North America and Britain.


Proto-punk

In August 1969,
the Stooges The Stooges, originally billed as the Psychedelic Stooges, also known as Iggy and the Stooges, were an American Rock music, rock band formed in Ann Arbor, Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1967 by singer Iggy Pop, guitarist Ron Asheton, drummer S ...
, from
Ann Arbor ANN may refer to: Media * All Night Nippon (a.k.a. ''All Night'' and ''ANN'') is a Japanese Radio programming, radio program broadcast by Nippon Broadcasting System and other radio stations from 1–5 am (JST). It preempts broadcasts from ...

Ann Arbor
, premiered with a self-titled album. According to critic
Greil Marcus Greil Marcus (born June 19, 1945) is an American author, music journalist and cultural critic. He is notable for producing scholarly and literary essays that place rock music in a broader framework of culture and politics. Biography Marcus was ...
, the band, led by singer
Iggy Pop James Newell Osterberg Jr. (born April 21, 1947), known professionally as Iggy Pop, is an American musician, singer, and songwriter. Designated the " Godfather of Punk", he was the vocalist and lyricist of influential proto-punk Proto-punk ...

Iggy Pop
, created "the sound of
Chuck Berry Charles Edward Anderson Berry (October 18, 1926 – March 18, 2017) was an American singer, songwriter and guitarist who pioneered rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a genre ...

Chuck Berry
's
Airmobile Air assault is the movement of ground-based military forces by vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft—such as the helicopter—to seize and hold key terrain which has not been fully secured, and to directly engage enemy forces behind ene ...
—after thieves stripped it for parts". The album was produced by
John Cale John Davies Cale (born 9 March 1942) is a Welsh musician, composer, singer, songwriter and record producer who was a founding member of the American rock band the Velvet Underground. Over his six-decade career, Cale has worked in various styl ...

John Cale
, a former member of New York's experimental rock group
the Velvet Underground The Velvet Underground was an American rock band formed in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2 ...
, who inspired many of those involved in the creation of punk rock. The
New York Dolls The New York Dolls were an American rock music, rock band formed in New York City in 1971. Along with the Velvet Underground and the Stooges, they were one of the bands later credited as influences of the soon to be punk scene and performed twi ...

New York Dolls
updated 1950s' rock 'n' roll in a fashion that later became known as
glam punk Glam punk (sometimes called mock rock) is a term used retrospectively to describe a short lived trend for bands which produced a form of proto-punk Proto-punk (or protopunk) is the rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that ...
. The New York duo
Suicide Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition t ...
played spare, experimental music with a confrontational stage act inspired by that of the Stooges. In Boston,
the Modern Lovers The Modern Lovers were an American rock band led by Jonathan Richman in the 1970s and 1980s. The original band existed from 1970 to 1974 but their recordings were not released until 1976 or later. It featured Richman and bassist Ernie Brooks wi ...
, led by
Jonathan Richman Jonathan Michael Richman (born May 16, 1951) is an American singer, songwriter and guitarist. In 1970, he founded the Modern Lovers, an influential proto-punk Proto-punk (or protopunk) is the rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popul ...
, minimalistic style gained attention. In 1974, as well, the Detroit band
Death Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organi ...
—made up of three African-American brothers—recorded "scorching blasts of feral ur-punk," but could not arrange a release deal. In Ohio, a small but influential underground rock scene emerged, led by
Devo DEVO (, originally ) is an American rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical c ...

Devo
in
Akron Akron () is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in ...
and
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...
and by Cleveland's Electric Eels,
Mirrors A mirror is an object that reflects an image An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment (biophysical), environment thro ...
and
Rocket from the Tombs Rocket from the Tombs (or RFTT) is an American rock band originally active from mid-1974 to mid-1975 in Cleveland, Ohio Cleveland ( ), officially the City of Cleveland, is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cu ...
. Bands anticipating the forthcoming movement were appearing as far afield as
Düsseldorf Düsseldorf ( , , ; often in English sources; Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics'', University of California Press, 199 ...

Düsseldorf
, West Germany, where "punk before punk" band
Neu! Neu! (styled as ''NEU!'' in block capitals, german: New!, ) was a German band formed in Düsseldorf Düsseldorf (, , ; often in English sources; Low Franconian and Ripuarian language, Ripuarian: ''Düsseldörp'' ; archaic nl, Dusseldorp) i ...

Neu!
formed in 1971, building on the
Krautrock Krautrock (also called , German for ) is a broad genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it norma ...
tradition of groups such as Can. In Japan, the anti-establishment (Brain Police) mixed garage-psych and folk music, folk. The combo regularly faced censorship challenges, their live act at least once including onstage masturbation. A new generation of Australian garage rock bands, inspired mainly by the Stooges and
MC5 MC5 was an American rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical ...

MC5
, was coming closer to the sound that would soon be called "punk": In Brisbane, The Saints (Australian band), the Saints evoked the live sound of the British Pretty Things, who had toured Australia and New Zealand in 1975.


Etymology

Between the late 16th and the 18th centuries, punk was a common, coarse synonym for prostitute; William Shakespeare used it with that meaning in The Merry Wives of Windsor (1602) and Measure for Measure (1603-4). The term eventually came to describe "a young male hustler, a gangster, a hoodlum, or a ruffian". The first known use of the phrase punk rock appeared in the Chicago Tribune on March 22, 1970, attributed to Ed Sanders, cofounder of New York's anarcho-prankster band the Fugs. In the December 1970 issue of Creem, Lester Bangs, mocking more mainstream rock musicians, ironically referred to Iggy Pop as "that Stooge punk". Suicide's Alan Vega credits this usage with inspiring his duo to bill its gigs as a "punk mass" for the next couple of years. Greg Shaw was the first music critic to employ the term: In the April 1971 issue of ''Rolling Stone'', he refers to a track by The Guess Who as "good, not too imaginative, punk rock and roll". Dave Marsh used the term in the May 1971 issue of ''Creem'', where he described Question Mark & the Mysterians, ? and the Mysterians as giving a "landmark exposition of punk rock". Later in 1971, in his fanzine ''Bomp!, Who Put the Bomp'', Greg Shaw wrote about "what I have chosen to call "punkrock" bands—white teenage hard rock of '64–66 (Standells, Kingsmen, Shadows of Knight, etc.)". Lester Bangs used the term "punk rock" in several articles written in the early 1970s to refer to mid-1960s garage acts. In the liner notes of the 1972 anthology LP, ''Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965–1968, Nuggets'', musician and rock journalist Lenny Kaye, later a member of the Patti Smith Group, used the term "punk rock" to describe the genre of 1960s garage bands and "garage-punk," to describe a song recorded in 1966 by the Shadows of Knight.Houghton, Mick, "White Punks on Coke," ''Let It Rock''. December 1975. Nick Kent referred to
Iggy Pop James Newell Osterberg Jr. (born April 21, 1947), known professionally as Iggy Pop, is an American musician, singer, and songwriter. Designated the " Godfather of Punk", he was the vocalist and lyricist of influential proto-punk Proto-punk ...

