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A public university or public college is a
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
or
college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...

college
that is in
state ownership State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a clo ...
or receives significant
public funds Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments. In national income accounting A variety of measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate total economic activit ...
through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a
private university Private universities and private colleges are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks Tax break also known as tax preferences, tax concession, and tax relief. Tax breaks are a method of reduction the tax liability ...
. Whether a
national university A national university is mainly a university created or managed by a government, but which may also at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. Some national universities are associated with national cultural or po ...
is considered public varies from one country (or region) to another, largely depending on the specific education landscape.


Africa


Egypt

In Egypt,
Al-Azhar University Al-Azhar University ( ; ar, 1=جامعة الأزهر (الشريف), , "the (honorable) University of Al-Azhar") is a university in Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an et ...
was founded in 970 AD as a
madrasa Madrasa (, also , ; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental cou ...

madrasa
, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961. It was followed by many universities that opened as public universities in the 20th century, such as
Cairo University Cairo University ( ar, جامعة القاهرة, Gām‘et El Qāhira), known as the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, and King Fuad I Fuad I ( ar, فؤاد الأول ''Fu’ād al-Awwal''; tr, I. Fuad or Ahmed Fuad Paşa; 26 March 1 ...

Cairo University
(1908),
Alexandria University Alexandria University ( ar, جامعة الإسكندرية) is a public university in Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexand ...

Alexandria University
(1912),
Assiut University Assiut University is a university located in Assiut, Egypt. It was established in October 1957 as the first university in Upper Egypt. Statistics Faculty members: 2,442 Assistant lecturers and demonstrators: 1,432 Administrative staff: 11,686 Oth ...
(1928),
Ain Shams University Ain Shams University ( ar, جامعة عين شمس) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or c ...

Ain Shams University
(1957),
Helwan University Helwan University is a public university based in Helwan, Egypt, which is part of Greater Cairo. It comprises 21 faculties as well as 50 research centers and productive units which connect the university with the problems of the Egyptian society. ...
(1959),
Beni-Suef University Beni Suef University is an institution of higher education located in Beni Suef Beni Suef ( ar, بني سويف ') is the capital city of the Beni Suef Governorate in Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt ...
(1963),
Zagazig University Zagazig University ( ar, جامعة الزقازيق) is a public university located in the city of Zagazig, Egypt. Notable alumni *Dalal Abdel Aziz – actress *Ayman Al-Hendy – academic, scientist *Muntaser Ibrahim – geneticist See also ...
(1974), Benha University (1976), Suez Canal University (1989), where the government subsidizes tuition fees.


Kenya

In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students enroll after completing the 8-4-4 system and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS) receive government sponsorship. The government provides part of their university or college fees. Students are also eligible for a low-interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. However, students must pay back the loan after completing higher education.


Nigeria

In Nigeria, both the federal government and state governments may establish universities.


South Africa

South Africa has 26 public tertiary educational institutions, categorised as traditional or comprehensive universities (providing theoretical and vocational training).


Tunisia

In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all public universities. For some universities, the Ministry of Higher Education coordinates with other ministries such as the Ministry of Public Health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Tunisian public universities guarantee admission after a student earns a
Tunisian Baccalaureate The Tunisian Baccalaureate, or Examen National du Baccalauréat, is a standardized test A standardized test is a test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' ...
. Universities classify students according to a formula score based on their results in the baccalaureate. Then, the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated to orientation. Thus, the high-ranking students get priority to choose.


Americas


Argentina

In
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, the
national universities A national university is mainly a university created or managed by a government, but which may also at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. Some national universities are associated with national cultural or po ...
, also called "public or state-run universities", are all those institutions whose creation arose from the enactment of a National Congress Act, except for those whose creation preceded that of the state itself (as is the case of the
National University of Córdoba The National University of Córdoba ( es, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba,) is an institution of higher education in the city of Córdoba, Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a ...
and the
University of Buenos Aires The University of Buenos Aires ( es, Universidad de Buenos Aires, UBA) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An o ...
). They are Public Law legal entities. The Argentinian government determines the universities' regular operating funding through the annual national budget act. National universities hold the largest share of the entire Argentine university system: with over 80% of the undergraduate population and with campuses stretched throughout all provinces comprising the national territory, they account for over 50% of the country's scientific research while additionally providing technical assistance to both the public and private sectors. Public universities are free (students pay no fee during their studies), as is access to university libraries' books. However, students typically must purchase books and studying materials, such as photocopies of common books. Various scholarships are available for low-income students.


Brazil

In Brazil, the federal or state governments fund a few hundred public universities, including the country's most renowned universities, such as the University of São Paulo,
University of Campinas A university () is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic. He spent more than half a cen ...
,
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul The Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul ( pt, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS) is a Brazilian public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indi ...
,
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro or University of Brazil (UFRJ; pt, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro or ') is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information ...
,
Federal University of Minas Gerais The Federal University of Minas Gerais ( pt, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG) is a federalIn the Brazilian Higher Education context, ''Federal'' does not mean ''collegiate'' (even though most Federal Universities in Brazil enjoy a sim ...
,
Federal University of Bahia The Federal University of Bahia ( pt, Universidade Federal da Bahia, UFBA) is a public university located mainly in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Salvador. It is the largest university in the state of Bahia and one of Brazil's most prestigious ed ...
, and the Federal Institutes. Professors are public servants, primarily tenured and selected by public contests, where international research publications are a significant hiring criterion. Public university professors' teaching load is usually modest and leaves time for research. In contrast, most private institutions are for-profit enterprises that hire teachers on an hourly basis and conduct comparatively little research; notable exceptions are certain private but non-profit universities, mostly affiliated with religious organizations, such as the
Mackenzie Presbyterian University Mackenzie Presbyterian University (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie'') is a private university in São Paulo, Brazil. The Mackenzie Presbyterian University is an institution of higher learning that has strong ...
of São Paulo and the
Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro The Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro ( pt, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio) is a Society of Jesus, Jesuit, Roman Catholic, Catholic, pontifical university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is the joint r ...
. Public universities are responsible for granting nearly all the graduate degrees in Brazil, such as doctorates and masters (called in Portuguese, respectively, "doutorado" and "mestrado"). These public university graduate programs are also the primary source of Brazilian academic research. The Brazilian Federal Constitution establishes the right to attend public universities free of tuition or entrance fees. However, because public universities have thousands of applicants annually, only the best students can pass the entrance examinations, being either the
vestibular The Vestibular (from pt, vestíbulo, "entrance hall") is a competitive examination A test or examination (exam or evaluation) is an educational assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or ...
(a specific test for each university) or the country-wide ENEM. At many universities, there are quotas for students whose secondary (high school) education was made entirely in a public-funded school (generally, the quota is 50%). There are also racial quotas but they are usually restricted to students from public high schools. Some universities, like UFMG, the largest federal university in Brazil, give extra points in their admission tests instead of quotas. In UFMG, a public high school student is granted a 10% bonus over their test grade if they previously agreed to receive this advantage. Public school students who declare themselves black or "pardo" (mixed-race) have a 15% bonus if they previously agreed to receive race-based benefits. In recent years public-funded higher education has grown. Since 2005, the Brazilian government has offered a limited number of tuition grants to enable students experiencing poverty to attend private universities.