Iggy Pop
as the "Punk Messiah of the Teenage Wasteland" in his review of
the Stooges The Stooges, originally billed as the Psychedelic Stooges, also known as Iggy and the Stooges, were an American Rock music, rock band formed in Ann Arbor, Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1967 by singer Iggy Pop, guitarist Ron Asheton, drummer S ...
July, 1972 performance at King’s Cross Cinema in London for a British magazine called Cream (no relation to the more famous US publication). In the January 1973 ''Rolling Stone'' review of ''Nuggets'', Greg Shaw commented "Punk rock is a fascinating genre... Punk rock at its best is the closest we came in the '60s to the original rockabilly spirit of Rock 'n Roll." In February 1973, Terry Atkinson of the ''Los Angeles Times'', reviewing the debut album by a hard rock band, Aerosmith, declared that it "achieves all that punk-rock bands strive for but most miss." A March 1973 review of an Iggy and the Stooges show in the Detroit Free Press dismissively referred to Pop as "the apothesis of Detroit punk music". In May 1973, Billy Altman launched the short-lived ''punk magazine'', which pre-dated the better-known 1975 publication of the same name, but, unlike the later magazine, was largely devoted to discussion of 1960s garage and psychedelic acts. – Laing mentions original "punk" magazine. He indicates that much "punk" fanfare in early 70s was in relation to mid-60s garage rock and artists perceived as following in that tradition. In May 1974, ''Los Angeles Times'' critic Robert Hilburn reviewed the second New York Dolls album, ''Too Much Too Soon (album), Too Much Too Soon''. "I told ya the New York Dolls were the real thing," he wrote, describing the album as "perhaps the best example of raw, thumb-your-nose-at-the-world, punk rock since
the Rolling Stones The Rolling Stones are an English band formed in London in 1962. Active for almost six decades, they are one of the most popular and enduring bands of the rock era. In the early 1960s, the Rolling Stones pioneered the gritty, heavier-drive ...

the Rolling Stones
' ''Exile on Main Street''." In a 1974 interview for his fanzine ''Heavy Metal Digest'' Danny Sugerman told
Iggy Pop James Newell Osterberg Jr. (born April 21, 1947), known professionally as Iggy Pop, is an American musician, singer, and songwriter. Designated the " Godfather of Punk", he was the vocalist and lyricist of influential proto-punk Proto-punk ...

Iggy Pop
"You went on record as saying you never were a punk" and Iggy replied "...well I ain't. I never was a punk." By 1975, ''punk'' was being used to describe acts as diverse as the Patti Smith Group, the Bay City Rollers, and Bruce Springsteen.Savage (1991), p. 131. As the scene at New York's CBGB club attracted notice, a name was sought for the developing sound. Club owner Hilly Kristal called the movement ''"Street rock"'';
John Holmstrom John Holmstrom (born 1954) is an American underground cartoonist and writer. He is best known for illustrating the covers of the Ramones albums '' Rocket to Russia'' and '' Road to Ruin'', as well as his characters Bosko and Joe (published in Sc ...

John Holmstrom
credits ''The Aquarian Weekly, Aquarian'' magazine with using ''punk'' "to describe what was going on at CBGBs". Holmstrom, Legs McNeil, and Ged Dunn's magazine ''
Punk Punk or punks may refer to: Genres, subculture, and related aspects * Punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s. Rooted in 1960s garage rock, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1 ...
'', which debuted at the end of 1975, was crucial in codifying the term. "It was pretty obvious that the word was getting very popular", Holmstrom later remarked. "We figured we'd take the name before anyone else claimed it. We wanted to get rid of the bullshit, strip it down to rock 'n' roll. We wanted the fun and liveliness back."


1974–1976: Early history


North America


New York City

The origins of New York's punk rock scene can be traced back to such sources as late 1960s trash culture and an early 1970s underground rock movement centered on the Mercer Arts Center in Greenwich Village, where the
New York Dolls The New York Dolls were an American rock music, rock band formed in New York City in 1971. Along with the Velvet Underground and the Stooges, they were one of the bands later credited as influences of the soon to be punk scene and performed twi ...

New York Dolls
performed. In early 1974, a new scene began to develop around the CBGB club, also in lower Manhattan. At its core was
Television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, and in two or 3D television, three dimensions and sound. The ...
, described by critic John Walker as "the ultimate garage band with pretensions".Walker (1991), p. 662. Their influences ranged from the Velvet Underground to the staccato guitar work of Dr. Feelgood (band), Dr. Feelgood's Wilko Johnson. The band's bassist/singer,
Richard Hell Richard Lester Meyers (born October 2, 1949), better known by his stage name Richard Hell, is an American singer, songwriter, bass guitarist and writer. Hell was in several important, early punk bands, including Neon Boys, Television T ...
, created a look with cropped, ragged hair, ripped T-shirts, and black leather jackets credited as the basis for punk rock visual style.Savage (1992), p. 89. In April 1974,
Patti Smith Patricia Lee Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American singer-songwriter, musician, author, and poet who became an influential component of the New York City punk rock movement with her 1975 debut album ''Horses (album), Horses''. Called ...

Patti Smith
came to CBGB for the first time to see the band perform. A veteran of independent theater and performance poetry, Smith was developing an intellectual, feminist take on rock 'n' roll. On June 5, she recorded the single "Hey Joe"/"Piss Factory", featuring Television guitarist Tom Verlaine; released on her own Mer Records label, it heralded the scene's DIY ethic and has often been cited as the first punk rock record. By August, Smith and Television were gigging together at Max's Kansas City. In Forest Hills, Queens, the
Ramones The Ramones were an American punk rock band that formed in the New York City neighborhood of Forest Hills, Queens, in 1974. They are often cited as the first true punk rock group. Despite achieving only limited commercial success initially, t ...
drew on sources ranging from the Stooges to the Beatles and the Beach Boys to Herman's Hermits and 1960s girl groups, and condensed rock 'n' roll to its primal level: 1-2-3-4!' bass-player Dee Dee Ramone shouted at the start of every song, as if the group could barely master the rudiments of rhythm." The band played its first show at CBGB in August 1974. By the end of the year, the Ramones had performed seventy-four shows, each about seventeen minutes long. "When I first saw the Ramones", critic Mary Harron later remembered, "I couldn't believe people were doing this. The dumb brattiness." That spring, Smith and Television shared a two-month-long weekend residency at CBGB that significantly raised the club's profile. The Television sets included Richard Hell's "Blank Generation", which became the scene's emblematic anthem. Soon after, Hell left Television and founded a band featuring a more stripped-down sound, the Heartbreakers, with former New York Dolls Johnny Thunders and Jerry Nolan. In August, Television recorded a single, "Little Johnny Jewel". In the words of John Walker, the record was "a turning point for the whole New York scene" if not quite for the punk rock sound itself—Hell's departure had left the band "significantly reduced in fringe aggression". Early in 1976, Hell left the Heartbreakers to form
the Voidoids Richard Hell and the Voidoids were an American punk rock band, formed in New York City in 1976 and fronted by Richard Hell, a former member of the Neon Boys, Television (band), Television and the Heartbreakers. History Kentucky-born Richard Hell ...
, described as "one of the most harshly uncompromising [punk] bands". That April, the Ramones' debut album was released by Sire Records; the first single was "Blitzkrieg Bop", opening with the rally cry "Hey! Ho! Let's go!" According to a later description, "Like all cultural watersheds, ''Ramones (album), Ramones'' was embraced by a discerning few and slagged off as a bad joke by the uncomprehending majority." Other New York venues apart from CBGB included the Lismar Lounge (41 First Avenue) and Aztec Lounge (9th Street). At this early stage, the term ''punk'' applied to the scene in general, not necessarily a particular stylistic approach as it would later—the early New York punk bands represented a broad variety of influences. Among them, the Ramones, the Heartbreakers, Richard Hell and the Voidoids, and the Dead Boys were establishing a distinct musical style. Even where they diverged most clearly, in lyrical approach—the Ramones' apparent guilelessness at one extreme, Hell's conscious craft at the other—there was an abrasive attitude in common. Their shared attributes of minimalism and speed, however, had not yet come to define punk rock.