Canada

In Canada, education is a
constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated ...
responsibility of the individual
provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
. Many early universities were privately endowed (e.g.,
McGill McGill is a surname of Scottish and Irish origin, from which the names of many places and organizations are derived. It may refer to: People * McGill (surname) McGill, MacGill, Macgill or Magill is a Scottish and Irish surname, an Anglicisation o ...
) or founded by church denominations (e.g., Laval, Saint Mary's, Queen's, Dalhousie,
Mount Allison Mount Allison is a peak of the Diablo Range, located in the East Bay southeast of Fremont, California, Fremont, California. Geography Mount Allison is part of a ridge that also includes Mission Peak and Monument Peak (Milpitas, California), Mo ...
, McMaster,
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are ...
) but in the 20th century became publicly funded and secular. Provincial governments established the
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organ ...
on the
Oxbridge Oxbridge is a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the move ...
model and elsewhere (e.g.,
Alberta ("Strong and free") , image_map = Alberta in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English , capital = Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital ...
,
Manitoba , image_map = Manitoba in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Manitoba's location in the centre of Southern Canada , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Winn ...
) in the pattern of American state universities. All major Canadian universities are now publicly funded but maintain institutional autonomy, with the ability to decide on admission, tuition, and governance. The U15 is an organization of fifteen leading research-intensive universities. Additionally,
McGill University McGill University is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonw ...
and the
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organ ...
are members of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities A research university is a university that is committed to research as a central part of its mission. They can be public education, public or pr ...
, along with sixty public and private institutions in the United States. Private universities in Canada are relatively new and primarily exist at the
undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statisti ...
level.


Chile

In
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...
, older, so-called "traditional" universities are more prestigious than the ones created after 1980. Even though some of those "traditional" universities are private non-profit entities, they belong to the same superior university council called ''Consejo de Rectores'' (Council of Chancellors); the ''Consejo de Rectores'' runs its admission system called ''Prueba de Selección Universitaria'' or ''PSU'', which is roughly similar to SAT. Even though state-run universities are cheaper than private ones, they are not tuition-free. Remarkably, Chile spends only 4% on education, compared to the 7% of GDP recommended by the UN for developed nations. Moreover, in Chile, the financing of higher education, both private and public, is contributed by 75% by the self-effort of families. The most prestigious universities in Chile are the state-run
Universidad de Chile The University of Chile ( es, Universidad de Chile) is a public university in Santiago, Chile. It was founded on November 19, 1842 and inaugurated on September 17, 1843.
, the private with state contributions Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, the private with state contributions Universidad de Concepción, and the private with state contributions Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, these four universities admit the most significant numbers of high scoring students in the PSU admission test. They are responsible for the most extensive research portion (with the Universidad de Chile at the top). The non-traditional universities are, for the most part, for-profit universities and, with a few exceptions, do not have the same prestige as the above "traditional" ones.


Costa Rica

In
Costa Rica Costa Rica (, ; ; literally "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica ( es, República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America Central America ( es, América Central, , ''Centroamérica'' ) is a region of the Amer ...
the University of Costa Rica, the
National University A national university is mainly a university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (a ...
, the
Distance State University The Distance State University () (UNED), is one of five public universities in the Republic of Costa Rica. It is in Sabanilla, Montes de Oca. UNED is the second university in number of students, and it is the largest coverage in the country. It has ...
, National Technical University and the
Costa Rica Institute of Technology The Costa Rica Institute of Technology (TEC) ( es, Tecnológico de Costa Rica) is a university in Costa Rica specializing in engineering and advanced science and research, modeled as an institute of technology An institute of technology (also re ...
, are all public universities.


Mexico

Mexico has both public and private universities, with wide variation in terms of cost, academic performance and organization. The most reputable university −
UNAM The National Autonomous University of Mexico ( es, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México , lit=Autonomous National University of Mexico, UNAM) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and d ...
(National Autonomous University of Mexico) − is publicly funded and virtually free, while also independent from the government. It is also the largest university in the country and one of the largest globally. Runner-ups include both private universities such as
ITESM Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) ( en, Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education), also known as Tecnológico de Monterrey, is a secular and Mixed-sex education, coeducational private university ...
and Catholic universities, as well public, federally-administered universities such as
Instituto Politécnico Nacional The National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico ( es, Instituto Politécnico Nacional de México; ), abbreviated IPN, is one of the largest public universities A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state owne ...
. Several public state universities exist (
Universidad de Guadalajara The University of Guadalajara ( es, Universidad de Guadalajara) is a public university, public higher education institution in the Mexico, Mexican city of Guadalajara. The University has several high schools as well as graduate and undergradua ...
, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, etc.), many of which follow an "autonomous" model similar to UNAM although without receiving as much funding, which also translates to higher tuition fees for students.


Panama

In Panama, there are five public universities. However, the most prominent are the
University of Panama The University of Panama ( es, Universidad de Panamá) was founded on October 7, 1935. Initially, it had 175 students learning education, commerce, natural sciences, pharmacy, pre-engineering or law. , it had 74,059 students distributed in 228 b ...
and the
Technological University of Panama The Technological University of Panama, Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá (UTP) in Spanish, is the second largest university in Panama. It comprises six schools and has seven regional campuses nationwide. The main campus is a piece of land in ...
. Public universities are state-funded with minimal (~US$1500 over four years) or no student funds. Public universities are run fully autonomously, without intervention from the state. They are also considered prestigious due to their free or low-cost nature, which allegedly removes financial incentives to pass students.


Peru

In
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = National seal , national_motto ...
, to be admitted into one of the national public universities, a high score is required on the
admission test An entrance examination is an Test (assessment), examination that educational institutions conduct to select prospective students for admission. It may be held at any stage of education, from Primary education, primary to Tertiary education, tertia ...
. Historically, many of the prestigious universities in Peru have been public, exemplified by the most prestigious university in the country,
National University of San Marcos The National University of San Marcos ( es, link=no, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual ...
, the oldest university in the Americas, founded in May 1551. Alongside the National University of San Marcos, many other public universities follow the same rigorous pattern, like the
National Agrarian University The National Agrarian University, also formally called National Agrarian University - La Molina (Spanish: ''Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina'') (UNALM), is a public university in Lima, Peru. It is the country's best university in the field ...
, the
National University of Engineering The National University of Engineering ( es, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, UNI) is a public university, public engineering and science university located in the Rímac District of Lima, Peru. History The National University of Engineeri ...
, the Federico Villarreal University and the National University of Education. In 2002, the most prestigious public universities in Peru (
National University of San Marcos The National University of San Marcos ( es, link=no, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual ...
, La Molina - National Agrarian University, the
National University of Engineering The National University of Engineering ( es, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, UNI) is a public university, public engineering and science university located in the Rímac District of Lima, Peru. History The National University of Engineeri ...
, Federico Villarreal University and the
National University of Callao The National University of Callao is a post-secondary institution in the Bellavista District of the Constitutional Province of Callao in the country of Peru. It was established on 2 September 1966. This scholarly institute retains its original tec ...
), joined and created the ''Strategic Alliance of Peruvian Universities (es: Alianza Estrátegica)'', alongside other public and private universities who joined as associate and advisory members.