United Kingdom

After a brief period unofficially managing the New York Dolls, Briton
Malcolm McLaren Malcolm Robert Andrew McLaren (22 January 1946 – 8 April 2010) was an English impresario, visual artist, performer, musician, clothes designer and boutique owner, notable for combining these activities in an inventive and provocative way. ...
returned to London in May 1975, inspired by the new scene he had witnessed at CBGB. The King's Road clothing store he co-owned, recently renamed Sex (boutique), Sex, was building a reputation with its outrageous "anti-fashion". Among those who frequented the shop were members of a band called the Strand, which McLaren had also been managing. In August, the group was seeking a new lead singer. Another Sex habitué, John Lydon, Johnny Rotten, auditioned for and won the job. Adopting a new name, the group played its first gig as the
Sex Pistols The Sex Pistols were an English punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a compos ...

Sex Pistols
on 6 November 1975, at Saint Martin's School of Art, and soon attracted a small but dedicated following. In February 1976, the band received its first significant press coverage; guitarist Steve Jones (musician), Steve Jones declared that the Sex Pistols were not so much into music as they were "chaos". The band often provoked its crowds into near-riots. Rotten announced to one audience, "Bet you don't hate us as much as we hate you!" McLaren envisioned the Sex Pistols as central players in a new youth movement, "hard and tough". As described by critic Jon Savage, the band members "embodied an attitude into which McLaren fed a new set of references: late-sixties radical politics, sexual fetish material, pop history, ... youth sociology". Bernard Rhodes, an associate of McLaren, similarly aimed to make stars of the band London SS, who became
the Clash The Clash were an English band formed in in 1976 who were key players in the original wave of British . Billed as "The Only Band That Matters", they also contributed to the and movements that emerged in the wake of punk and employed elemen ...
, which was joined by
Joe Strummer John Graham Mellor (21 August 1952 – 22 December 2002), better known as Joe Strummer, was a British musician, singer, songwriter, composer, actor, and radio host who was best known as the co-founder, lyricist, rhythm guitarist, and co-lead vo ...
. On 4 June 1976, the Sex Pistols played Manchester's Free Trade Hall, Lesser Free Trade Hall in what became one of the most influential rock shows ever. Among the approximately forty audience members were the two locals who organised the gig—they had formed
Buzzcocks Buzzcocks are an English punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition th ...

Buzzcocks
after seeing the Sex Pistols in February. Others in the small crowd went on to form Joy Division, The Fall (band), the Fall, and—in the 1980s—the Smiths. In July, the Ramones played two London shows that helped spark the nascent UK punk scene. Over the next several months, many new punk rock bands formed, often directly inspired by the Sex Pistols. In London, women were near the center of the scene—among the initial wave of bands were the female-fronted Siouxsie and the Banshees and X-Ray Spex and the all-female the Slits. There were female bassists Gaye Advert in the Adverts and Shanne Bradley in the Nipple Erectors, while Sex store frontwoman Pamela Rooke, Jordan not only managed Adam and the Ants but also performed screaming vocals on their song "Lou". Other groups included Subway Sect, Alternative TV, Wire (band), Wire, The Stranglers, Eater (band), Eater and Generation X (band), Generation X. Farther afield, Sham 69 began practicing in the southeastern town of Hersham. In Durham, England, Durham, there was Penetration (band), Penetration, with lead singer Pauline Murray. On September 20–21, the 100 Club Punk Festival in London featured the Sex Pistols, Clash, Damned and Buzzcocks, as well as Paris's female-lead Stinky Toys. Siouxsie and the Banshees and Subway Sect debuted on the festival's first night. On the festival's second night, audience member
Sid Vicious Simon John Ritchie (10 May 1957 – 2 February 1979), known professionally as Sid Vicious, was an English musician best known as the bassist for the punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional ...

Sid Vicious
was arrested having thrown a glass at the Damned that shattered and destroyed a girl's eye. Press coverage of the incident reinforced punk's reputation as a social menace. Some new bands, such as London's Ultravox, Ultravox!, Edinburgh's Rezillos, Manchester's the Fall, and Royal Leamington Spa, Leamington's The Shapes (British band), the Shapes, identified with the scene even as they pursued more experimental music. Others of a comparatively traditional rock 'n' roll bent were also swept up by the movement: the Vibrators, formed as a pub rock–style act in February 1976, soon adopted a punk look and sound. A few even longer-active bands including Surrey neo-mods the Jam and pub rockers Eddie and the Hot Rods, the Stranglers and Cock Sparrer also became associated with the punk rock scene. Alongside the musical roots shared with their American counterparts and the calculated confrontationalism of the early The Who, Who, the British punks also reflected the influence of glam rock and related artists and bands such as David Bowie, Slade, T. Rex (band), T.Rex, and Roxy Music. In October 1976, the Damned released the first UK punk rock band single, "New Rose". The Vibrators followed the next month with "We Vibrate". On 26 November 1976, the Sex Pistols' released their debut single " Anarchy in the U.K.", which succeeded in its goal of becoming a "national scandal". Jamie Reid's "anarchy flag" poster and his other design work for the Sex Pistols helped establish a distinctive Punk visual art, punk visual aesthetic.Pardo (2004), p. 245. On 1 December 1976, an incident took place that sealed punk rock's notorious reputation, when the Sex Pistols and several members of the Bromley Contingent, including
Siouxsie Sioux Susan Janet Ballion (born 27 May 1957), known professionally as Siouxsie Sioux, is an English singer, songwriter, musician and record producer. She is best known as the lead singer of the rock band Siouxsie and the Banshees Siouxsie and th ...