United States

In the United States, most public universities and colleges are state universities or colleges founded and operated by
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine ''State Magazine'' is a digital magazine published by the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Global Talent Management. Its mission is to acquaint Department o ...
government entities. Additionally, there are public tribal colleges and universities operated by Native American tribal governments, and some colleges where a municipal government is an owner or part of governance (e.g.,
City University of New York The City University of New York (CUNY ) is the public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (E ...
,
Quincy College Quincy College (QC) is a Public school (government funded), public community college in Quincy, Massachusetts. It is an open admission commuter school that offers associate degrees and certificate programs in professional fields of study. Founded ...
). States generally charge higher tuition to out-of-state students. The higher fees are based on the theory that students from the state, or much more often their parents, have contributed to subsidizing the university by paying state taxes. In contrast, out-of-state students and their parents have not. Every U.S. state has at least one public university, and the largest states have more than thirty. This is partly a result of the 1862
Morrill Land-Grant Acts The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consis ...
, which gave each eligible state federal land to sell to finance public institutions to offer courses in practical fields in addition to the liberal arts. With the help of the
Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 () is a landmark civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fund ...
, the
Higher Education Act of 1965 The Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA) () was legislation signed into United States law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interacti ...
and the
Education Amendments of 1972 Education Amendments of 1972 also sometimes known as the Higher Education Amendments of 1972 (Public Law No. 92‑318, 86 Stat. 235), was U.S. legislation enacted June 23, 1972. It is best known for its Title IX Title IX is a federal ...
, public universities became even more accessible for women, minorities, and lower-income applicants. Public universities generally rely on subsidies from their respective
state government A state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The ...
s. Robert Martin,
economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a bran ...
professor emeritus at
Centre College Centre College is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private", by Dusty Springfield from the 1990 album ''Reputation'' * Private (band), a Denmark-based band * Private (Ryōko Hirosue song), "Private" (Ryōko Hirosue song ...
, has written, "The historical data for private and public institutions reveal that public institutions have always been more dependent on external support than have private institutions." Recently, state support for public universities has been declining, forcing many public universities to seek private support. The real level of state funding for public higher education has doubled from $30 billion in 1974 to nearly $60 billion in 2000. Meanwhile, the percent of state appropriations for schooling per student at public universities has fallen from 78% in 1974 to 43% in 2000. The increasing use of teaching assistants in public universities is a testament to waning state support. To compensate, some professional graduate programs in law, business, and medicine rely almost solely on private funding. According to a 2020 study of the state university system in the U.S. state of Georgia, access to public universities had massively positive economic impacts on students, as well as led to net fiscal benefits for the state of Georgia. The oldest public universities in the United States are the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC, UNC-Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Chapel Hill, or simply Carolina) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information f ...
,
The College of William & Mary The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M, and officially The College of William and Mary in Virginia) is a public university, public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued ...
, and the
University of Georgia , mottoeng = To teach and to inquire into the nature of things.'To serve' was later added to the motto without changing the seal, so the university motto in English now is "To teach, to serve, and to inquire into the nature of thi ...
. The College of William & Mary, founded in 1693, and
Rutgers University Rutgers University (RU; ), officially known as Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an orga ...
, founded in 1766, were two of the nine
colonial colleges The colonial colleges are nine institutions of higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an o ...
. Both were private universities until the 20th century, when William & Mary became public in 1908 and Rutgers in 1945. Various other universities also claim to be among the oldest in the United States. Many U.S. public universities began as teacher training institutions, often named normal schools or teachers colleges, and eventually were expanded into comprehensive universities. Examples include
UCLA The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organ ...
, formerly the southern branch of
California State Normal School The California State Normal School was a teaching college system founded on May 2, 1862, eventually evolving into San José State University San José State University (San Jose State or SJSU) is a public university in San Jose, California ...
;
Arizona State University Arizona State University (ASU or Arizona State) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organi ...
, originally the
Tempe Normal School The history of Arizona State University began March 12, 1885 with the founding of the establishment originally named the Territorial Normal School at Tempe. The school was founded after John Samuel Armstrong first introduced House Bill 164, “An ...
; the
University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee (UW–Milwaukee, UWM, or Milwaukee) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization A ...
, formerly Milwaukee Normal School; and
Missouri State University Missouri State University (MSU or MO State), formerly Southwest Missouri State University, is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a un ...
, formerly Southwest Missouri State Teachers College. It has never been determined whether the U.S. Constitution would allow the
federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, ...
to establish a federal university system. The only federally chartered public universities that currently exist are the
United States Service academies The United States service academies, also known as the United States military academies, are federal academies for the undergraduate education and training of commissioned officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as ...
, military-associated educational institutions administered by the
United States Department of Defense The United States Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity ...
, and
Haskell Indian Nations University Haskell Indian Nations University is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English i ...
, which the
Bureau of Indian Affairs The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), also known as Indian Affairs (IA), is a United States federal agency within the Department of the Interior The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a federal executive department of the ...
governs. In addition,
Georgetown University Georgetown University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly ...
was the first federally chartered private university in Washington, D.C. (1815) and was later followed by four other federally chartered private colleges and universities in the
District of Columbia ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscape ...
, which are
Columbian College The George Washington University (GW or GWU) is a Private university, private University charter#Federal, federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. Chartered in 1821 by the United States Congress, GWU is the largest Higher educat ...
(1821) (now The George Washington University),
Gallaudet University Gallaudet University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
(1864),
Howard University Howard University (Howard or simply HU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an a ...
(1867), and
American University The American University (AU or American) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an ...
(1893). The
University of the District of Columbia The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organi ...
is the public university in Washington, D.C., generally overseen by the
Government of the District of Columbia The Government of the District of Columbia operates under Article One of the United States Constitution and the District of Columbia Home Rule Act, which devolves certain powers of the United States Congress to the Mayor of the District of Colum ...
under authority devolved from Congress under District of Columbia home rule. Historically, many of the prestigious universities in the United States have been private, most notably the
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
. However, some public universities are also highly prestigious and increasingly selective:
Richard Moll Charles Richard Moll (born January 13, 1943) is an American actor. He is perhaps best known for playing the role of Aristotle Nostradamus "Bull" Shannon, the bailiff on the NBC situation comedy, sitcom ''Night Court'' from 1984 to 1992. Moll has a ...
designated such prestigious public universities Public Ivies.
UC Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...
, for instance, is often
ranked A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either "ranked higher than", "ranked lower than" or "ranked equal to" the second. In order theory, mathematics, this is known as a Strict weak ordering ...
as a top-ten university in the world and the top public university in the United States. There are a number of public
liberal arts colleges A liberal arts college or liberal arts institution of higher education is a college with an emphasis on Undergraduate education, undergraduate study in the Liberal arts education, liberal arts and Science education, sciences. Such colleges aim to ...
, including the members of the
Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges The Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges (COPLAC) is a consortium of 29 public colleges and universities in 27 states and one Canadian province. Established in 1987, COPLAC advances the aims of its member institutions and drives awareness of the ...
.
Community colleges in the United States In the United States, community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facilitating learnin ...
are generally public colleges. They typically offer
associate's degrees An associate degree is an undergraduate degree An undergraduate degree (also called first degree or simply degree) is a colloquial term for an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completi ...
representing two academic years total post secondary school. In contrast, bachelor's degrees represent four academic years total post secondary school. In the 21st century, some community colleges have added bachelor's degree programs, particularly in applied career-focused subjects and often with titles such as
Bachelor of Applied Arts and Sciences The Bachelor of Applied Arts and Sciences, often abbreviated as BAAS or BAASc, is an undergraduate degree. Usage In the United States, Bachelor of Applied Arts and Sciences (B.A.A.S.) degree is considered a completion degree. The degree can be ...
.


Asia


Bangladesh

There are 40 public universities in
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...
. Universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities have established themselves under the Private Universities Act of 2010, which governs Bangladesh private universities' operation and academics.


Brunei

Almost all universities in Brunei are public universities.


People's Republic of China

In the People's Republic of China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public. All significant Chinese higher education centers are publicly administered. Typically,
provincial Provincial may refer to: Government & Administration * Provincial capitals, an administrative sub-national capital of a country * Provincial city (disambiguation) * Provincial minister (disambiguation) * Provincial Secretary, a position in Canad ...
governments run public universities. Under some circumstances, the
municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
governments administer the universities. Some public universities are
national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis ...
, which the
central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
directly administers. Private undergraduate colleges exist, primarily vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises. The majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities usually enjoy higher reputation domestically and globally.


Hong Kong

The
University Grants Committee University Grants Committee may refer to: *University Grants Committee (Hong Kong) *University Grants Committee (United Kingdom) *Universities New Zealand See also

* University Grants Commission (disambiguation) * Higher Education Commission ...
funds eight higher education institutions. The
Academy for Performing Arts The Union County Academy for Performing Arts is a full-time four-year state school, public magnet school, magnet Secondary education in the United States, high school located in Scotch Plains, New Jersey, Scotch Plains, in Union County, New Jer ...
also receives funding from the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
. The Open University of Hong Kong is also a public university, but it is largely self-financed. The
Shue Yan University Hong Kong Shue Yan University (HKSYU or SYU) is a Private university, private Liberal arts university, liberal-arts university in North Point, Hong Kong. Founded in 1971 as Hong Kong Shue Yan College () by Henry Hu and Chung Chi-yung, it was u ...
is the only private institution with the status of a university; however, it also receives government financial support.


India

In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. Some private undergraduate colleges, mostly engineering schools, exist, but most affiliate with public universities. Some private schools are also partially aided by the national or state governments. India also has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), which primarily offers distance education, and in terms of the number of enrolled students, is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students.


Indonesia

There are public and private educational institutes in Indonesia. The government, via the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology, and the provincial and municipal governments provide public universities, institutes, high schools, and academies in each province. Religious organizations, public organizations, and large companies usually provide private educational institutions.


Iran

Some of Iran's public prestigious universities offer tuition-free and tuition-based programs. State-run universities are highly selective and competitive.


Israel

There are nine official universities in
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is ...
. In addition, there are a few dozen colleges and other institutes of higher learning and about a dozen foreign university extensions. The
Council for Higher Education in Israel The Council for Higher Education in Israel ( he, המועצה להשכלה גבוהה, ''HaMo'atza LeHaskala Gevoha'') is a supervisory body for universities and colleges in Israel. It is the only organization with the authority to award academic ...
(CHEI) academically supervises all. Only a university, not a college, can issue
doctorate A doctorate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...
degrees in Israel. Theoretically, a college can apply to the CHEI to upgrade its status to a university.


Japan

In Japan, public universities are not
national universities A national university is mainly a university created or managed by a government, but which may also at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. Some national universities are associated with national cultural or po ...
but are run by local governments, either prefectural or municipal. According to the
Ministry of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government The machinery of government (so ...
, public universities have "provided an opportunity for higher education in a region and served the central role of intellectual and cultural base for the local community in the region", and are "expected to contribute to social, economical and cultural development in the region"; this contrasts to research-oriented aspects of national universities. As of 2010, there were 95 public universities, compared to 86
national universities A national university is mainly a university created or managed by a government, but which may also at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. Some national universities are associated with national cultural or po ...
and 597 private universities, and 127,872 students attended the schools. The number of public universities has significantly increased in recent years; in 1980, there were only 34 public universities; in 1993, there were 46. Since July 2003, when the Local Independent Administrative Institutions Law was implemented, public universities may incorporate. The average tuition in public universities for 2007 fiscal year was 536,238 yen, the average entrance fee 399,351 yen and the average application fee 17,095 yen.


Kyrgyzstan

Manas University ) , type = Public university, Public Research university , president = Alpaslan CEYLAN Asilbek Kulmirzayev , city = Bishkek , country = Kyrgyzstan , students = 5500 (all campuses) , undergrad = 500 ...
, the public university in
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...
, is a public higher education institution that offers associate degrees, undergraduate degrees, and graduate and postgraduate degrees.


Macau

University of Macau The University of Macau (UM, Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, va ...
and
Macao Polytechnic University Macao Polytechnic University (MPU; ; pt, Universidade Politécnica de Macau) was established in 1981. It is located in the Macau, Macao Special Administrative Region (MSAR) of the China, People's Republic of China. MPU is a public Higher edu ...
are the public universities in
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Lond ...
. Also, the Macao Institute for Tourism Studies is a public higher education institution that can offer undergraduate and postgraduate education.


Malaysia

There are 20 public universities in Malaysia, funded by the government but governed as self-managed institutions.


Nepal

Tribhuvan University Tribhuvan University (TU; ne, त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय) is a public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public ...
is the first public university in
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country A landlocked countr ...
. The university runs various programs in a wide number of academic disciplines. It operates through six different schools and provides affiliation to various colleges.
Kathmandu University Kathmandu University (KU) ( ne, काठमाण्डौ विश्वविद्यालय) is a public autonomous university in Nepal. It is the third oldest university in Nepal, located in Dhulikhel of Kavrepalanchok District, about 3 ...
is also a public university founded by a government act in 1991. The university offers science and technology curricula through different schools. The Pokhara University Act of 1997 established another government-funded school,
Pokhara University Pokhara University (PU or PoU) ( ne, :ne:पोखरा विश्वविद्यालय, पोखरा विश्वविद्यालय) was established in 1997(2054 Vikram Samvat, B.S.) as Nepal's fifth university.Bajracharya, ...
. The Nepalese government finances Pokhara University, a non-profit autonomous institution, which affiliates with around 58 colleges for bachelor's, master's, and M.Phil. degree programs. Pokhara University has gained popularity in recent years. It has established relations with 42 national and international universities.


Pakistan

In
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located prim ...
, universities receive guidance and recognition by the
Higher Education Commission (Pakistan) The Higher Education Commission (colloquially known as HEC) is a statutory body A statutory authority is a body set up by law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act a ...
(HEC) (formerly the University Grants Commission (Pakistan)). There are around 107 public and 76 private universities in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located prim ...
.
University of the Punjab The University of the Punjab ( pnb, , ur, ), also referred to as Punjab University, is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organizati ...
is the biggest public university followed by
University of Karachi The University of Karachi ( ur, ); informally Karachi University, KU, or UoK) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...
.


Philippines

Universities and colleges in the Philippines are controlled and managed by the Commission on Higher Education, especially the
University of the Philippines The University of the Philippines (UP; fil, Pamantasan ng Pilipinas Unibersidad ng Pilipinas) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine ''State Magazine'' is a digital magazine publish ...
. There are more than 500 government-run higher education institutions, of which 436 are state colleges and universities, including satellite campuses, 31 local colleges and universities, and a handful of community colleges. In 2008, the Philippine Congress passed Republic Act 9500, declaring the University of the Philippines as the national university to distinguish it from all other state universities and colleges. In addition to the University of the Philippines, the archipelago hosts other notable state colleges and universities. These include the
Polytechnic University of the Philippines , mottoeng = ''Light of the Nation'' , established = October 19, 1904 , closed = , type = State State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine ''State Magazine'' is a digital magazine published by t ...
,
Technological University of the Philippines The Technological University of the Philippines ( fil, Pamantasang Teknolohiya ng Pilipinas or ''Teknolohikal na Unibersidad ng Pilipinas''), commonly known as TUP, is a Mixed-sex education, coeducational State Universities and Colleges (Philipp ...
, Philippine Normal University, and Mindanao State University. In 2008, state colleges and universities had a PHP 26.2-billion budget, including PHP 19.4 billion in direct subsidies.