Siouxsie Sioux
and Steve Severin, filled a vacancy for Queen (band), Queen on the early evening Thames Television London television show ''Today (Thames Television series), Today'' to be interviewed by host Bill Grundy. When Sex Pistols guitarist Steve Jones was goaded by Grundy to "say something outrageous", Jones proceeded to call Grundy a "dirty bastard", a "dirty fucker" and a "fucking rotter" on live television, triggering a media controversy. Two days later, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned, and the Heartbreakers set out on the Anarchy Tour, a series of gigs throughout the UK. Many of the shows were cancelled by venue owners in response to the media outrage following the Grundy interview.


Australia

A punk subculture began in Australia around the same time, centered around Radio Birdman and the Oxford Tavern in Sydney's Darlinghurst suburb. By 1976, The Saints (Australian band), the Saints were hiring Brisbane Hall (concept)#Public halls, local halls to use as venues, or playing in "Club 76", their shared house in the inner suburb of Brisbane central business district, Petrie Terrace. The band soon discovered that musicians were exploring similar paths in other parts of the world. Ed Kuepper, co-founder of the Saints, later recalled:
One thing I remember having had a really depressing effect on me was the first Ramones album. When I heard it [in 1976], I mean it was a great record ... but I hated it because I knew we'd been doing this sort of stuff for years. There was even a chord progression on that album that we used ... and I thought, "Fuck. We're going to be labeled as influenced by the Ramones", when nothing could have been further from the truth.
In Perth, the The Manikins, Cheap Nasties formed in August. In September 1976, the Saints became the first punk rock band outside the U.S. to release a recording, the single "(I'm) Stranded (song), (I'm) Stranded". The band self-financed, packaged, and distributed the single. "(I'm) Stranded" had limited impact at home, but the British music press recognized it as groundbreaking.


1977–1978: Second wave

A second wave of punk rock emerged in 1977. These bands often sounded very different from each other.Reynolds (2005), p. 211. While punk remained largely an underground phenomenon in the US, in the UK it had become a major sensation.


North America

The Punk rock in California, California punk scene was fully developed by early 1977. In Los Angeles, there were: the Weirdos, The Zeros (American band), the Zeros, Bags (Los Angeles band), the Bags, Black Randy and the Metrosquad, Germs (band), the Germs, Fear (band), Fear, The Go-Go's, X (American band), X, the Dickies, and the relocated Tupperwares, now dubbed the Screamers. Black Flag (band), Black Flag, then-Panic, formed in Hermosa Beach in 1976. They developed a
hardcore punk Hardcore punk (often abbreviated to hardcore) is a punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to ...
sound and played their debut public performance in a garage in Redondo Beach, California, Redondo Beach in December 1977. San Francisco's second wave included Avengers (band), the Avengers, The Nuns, Negative Trend, The Mutants (band), the Mutants, and the Sleepers. By mid-1977 in downtown New York, bands such as Teenage Jesus and the Jerks led what became known as no wave. The Cramps, whose core members were from Sacramento, California by way of Akron, had debuted at CBGB in November 1976, opening for the Dead Boys. They were soon playing regularly at Max's Kansas City. The Misfits (band), Misfits formed in nearby New Jersey. Still developing what would become their signature B movie–inspired style, later dubbed horror punk, they made their first appearance at CBGB in April 1977. The Dead Boys' debut LP, ''Young, Loud and Snotty'', was released at the end of August. October saw two more debut albums from the scene: Richard Hell and the Voidoids' first full-length, ''Blank Generation (album), Blank Generation'', and the Heartbreakers' ''L.A.M.F.''{ One track on the latter exemplified both the scene's close-knit character and the popularity of heroin within it: "Chinese Rocks"—the title refers to a strong form of the drug—was written by Dee Dee Ramone and Hell, both users, as were the Heartbreakers' Thunders and Nolan. (During the Heartbreakers' 1976 and 1977 tours of Britain, Thunders played a central role in popularizing heroin among the punk crowd there, as well.) The Ramones' third album, ''Rocket to Russia'', appeared in November 1977.


United Kingdom

The
Sex Pistols The Sex Pistols were an English punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a compos ...

Sex Pistols
' live TV skirmish with Bill Grundy on December 1, 1976, was the signal moment in British punk's transformation into a major media phenomenon, even as some stores refused to stock the records and radio airplay was hard to come by. Press coverage of punk misbehavior grew intense: On January 4, 1977, ''The Evening News (London newspaper), The Evening News'' of London ran a front-page story on how the Sex Pistols "vomited and spat their way to an Amsterdam flight". In February 1977, the first album by a British punk band appeared: ''Damned Damned Damned'' (by the Damned) reached number thirty-six on the UK chart. The EP ''Spiral Scratch (EP), Spiral Scratch'', self-released by Manchester's
Buzzcocks Buzzcocks are an English punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition th ...

Buzzcocks
, was a benchmark for both the DIY ethic and regionalism in the country's punk movement. The Clash's The Clash (album), self-titled debut album came out two months later and rose to number twelve; the single "White Riot" entered the top forty. In May, the Sex Pistols achieved new heights of controversy (and number two on the singles chart) with "
God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the national anthem, national or royal anthem in most Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown dependencies. The ...
". The band had recently acquired a new bassist,
Sid Vicious Simon John Ritchie (10 May 1957 – 2 February 1979), known professionally as Sid Vicious, was an English musician best known as the bassist for the punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional ...

Sid Vicious
, who was seen as exemplifying the punk persona. The swearing during the Grundy interview and the controversy over "God Save the Queen" led to a moral panic. Scores of new punk groups formed around the United Kingdom, as far from London as Belfast's Stiff Little Fingers and Dunfermline, Scotland's the Skids. Though most survived only briefly, perhaps recording a small-label single or two, others set off new trends.
Crass Crass were an English and band formed in in 1977, who promoted as a political ideology, a , and a . Crass popularised the movement of the , advocating , , , , and . The band used and advocated a approach to its albums, s, leaflets, and ...
, from Essex, merged a vehement, straight-ahead punk rock style with a committed anarchist mission, and played a major role in the emerging
anarcho-punk Anarcho-punk (or anarchist punk) is punk rock that promotes anarchism. Some use the term broadly to refer to any punk music with anarchist lyrical content, which may figure in crust punk, hardcore punk, folk punk, and other styles. History Befo ...
movement. Sham 69, London's Menace, and the Angelic Upstarts from South Shields in the Northeast combined a similarly stripped-down sound with populist lyrics, a style that became known as street punk. These expressly working-class bands contrasted with others in the second wave that presaged the
post-punk Post-punk (originally called new musick) is a broad genre Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Eu ...
phenomenon. Liverpool's first punk group, Big in Japan (band), Big in Japan, moved in a glam, theatrical direction. The band did not survive long, but it spun off several well-known post-punk acts. The songs of London's Wire (band), Wire were characterized by sophisticated lyrics, minimalist arrangements, and extreme brevity. Alongside thirteen original songs that would define classic punk rock, the Clash's debut had included a cover of the recent Jamaican reggae hit "Police and Thieves". Other first wave bands such as the Slits and new entrants to the scene like the Ruts and the Police interacted with the reggae and ska subcultures, incorporating their rhythms and production styles. The punk rock phenomenon helped spark a full-fledged ska revival movement known as 2 Tone (music genre), 2 Tone, centered on bands such as the Specials, The Beat (British band), the Beat, Madness (band), Madness and the Selecter. In July, the Sex Pistols' third single, "Pretty Vacant", reached number six and Australia's the Saints had a top-forty hit with "This Perfect Day (song), This Perfect Day". In September, Generation X and the Clash reached the top forty with, respectively, "Your Generation" and "Complete Control". X-Ray Spex's "Oh Bondage Up Yours!" did not chart, but it became a requisite item for punk fans. The BBC banned "Oh Bondage Up Yours!" due to its controversial lyrics. In October, the Sex Pistols hit number eight with "Holidays in the Sun (song), Holidays in the Sun", followed by the release of their first and only "official" album, ''Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols''. Inspiring yet another round of controversy, it topped the British charts. In December, one of the first books about punk rock was published: ''The Boy Looked at Johnny'', by Julie Burchill and Tony Parsons (British journalist), Tony Parsons.