Singapore


South Korea

In
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who ...
, most public universities are
National Universities A national university is mainly a university created or managed by a government, but which may also at the same time operate autonomously without direct control by the state. Some national universities are associated with national cultural or po ...
. Only
University of Seoul A university () is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic. He spent more than half a cen ...
is a municipal university.


Sri Lanka

In
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...
there are seventeen public universities, with most funded by the government via the University Grants Commission, which handles undergraduate placements and staff appointments.


Taiwan

Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
has more than 150 universities (two-thirds were established after the 1980s), while only a third of them are public universities. Tuition fees at public universities are less than half those of private universities because the Taiwanese government provides more funding to the public universities. Ten public universities (established before the 1980s) are more accredited and prestigious in Taiwan, and most top-ranking schools are public. Therefore, most students choose public universities for their tertiary education.


Thailand

As of 2019, Thailand has 19 public universities. In the late 19th century, there was a high demand for professional talents in the central government of
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southe ...
. ''Siam'' was an aftermath of King Rama V's bureaucratic reforms, which aimed to transform the feudal Thai society into a modernized state. In 1899, the King founded the School for Training of Civil Officials (Thai: โรงเรียนสำหรับฝึกหัดวิชาข้าราชการฝ่ายพลเรือน) near the northern gate of the Royal Palace. Those who graduated from the school would become royal ''pages''. A royal page was required to administrate by working closely with the King, a traditional entrance into the Siamese bureaucracy. Royal pages then may serve in the Mahattai Ministry or other government ministries.


Europe


Austria

Most Austrian universities are public. The state regulates tuition fees, the same for all public universities. Except for some studies, notably medicine, everybody who passes the "Matura" exam to attend university has the right to attend any public university. Overenrolled degree programs will introduce entrance exams that students must pass in the first year or before starting the degree. Especially scientific subjects such as biology, chemistry, and physics will have difficult exams in the first year of studies, introducing a specific barrier. Students must create timetables following the curriculum they choose. The universities provide options to combine studies and follow individually adjusted curricula. However, the organisation is obliged to the student, and the administration involved is high. Private universities have existed since 1999 but are considered easier than public universities and thus hold less esteem.


Belgium

Communities A community is a social unit The term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term "unit of observation" in that the former refer ...
run Belgian universities. Consequently, the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () Dutch may also refer to: Places * Dutch, West Virginia, a community in the United States * Pennsylvania Dutch Country People E ...
-speaking
Flemish Community The Flemish Community ( nl, Vlaamse Gemeenschap ; french: Communauté flamande ; german: Flämische Gemeinschaft ) is one of the three institutional communities of Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), offi ...
, the
French Community The French Community (1958–1960; french: Communauté française) was an association of former French colonies From the 16th to the 17th centuries, the First French colonial empire stretched from a total area at its peak in 1680 to over , ...
and the German Community determine which institutes of higher education to organise or recognise, and which may issue diplomas. Until the 1970s, Belgium had two state universities: the University of Liège (ULiège) and the
Ghent University Ghent University ( nl, Universiteit Gent, abbreviated as UGent) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organizatio ...
(UGent), both founded in 1817 together with the
State University of Leuven The State University of Leuven was a university founded in 1817 in Leuven in Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. It was distinct from the Old University of Leuven (1425-1797) and from the Catholic University of Leuven (183 ...
which closed down in 1835. These are often referred to as the two historic "state universities". In 1965, small specialised single-faculty institutions were recognised as universities: the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (part of ULiège since 1969) and the Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (part of ULiège since 2009). The Belgian state then founded smaller universities in Mons in 1965 (part of the
University of Mons The University of Mons (french: Université de Mons) is a Belgian university located in the city of Mons, founded in 2009 by merging the Faculté polytechnique de Mons, Engineering Faculty of Mons (FPMs) and the University of Mons-Hainaut. The ...
since 2009) and in 1971 in
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ) is a city in Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region ...
(part of
University of Antwerp A university () is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic. He spent more than half a ce ...
since 2003),
Hasselt Hasselt () is a Kingdom of Belgium, Belgian city and Municipalities in Belgium, municipality, and capital and largest city of the Provinces of Belgium, province of Limburg (Belgium), Limburg in the Flemish Region of Belgium. The Hasselt municipal ...
(managed by the Province of Limburg, today
Hasselt University Hasselt University (Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle ...
), Arlon (managed by the
Province of Luxembourg Luxembourg (french: Luxembourg ; nl, Luxemburg ; german: Luxemburg ; lb, Lëtzebuerg; wa, Lussimbork), also called Belgian Luxembourg, is the southernmost Provinces of regions in Belgium, province of Wallonia and of Belgium. It borders on the ...
, part of ULiège since 2004). All these institutions were public universities managed by the
national government National Government may refer to: * Central government in a unitary state, or a country that does not give significant power to regional divisions * Federal government is a federal state, or a country that give significant power to regional divisi ...
until higher education was brought under the control of the Communities in 1990. Since 1891, private universities progressively became state-recognised and funded, while some private, mostly Catholic, organisations (called ''free'' institutions, as free from the state but state-funded) remain. As of 2022, the Communities fund all recognised universities which follow the same rules and laws.


Croatia

The Croatian state runs most public universities. Academically well-performing students pay only administrative fees (less than €100 per year). Those who fail multiple classes in a year must retake them and pay a partial or full tuition fee.


Denmark

Almost all universities are public and held in higher esteem than their private counterparts. Attending university is free in Denmark.


Finland

All universities are public and free of charge.


France

Most higher education organizations—(
universities A university () is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic. He spent more than half a cen ...
and grandes écoles)—are public and charge very low tuition fees (less than €1000 per year). Major exceptions are business schools such as
HEC School of Management HEC Paris (french: École des hautes études commerciales de Paris) is a business school, and one of the most prestigious and selective grandes écoles, located in Jouy-en-Josas, France. HEC offers its flagship Master of Management, Master in M ...
. Article L731-14 of the "Code de l'éducation" states that "Private higher education establishments can in no case take the title of "university". Nevertheless, many private institutions, such as the
Catholic University of Lyon The Catholic University of Lyon (''Université Catholique de Lyon''), or the Lyon Catholic University also known as the Catholic Institute of Lyon (''Institut catholique de Lyon''), is a private university based in Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; ...
, use "university" as their marketing name.


Germany

Most higher education institutions are public and operated by the states. All professors are public servants. Public universities are generally held in higher esteem than their private counterparts. From 1972 through 1998, public universities were free of tuition fees; however, some states have since adopted low tuition fees.


Greece

In
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...
, according to its constitution, higher education institutions (HEIs) comprise universities, technical universities (polytechnic universities), formerly technological educational institutes (TEIs) (1982–2019) or institutes of technology, and specialist HEIs. HEI undergraduate programmes are government-funded and do not charge tuition. A quarter of HEI postgraduate programmes are tuition-free. Thirty percent of students are entitled to attend all the statutory postgraduate programmes without tuition fees after being individually assessed. Private HEIs (universities, colleges, and other HEI types) cannot be operated in Greece, considered Greek universities, or recognised as degree-awarding bodies by the Greek government.


Ireland

In Ireland, nearly all
universities A university () is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic. He spent more than half a cen ...
,
institutes of technology An institute of technology (also referred to as: technological university, technical university, university of technology, technological educational institute, technical college, polytechnic university or just polytechnic) is an institution of te ...
, colleges of education and some other third-level institutions are public. The state pays the cost of educating its undergraduates. Students must pay a contribution fee of approximately €3,000, however. There are a few private institutions of higher learning (e.g., the
National College of Ireland National College of Ireland (NCI) or ''Coláiste Náisiúnta na hÉireann'' (''CNÉ'') in Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of conti ...
). However, none of them have university status and are highly specialised.


Italy

Almost all Italian universities are public but enjoy de jure institutional autonomy (limited by the state in practice, like in Greece). The Italian state provides the majority of university funding. Therefore, students pay relatively low tuition fees, decided by each university and related mainly to the student's family wealth, the course, and exam performance. A few scholarships, both at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, are also available for the best low-income students. Even for research, private funding ranges from low to non-existent, compared to most European countries.


The Netherlands

The Dutch Ministry of Education largely funds almost all public universities. Dutch citizens and citizens of other European Union countries who enroll for their first bachelor's or master's degree are subject to an annual tuition fee regardless of university or program. The fee was €1,951 in 2015. Non-European Union students, and students who want to complete a second bachelor's or master's degree pay the 'legal school fee' which should cover the additional costs of the student, which the government no longer funds. These fees range between approximately €7,000 (for relatively cheap bachelor programs) and €30,000 (for master's programs in medicine) a year. The Ministry of Education supervises all universities, including private institutions.


Norway

Almost all universities are public and state-funded.


Poland

In Poland, Acts of Parliament create public universities, while private citizens, societies, or companies operate private universities. The government pays all tuition fees and other costs of public university students. Most private universities charge tuition fees directly to students. These institutions are generally held in lower regard than public universities. A small number of private universities do not charge fees, such as
John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin ( pl, Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II, la, Universitas Catholica Lublinensis Ioannis Pauli II, abbreviation KUL), established in 1918. It is the only private college in Poland with the s ...
, founded in 1918 and property of the
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
Episcopacy An episcopal polity is a hierarchical A hierarchy (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) that are represented as being "above", "below", or "a ...
of Poland; the Polish Government pays all costs.


Portugal

There are 13 public universities, a university institute and a distance university. Higher education in Portugal provided by state-run institutions is not free, as students must pay a tuition fee. However, the fee is lower than that of private universities. The highest tuition fee allowed by law in public universities is €697 per year as of 2022. Public universities include some of the most selective and demanding higher learning institutions, noted for high competitiveness and nationwide reputation.


Russia

In Russia, about 7.5 million students study in thousands of universities.


Serbia

A vast majority of students (over 85%) study at public universities that the Serbian state runs. Academically well-performing students pay only administrative fees (less than €100 per year), while those who fail multiple classes in a year, and have to retake them, pay a partial or full tuition fee (ranging from €500 to €2000 per year for full tuition fee, depending on which faculty). Private universities have existed since 1989 but are less academically rigorous than public universities and thus hold less esteem.


Spain

There are a total of 74 universities in Spain. The majority (52), including the most prestigious, are public and are funded by the autonomous community in which they are based. University funding may differ (though not significantly) depending on in which Spanish region the university is based. However, the central government establishes homogeneous tuition fees for all public universities. As such, university fees are much lower than those of their private counterparts. The highest tuition fee allowed by law was, as of 2010, €14.97 per academic credit, amounting to roughly €40/year for an average 60 credit full-time course; tuition fees in private universities might reach €18,000/year in comparison. Public universities are state-owned but granted a considerable degree of independence when it comes to self-government; they cannot, however, make free use of their assets (i.e., buy and sell assets as a private company would) and are subject to Spanish administrative law as any other public body of the state. Public university administrators, lecturers, and professors are granted civil servant status, which serves as a tenure. A Spanish civil servant can only be fired under exceptional and well-justified circumstances. Research funding can be allocated either by the autonomous community or the central government; in the former case, funding amount and conditions vary significantly from one autonomous community to another.


Sweden

Most universities are public. Education in Sweden is normally free, so there are no tuition fees at any Swedish university.


Turkey

In 2016, there were 183 university, universities and academies in Turkey: 118 state universities (five Technical University, technical universities, two Institute of Technology, institutes of technology, and one fine arts university). Turkey's higher learning institutions, governed by the Ministry of Higher Education or Council of Higher Education (Turkey), YÖK Ministry, are accepting more and more international students. Of the 65 private foundation universities, seven are two-year granting institutions. In addition, there are "special" institutions, including four Military Academy, military academies and one police academy.