Australia

In February 1977, EMI released The Saints (Australian band), the Saints' debut album, ''(I'm) Stranded'', which the band recorded in two days. The Saints had relocated to Sydney; in April, they and Radio Birdman united for a major gig at Paddington Town Hall. Last Words (band), Last Words had also formed in the city. The following month, the Saints relocated again, to Great Britain. In June, Radio Birdman released the album ''Radios Appear'' on its own Trafalgar label.McFarlane (1999), p. 507.


1979–1984: Schism and diversification

By 1979, the
hardcore punk Hardcore punk (often abbreviated to hardcore) is a punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to ...
movement was emerging in Southern California. A rivalry developed between adherents of the new sound and the older punk rock crowd. Hardcore, appealing to a younger, more suburban audience, was perceived by some as anti-intellectual, overly violent, and musically limited. In Los Angeles, the opposing factions were often described as "Hollywood punks" and "beach punks", referring to Hollywood's central position in the original L.A. punk rock scene and to hardcore's popularity in the shoreline communities of South Bay, Los Angeles, South Bay and Orange County, California, Orange County. In contrast to North America, more of the bands from the original British punk movement remained active, sustaining extended careers even as their styles evolved and diverged. Meanwhile, the
Oi! Oi! is a subgenre of punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s. Rooted in 1960s garage rock, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, fast-pac ...
and
anarcho-punk Anarcho-punk (or anarchist punk) is punk rock that promotes anarchism. Some use the term broadly to refer to any punk music with anarchist lyrical content, which may figure in crust punk, hardcore punk, folk punk, and other styles. History Befo ...
movements were emerging. Musically in the same aggressive vein as American hardcore, they addressed different constituencies with overlapping but distinct anti-establishment messages. As described by Dave Laing, "The model for self-proclaimed punk after 1978 derived from the Ramones via the eight-to-the-bar rhythms most characteristic of the Vibrators and Clash. ... It became essential to sound one particular way to be recognized as a 'punk band' now." In February 1979, former Sex Pistols bassist Sid Vicious died of a heroin overdose in New York. If the Sex Pistols' breakup the previous year had marked the end of the original UK punk scene and its promise of cultural transformation, for many the death of Vicious signified that it had been doomed from the start. By the turn of the decade, the punk rock movement had split deeply along cultural and musical lines, leaving a variety of derivative scenes and forms. On one side were New wave music, new wave and post-punk artists; some adopted more accessible musical styles and gained broad popularity, while some turned in more experimental, less commercial directions. On the other side, hardcore punk, Oi!, and anarcho-punk bands became closely linked with underground cultures and spun off an array of cross-genre, subgenres. Somewhere in between, pop-punk groups created blends like that of the ideal record, as defined by Mekons cofounder Kevin Lycett: "a cross between ABBA, Abba and the Sex Pistols". A range of other styles emerged, many of them Fusion (music), fusions with long-established genres. The Clash album ''London Calling'', released in December 1979, exemplified the breadth of classic punk's legacy. Combining punk rock with reggae, ska, R&B, and rockabilly, it went on to be acclaimed as one of the best rock records ever. At the same time, as observed by Flipper singer Bruce Loose, the relatively restrictive hardcore scenes diminished the variety of music that could once be heard at many punk gigs. If early punk, like most rock scenes, was ultimately male-oriented, the hardcore and Oi! scenes were significantly more so, marked in part by the slam dancing and moshing with which they became identified.


New wave

In 1976—first in London, then in the United States—"New Wave" was introduced as a complementary label for the formative scenes and groups also known as "punk"; the two terms were essentially interchangeable. ''NME'' journalist Roy Carr is credited with proposing the term's use (adopted from the cinematic French New Wave of the 1960s) in this context. Over time, "new wave" acquired a distinct meaning: bands such as Blondie (band), Blondie and Talking Heads from the CBGB scene; the Cars, who emerged from the Rat in Boston; the Go-Go's in Los Angeles; and the Police in London that were broadening their instrumental palette, incorporating dance-oriented rhythms, and working with more polished production were specifically designated "new wave" and no longer called "punk". Dave Laing suggests that some punk-identified British acts pursued the new wave label in order to avoid radio censorship and make themselves more palatable to concert bookers. Bringing elements of punk rock music and fashion into more pop-oriented, less "dangerous" styles, new wave artists became very popular on both sides of the Atlantic. New wave became a catch-all term, encompassing disparate styles such as 2 Tone (music genre), 2 Tone ska, the mod revival inspired by the Jam, the sophisticated pop-rock of Elvis Costello and XTC, the New Romantic phenomenon typified by Ultravox, synthpop groups like Tubeway Army (which had started out as a straight-ahead punk band) and Human League, and the sui generis subversions of Devo, who had gone "beyond punk before punk even properly existed". New wave crossed into the mainstream with the debut of the cable television network MTV in 1981, which put many new wave videos into regular rotation.