United Kingdom

In the UK, all universities are autonomous bodies, legally independent of the state. However, universities and other higher education providers are regulated, and universities may be considered public bodies for some purposes. The degree of regulation varies between the countries of the United Kingdom. It varies depending on the constitutional form of the university and whether it receives public funding. Historically, the University of London was a truly public university from its establishment as an examining board in 1836 to its reconstitution as a more traditional teaching university in 1900. It has been described as "what today would be called a quango", operating out of government premises, staffed by civil servants, and directly accountable to the Treasury for its expenditure. The right to award UK degrees and use the title "university" or "university college" is controlled for all higher education providers. These rights are granted by the Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Privy Council for institutions in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland and by the Office for Students for institutions in England. The Office for Students can also, with the agreement of parliament, revoke degree-awarding powers for institutions in England. Almost all British universities, including all universities in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, receive public funding for teaching via block grants from the Office for Students (England), the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, the Department for the Economy (Northern Ireland) or the Scottish Funding Council. Universities (and other higher education providers) receiving public funding in this manner are treated as public authorities for various purposes, including the public sector equality duty of the Equality Act 2010 and the Freedom of Information Act 2000 (the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 for Scottish institutions), and are "likely to be public bodies for the purpose of the Human Rights Act 1998". Additionally, universities that are incorporated as higher education corporations are regarded as public authorities for some purposes regardless of whether they receive public funding. Acceptance of public funding also brings government regulation of the level of Tuition fees in the United Kingdom, tuition fees charged for courses. In principle, any university can leave the regulated fees system at any time by not accepting public funding; for most universities (those not incorporated as higher education corporations), this would also remove their status as public authorities. In England, the only jurisdiction in the UK to have non-publicly funded universities, registration as a higher education provider (which is obligatory for universities, whether or not they are publicly funded) requires adherence to public interest governance principles. Additional public interest governance principles apply to providers with degree awarding powers (which includes all universities) and to publicly funded providers. All registered providers in England must also be members of the Office of the Independent Adjudicator. Universities that are constituted as civil corporations (Oxford and Cambridge), statutory corporations (Durham, London, Newcastle, Royal Holloway and the Ancient university governance in Scotland, ancient universities of Scotland, some of which also have royal charters) or royal charter, chartered corporations (all other institutions in the university sector before 1992, except the LSE) must, due to their constitutional form, obtain permission from the Privy Council to modify their statutes. This is unrelated to whether or not they receive public funding. Direct government funding for teaching and research has been substantially reduced since 2012, with a study in 2012 indicating that annual government funding for teaching and research would make up just 15 per cent of English universities' income by 2015. As of 2014, funding council grants made up 15 to 20 per cent of the income of universities as disparate as UCL (18 per cent; large research university, 2014 income £1 billion), Durham (17 percent; small research university, 2014 income £300 million) and Hertfordshire (15 percent; teaching focused university, 2014 income £240 million). By 2018, this had fallen to 15 per cent at UCL, 11 per cent at Durham and 8 percent at Hertfordshire. However currently there are only five fully fledged Private university#United Kingdom, private universities in the United Kingdom. Each of the four nations within the UK has responsibility for funding resident students. Scotland offers free tuition for residents for their first undergraduate degree studied in Scotland (meaning a Scottish student who chooses to study in England receives nothing) with the potential to fund five out of four years (known as "false-start" funding) should a student be required to repeat a year or decide to change course. The Welsh Assembly chose to go the other way and has funding follow the Welsh student, even if they choose to study outside of Wales, however they only cover around two-thirds of tuition costs. England and Northern Ireland expect students to take out student loans to cover the cost of tuition.


Oceania


Australia

Australia has 43 universities: 37 public universities and six private universities. The private universities are Avondale University, Bond University, the University of Notre Dame Australia, University of Divinity, and Torrens University Australia, with one international private university with a campus in Adelaide: Carnegie Mellon University, Australia (US). Adelaide formerly had campuses of Cranfield University (UK) (2007-2010), and University College London (UK) (2010-2017). Some of Australia's public universities are variously grouped as below: * The Group of Eight (Australian universities), Group of Eight, which has some of the oldest public universities in Australia, including the Universities of University of Queensland, Queensland, University of Sydney, Sydney, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, University of Adelaide, Adelaide and University of Western Australia, Western Australia together with the Australian National University and Monash University. Three were established in the 19th and 20th centuries. * The Australian Technology Network universities primarily grew from the former Institutes of Technology and include RMIT University, Queensland University of Technology, Curtin University, the University of Technology Sydney and the University of South Australia. They gained university status in the late 1980s to the early 1990s due to the reforms of the then Minister for Employment, Education, and Training, John Dawkins. * Innovative Research Universities Australia, Innovative Research Universities represent a number of research-intensive institutions, with most members being established in the 1960s and 1970s. The group includes Charles Darwin University, James Cook University, Griffith University, La Trobe University, Flinders University, Murdoch University, and Western Sydney University. * The Regional Universities Network comprises seven regional Australian universities. The group includes Central Queensland University, Southern Cross University, Federation University, the University of Southern Queensland, the University of the Sunshine Coast, University of New England (Australia) and Charles Sturt University. * The NUW Alliance is a group of three universities in New South Wales. The group consists of University of Newcastle, Australia, University of Newcastle, University of New South Wales, and University of Wollongong.


New Zealand

In New Zealand, all eight universities are public. Research grants support public funding. The oldest (University of Otago) was established in 1869 by Provinces of New Zealand, Provincial Ordinance. From 1870 to 1961, there was effectively a single university structure-the University of New Zealand-with constituent colleges located in Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, and Dunedin. In 1961, the constituent colleges were dissolved into four independent universities by the New Zealand Parliament to become the University of Auckland, Victoria University of Wellington, University of Canterbury, and University of Otago. This change also established a new university in Hamilton, the University of Waikato. Two associated agricultural colleges-Massey University, Massey and Lincoln University, New Zealand, Lincoln-subsequently became universities in 1963 and 1990, respectively. An eighth university (Auckland University of Technology) was formed in 2000 by an Order in Council under the Education Act 1989.New Zealand Legislation
. Legislation.govt.nz. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.


See also

*Private university *State university system *National university *Prefectural university


Footnotes


References


External links

* {{Authority control Types of university or college Public universities,