Post-punk

During 1976–77, in the midst of the original UK punk movement, bands emerged such as Manchester's Joy Division, The Fall (band), the Fall, and Magazine (band), Magazine, Leeds' Gang of Four (band), Gang of Four, and London's the Raincoats that became central post-punk figures. Some bands classified as post-punk, such as Throbbing Gristle and Cabaret Voltaire (band), Cabaret Voltaire, had been active well before the punk scene coalesced; others, such as Siouxsie and the Banshees and the Slits, transitioned from punk rock into post-punk. A few months after the Sex Pistols' breakup, John Lydon (no longer "Rotten") cofounded Public Image Ltd. Lora Logic, formerly of X-Ray Spex, founded Essential Logic. Killing Joke formed in 1979. These bands were often musically experimental; the term "post-punk" is used to describe sounds that were more dark and abrasive—sometimes verging on the atonality, atonal, as with Subway Sect and Wire. The bands incorporated a range of influences ranging from Syd Barrett, Captain Beefheart, David Bowie to Roxy Music to
Krautrock Krautrock (also called , German for ) is a broad genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it norma ...
. Post-punk brought together a new fraternity of musicians, journalists, managers, and entrepreneurs; the latter, notably Geoff Travis of Rough Trade Records, Rough Trade and Tony Wilson of Factory Records, Factory, helped to develop the production and distribution infrastructure of the independent music, indie music scene that blossomed in the mid-1980s. Smoothing the edges of their style in the direction of new wave, several post-punk bands such as New Order (band), New Order and The Cure crossed over to a mainstream U.S. audience. Others, like Gang of Four, the Raincoats and Throbbing Gristle, who had little more than cult followings at the time, are seen in retrospect as significant influences on modern popular culture. Television's debut album ''Marquee Moon'', released in 1977, is frequently cited as a seminal album in the field. The no wave movement that developed in New York in the late 1970s, with artists such as Lydia Lunch and James Chance, is often treated as the phenomenon's U.S. parallel. The later work of Ohio protopunk pioneers Pere Ubu is also commonly described as post-punk. One of the most influential American post-punk bands was Boston's Mission of Burma, who brought abrupt rhythmic shifts derived from hardcore into a highly experimental musical context. In 1980, Australia's Boys Next Door moved to London and changed their name to The Birthday Party (band), the Birthday Party, which evolved into Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. Led by the Primitive Calculators, Melbourne's Little band scene, Little Band scene further explored the possibilities of post-punk. The original post-punk bands were highly influential on 1990s and 2000s
alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of that emerged from the underground of the 1970s and became widely popular in the 1990s. "Alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from ...
musicians.


Hardcore

A distinctive style of punk, characterized by superfast, aggressive beats, screaming (music), screaming vocals, and often politically aware lyrics, began to emerge in 1978 among bands scattered around the United States and Canada. The first major scene of what came to be known as hardcore punk developed in Southern California in 1978–79, initially around such punk bands as the Germs and Fear (band), Fear. The movement soon spread around North America and internationally. According to author Steven Blush, "Hardcore comes from the bleak suburbs of America. Parents moved their kids out of the cities to these horrible suburbs to save them from the 'reality' of the cities and what they ended up with was this new breed of monster". Among the earliest hardcore bands, regarded as having made the first recordings in the style, were Southern California's Middle Class (band), Middle Class and Black Flag (band), Black Flag.Blush (2001), p. 17 Bad Brains — all of whom were black, a rarity in punk of any era — launched the Washington, D.C. hardcore, D.C. scene with their rapid-paced single "Pay to Cum" in 1980.Andersen and Jenkins (2001). Austin, Texas's Big Boys, San Francisco's Dead Kennedys, and Vancouver's D.O.A. (band), D.O.A. and were among the other initial hardcore groups. They were soon joined by bands such as the Minutemen (band), Minutemen, Descendents (band), Descendents, and Circle Jerks in Southern California; D.C.'s
Minor Threat Minor Threat was an American hardcore punk band, formed in 1980 in Washington, D.C. by vocalist Ian MacKaye and drummer Jeff Nelson. MacKaye and Nelson had played in several other bands together, and recruited bassist Brian Baker and guitari ...

Minor Threat
and State of Alert; and Austin's MDC (band), MDC. By 1981, hardcore was the dominant punk rock style not only in California, but much of the rest of North America as well. A New York hardcore scene grew, including the relocated Bad Brains, New Jersey's Misfits (band), Misfits and Adrenalin O.D., and local acts such as The Mob (American hardcore band), the Mob, Reagan Youth, and Agnostic Front. Beastie Boys, who would become famous as a hip-hop group, debuted that year as a hardcore band. They were followed by the Cro-Mags, Murphy's Law (band), Murphy's Law, and Leeway (band), Leeway. By 1983, Minneapolis hardcore, St. Paul's Hüsker Dü, Willful Neglect, Chicago's Naked Raygun, Indianapolis's Zero Boys, and D.C.'s The Faith (American band), the Faith were taking the hardcore sound in experimental and ultimately more melodic directions. Hardcore would constitute the American punk rock standard throughout the decade. The lyrical content of hardcore songs is often critical of commercial culture and middle-class values, as in Dead Kennedys' celebrated "Holiday in Cambodia" (1980).Van Dorston, A.S.
"A History of Punk"
fastnbulbous.com, January 1990. Retrieved on December 30, 2006.
Straight edge bands like Minor Threat, Boston hardcore, Boston's SS Decontrol, and Reno, Nevada's 7 Seconds (band), 7 Seconds rejected the self-destructive lifestyles of their peers, and built a movement based on positivity and abstinence from cigarettes, alcohol, drugs, and casual sex. Skate punk innovators pointed in other directions: including Venice, California's Suicidal Tendencies who had a formative effect on the heavy metal music, heavy metal–influenced crossover thrash style. Toward the middle of the decade, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles, D.R.I spawned the superfast thrashcore genre.


Oi!

Following the lead of first-wave British punk bands Cock Sparrer and Sham 69, in the late 1970s second-wave groups like Cockney Rejects, Angelic Upstarts,
the Exploited The Exploited are a Scottish punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s. Rooted in 1960s garage rock, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, f ...
, and the 4-Skins sought to realign punk rock with a working class, street-level following. They believed the music needed to stay "accessible and unpretentious", in the words of music historian Simon Reynolds. Their style was originally called "real punk" or street punk; ''Sounds (magazine), Sounds'' journalist Garry Bushell is credited with labelling the genre ''Oi!'' in 1980. The name is partly derived from the Cockney Rejects' habit of shouting "Oi! Oi! Oi!" before each song, instead of the time-honored "1,2,3,4!" The Oi! movement was fueled by a sense that many participants in the early punk rock scene were, in the words of The Business (band), the Business guitarist Steve Kent, "trendy university people using long words, trying to be artistic ... and losing touch". According to Bushell, "Punk was meant to be of the voice of the dole queue, and in reality most of them were not. But Oi was the reality of the punk mythology. In the places where [these bands] came from, it was harder and more aggressive and it produced just as much quality music." Lester Bangs described Oi! as "politicized football chants for unemployed louts". One song in particular, the Exploited's "Punks Not Dead", spoke to an international constituency. It was adopted as an anthem by the groups of disaffected Mexican urban youth known in the 1980s as ''bandas''; one ''banda'' named itself PND, after the song's initials. Although most Oi! bands in the initial wave were apolitical or left wing, many of them began to attract a white power skinhead following. Racist skinheads sometimes disrupted Oi! concerts by shouting fascist slogans and starting fights, but some Oi! bands were reluctant to endorse criticism of their fans from what they perceived as the "middle-class establishment".Fleischer, Tzvi
"Sounds of Hate"
. Australia/Israel & Jewish Affairs Council (AIJAC), August 2000. Retrieved on January 14, 2007.
In the popular imagination, the movement thus became linked to the far right. ''Strength Thru Oi!'', an album compiled by Bushell and released in May 1981, stirred controversy, especially when it was revealed that the belligerent figure on the cover was a Neo-Nazism, neo-Nazi jailed for racist violence (Bushell claimed ignorance). On July 3, a concert at Hamborough Tavern in Southall featuring the Business, the 4-Skins, and the Last Resort was firebombed by local Asian youths who believed that the event was a neo-Nazi gathering. Following the Southall riot, press coverage increasingly associated Oi! with the extreme right, and the movement soon began to lose momentum.Robb (2006), p. 511.


Anarcho-punk

Anarcho-punk developed alongside the Oi! and American hardcore movements. Inspired by
Crass Crass were an English and band formed in in 1977, who promoted as a political ideology, a , and a . Crass popularised the movement of the , advocating , , , , and . The band used and advocated a approach to its albums, s, leaflets, and ...
, its Dial House, Essex, Dial House commune, and its independent Crass Records label, a scene developed around British bands such as Subhumans (British band), Subhumans, Flux of Pink Indians, Conflict (band), Conflict, Poison Girls, and The Apostles (band), the Apostles that was as concerned with anarchist and DIY principles as it was with music. The acts featured ranting vocals, discordant instrumental sounds, primitive production values, and lyrics filled with political and social content, often addressing issues such as class inequalities and military violence.Gosling (2004), p. 170. Anarcho-punk disdained the older punk scene from which theirs had evolved. In historian Tim Gosling's description, they saw "safety pins and Mohicans as little more than ineffectual fashion posturing stimulated by the mainstream media and industry. ... Whereas the Sex Pistols would proudly display bad manners and opportunism in their dealings with 'the establishment,' the anarcho-punks kept clear of 'the establishment' altogether". The movement spun off several subgenres of a similar political bent. Discharge (band), Discharge, founded back in 1977, established D-beat in the early 1980s. Other groups in the movement, led by Amebix and Antisect, developed the extreme style known as crust punk. Several of these bands rooted in anarcho-punk such as the Varukers, Discharge, and Amebix, along with former Oi! groups such as
the Exploited The Exploited are a Scottish punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre that emerged in the mid-1970s. Rooted in 1960s garage rock, punk bands rejected the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. They typically produced short, f ...
and bands from farther afield like Birmingham's Charged GBH, became the leading figures in the UK 82 hardcore movement. The anarcho-punk scene also spawned bands such as Napalm Death, Carcass (band), Carcass, and Extreme Noise Terror that in the mid-1980s defined grindcore, incorporating extremely fast tempos and death metal–style guitarwork. Led by Dead Kennedys, a U.S. anarcho-punk scene developed around such bands as Austin's MDC (band), MDC and Southern California's Another Destructive System.


Pop punk

With their love of the Beach Boys and late 1960s bubblegum pop, the Ramones paved the way to what became known as pop punk. In the late 1970s, UK bands such as
Buzzcocks Buzzcocks are an English punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition th ...

Buzzcocks
and the Undertones combined Pop music, pop-style tunes and lyrical themes with punk's speed and chaotic edge. In the early 1980s, some of the leading bands in Southern California's hardcore punk rock scene emphasized a more melodic approach than was typical of their peers. According to music journalist Ben Myers, Bad Religion "layered their pissed off, politicized sound with the smoothest of harmonies"; Descendents (band), Descendents "wrote almost surfy, Beach Boys-inspired songs about girls and food and being young(ish)". Epitaph Records, founded by Brett Gurewitz of Bad Religion, was the base for many future pop punk bands. The mainstream pop punk of latter-day bands such as Blink-182 is criticized by many punk rock fans; in critic Christine Di Bella's words, "It's punk taken to its most accessible point, a point where it barely reflects its lineage at all, except in the three-chord song structures."


Other fusions and directions

From 1977 on, punk rock crossed lines with many other popular music genres. Los Angeles punk rock bands laid the groundwork for a wide variety of styles: the Flesh Eaters with deathrock; the Plugz with Chicano punk; and Gun Club with punk blues. The Meteors, from South London, and the Cramps were innovators in the psychobilly fusion style. Milwaukee's Violent Femmes jumpstarted the American folk punk scene, while the Pogues did the same on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic. Other artists to fuse elements of folk music into punk included R.E.M. and the Proclaimers.


Legacy and later developments


Alternative rock

The underground punk rock movement inspired countless bands that either evolved from a punk rock sound or brought its outsider spirit to very different kinds of music. The original punk explosion also had a long-term effect on the music industry, spurring the growth of the independent sector. During the early 1980s, British bands like New Order (band), New Order and the Cure that straddled the lines of post-punk and new wave developed both new musical styles and a distinctive industrial niche. Though commercially successful over an extended period, they maintained an underground-style, subculture, subcultural identity. In the United States, bands such as Hüsker Dü and their Minneapolis protégés The Replacements (band), the Replacements bridged the gap between punk rock genres like hardcore and the more melodic, explorative realm of what was then called "college rock". In 1985, ''Rolling Stone'' declared that "Primal punk is passé. The best of the American punk rockers have moved on. They have learned how to play their instruments. They have discovered melody, guitar solos and lyrics that are more than shouted political slogans. Some of them have even discovered the Grateful Dead." By the mid-to-late 1980s, these bands, who had largely eclipsed their punk rock and post-punk forebears in popularity, were classified broadly as
alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of that emerged from the underground of the 1970s and became widely popular in the 1990s. "Alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from ...
. Alternative rock encompasses a diverse set of styles—including indie rock, gothic rock, dream pop, shoegazing, shoegaze, and grunge, among others—unified by their debt to punk rock and their origins outside of the musical mainstream. As American alternative bands like Sonic Youth, which had grown out of the no wave scene, and Boston's Pixies (band), Pixies started to gain larger audiences, major labels sought to capitalize on the underground market. In 1991, Nirvana (band), Nirvana emerged from Washington State's underground, DIY grunge scene; after recording their first album, ''Bleach (Nirvana album), Bleach'' in 1989 for about $600, the band achieved huge (and unexpected) commercial success with its second album, ''Nevermind''. The band's members cited punk rock as a key influence on their style. "Punk is musical freedom", wrote frontman Kurt Cobain. "It's saying, doing, and playing what you want." Nirvana's success opened the door to mainstream popularity for a wide range of other "left-of-the-dial" acts, such as Pearl Jam and Red Hot Chili Peppers, and fueled the alternative rock boom of the early and mid-1990s.


Queercore

In the 1990s, the queercore movement developed around a number of punk bands with gay, lesbian, bisexual, or genderqueer members such as God Is My Co-Pilot (band), God Is My Co-Pilot, Pansy Division, Team Dresch, and Sister George. Inspired by openly gay punk musicians of an earlier generation such as Jayne County, Phranc, and Randy Turner, and bands like Nervous Gender, the Screamers, and Coil (band), Coil, queercore embraces a variety of punk and other alternative music styles. Queercore lyrics often treat the themes of prejudice, sexual identity, gender identity, and individual rights. The movement has continued into the 21st century, supported by festivals such as Queeruption.


Riot grrrl

The riot grrrl movement, a significant aspect in the formation of the Third Wave feminist movement, was organized by taking the values and rhetoric of punk and using it to convey feminist messages. In 1991, a concert of female-led bands at the International Pop Underground Convention in Olympia, Washington, heralded the emerging riot grrrl phenomenon. Billed as "Love Rock Revolution Girl Style Now", the concert's lineup included Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Heavens to Betsy, L7 (band), L7, and Mecca Normal. The riot grrrl movement foregrounded feminist concerns and progressive politics in general; the DIY ethic and fanzines were also central elements of the scene. This movement relied on media and technology to spread their ideas and messages, creating a cultural-technological space for feminism to voice their concerns. They embodied the punk perspective, taking the anger and emotions and creating a separate culture from it. With riot grrrl, they were grounded in girl punk past, but also rooted in modern feminism. Tammy Rae Carbund, from Mr. Lady Records, explains that without riot grrrl bands, "[women] would have all starved to death culturally." Singer-guitarists Corin Tucker of Heavens to Betsy and Carrie Brownstein of Excuse 17, bands active in both the queercore and riot grrrl scenes, cofounded the indie/punk band Sleater-Kinney in 1994. Bikini Kill's lead singer, Kathleen Hanna, the iconic figure of riot grrrl, moved on to form the art punk group Le Tigre in 1998.


Pop-punk and mainstream success

Late 1970s punk music was anti-conformity and anti-mainstream, and achieved limited commercial success. By the 1990s, punk rock was sufficiently ingrained in Western culture that punk trappings were often used to market highly commercial bands as "rebels". Marketers capitalized on the style and hipness of punk rock to such an extent that a 1993 ad campaign for an automobile, the Subaru Impreza, claimed that the car was "like punk rock". In 1993, California's Green Day and Bad Religion were both signed to major labels. The next year, Green Day put out ''Dookie,'' which sold nine million albums in the United States in just over two years.See, e.g.
Searchable Database—Gold and Platinum
, RIAA. Retrieved on December 2, 2007.
Bad Religion's ''Stranger than Fiction (Bad Religion album), Stranger Than Fiction'' was certified RIAA certification, gold. Other California punk bands on the independent label Epitaph Records, Epitaph, run by Bad Religion guitarist Brett Gurewitz, also began achieving mainstream popularity. In 1994, Epitaph released ''Let's Go (Rancid album), Let's Go'' by Rancid (band), Rancid, ''Punk in Drublic'' by NOFX, and ''Smash (The Offspring album), Smash'' by the Offspring, each eventually certified gold or better. That June, Green Day's "Longview (song), Longview" reached number one on ''Billboard''s Alternative Songs, Modern Rock Tracks chart and became a top forty airplay hit, arguably the first ever American punk song to do so; just one month later, the Offspring's "Come Out and Play (The Offspring song), Come Out and Play" followed suit. MTV and radio stations such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM played a major role in these bands' crossover success, though NOFX refused to let MTV air its videos.Gold, Jonathan. "The Year Punk Broke." ''SPIN''. November 1994. Following the lead Boston's The Mighty Mighty Bosstones, Mighty Mighty Bosstones and Anaheim, California, Anaheim's No Doubt, ska punk and ska-core became widely popular in the mid-1990s. ''...And Out Come the Wolves'', the 1995 album by Rancid became the first record in the ska revival to be certified gold; Sublime's Sublime (album), self-titled 1996 album was certified platinum early in 1997. In Australia, two popular groups, skatecore band Frenzal Rhomb and pop punk act Bodyjar, also established followings in Japan. Green Day and ''Dookie''s enormous sales paved the way for a host of bankable North American pop punk bands in the following decade. With punk rock's renewed visibility came concerns among some in the punk community that the music was being co-opted by the mainstream. They argued that by signing to major labels and appearing on MTV, punk bands like Green Day were buying into a system that punk was created to challenge. Such controversies have been part of the punk culture since 1977, when the Clash were widely accused of "selling out" for signing with Columbia Records, CBS Records. The Vans Warped Tour and the mall chain store Hot Topic brought punk even further into the U.S. mainstream. The Offspring's 1998 album ''Americana (The Offspring album), Americana'', released by the major Columbia Records, Columbia label, debuted at number two on the album chart. A bootleg MP3 of ''Americana'' first single, "Pretty Fly (for a White Guy)", made it onto the Internet and was downloaded a record 22 million times—illegally. The following year, ''Enema of the State'', the first major-label release by pop punk band Blink-182, reached the top ten and sold four million copies in under twelve months. On February 19, 2000, the album's second single, "All the Small Things", peaked at number 6 on the Billboard Hot 100, ''Billboard'' Hot 100. While they were viewed as Green Day "acolytes",Spitz (2006), p. 144. critics also found teen pop acts such as Britney Spears, the Backstreet Boys, and 'N Sync suitable points of comparison for Blink-182's sound and market niche. The band's ''Take Off Your Pants and Jacket'' (2001) and ''Blink-182 (album), Untitled'' (2003) respectively rose to numbers one and three on the album chart. In November 2003, ''The New Yorker'' described how the "giddily puerile" act had "become massively popular with the mainstream audience, a demographic formerly considered untouchable by punk-rock purists." Other new North American pop punk bands, though often critically dismissed, also achieved major sales in the first decade of the 2000s. Ontario's Sum 41 reached the Canadian top ten with its 2001 debut album, ''All Killer No Filler'', which eventually went platinum in the United States. The record included the number one U.S. Alternative hit "Fat Lip", which incorporated verses of what one critic called "brat rap." Elsewhere around the world, "psychobilly, punkabilly" band the Living End became major stars in Australia with their The Living End (The Living End album), self-titled 1998 debut. The effect of commercialization on the music became an increasingly contentious issue. As observed by scholar Ross Haenfler, many punk fans 'despise corporate punk rock', typified by bands Sum 41 and Blink 182.Haenfler (2006), p. 12.


See also

*Women in punk rock


Notes


References


Sources

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External links


Fales Library of NYU Downtown Collection
archival collection with the personal papers of NYC punk figures.

1990 essay by rock critic A.S. Van Dorston
"We Have to Deal With It: Punk England Report"
by
Robert Christgau Robert Thomas Christgau (; born April 18, 1942) is an American music journalist Music journalism (or music criticism) is media criticism and reporting about music topics, including popular music, classical music, and traditional music. Journal ...

Robert Christgau
, ''Village Voice'', January 9, 1978
Black Punk Time: Blacks in Punk, New Wave and Hardcore 1976-1984 by James Porter and Jake Austen and many other contributors Roctober Magazine 2002

Southend Punk Rock History 1976 - 1986, a detailed site containing information on the Punk Rock explosion as experienced by Southend-on-Sea, Essex, UK
{{DEFAULTSORT:Punk Rock Punk rock, Culture of New York City Musical subcultures Anarchist culture Youth culture in the United Kingdom Youth culture in the United States 1960s neologisms 1970s fads and trends 1980s fads and trends 1990s fads and trends 2000s fads and trends 1970s in music 1980s in music 1990s in music 2000s in music 20th-century music genres 21st-century music genres Music of California Music of New York City Punk American rock music genres British rock music genres