HOME

TheInfoList




State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (
Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classe ...
and
North American English North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety (linguistics), variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures, plus the similarities between the pronu ...
) are generally primary or secondary
schools A school is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. They provi ...
that educate all children without charge. They are funded in whole or in part by
tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accord ...
ation. State funded schools exist in virtually every country of the world, though there are significant variations in their structure and educational programmes. State education generally encompasses primary and secondary education (4 years old to 18 years old).


General characteristics


By country and region


Australia

Government schools (also known as public schools) are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools usually charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: open and
selective school A selective school is a school that admits students on the basis of some sort of selection criteria, usually academic. The term may have different connotations in different systems and is the opposite of a comprehensive school, which accepts all s ...
s. The open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas, whereas selective schools admit students based on some specific criteria, e.g. academic merit. Government schools educate approximately 65% of Australian students, with approximately 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory. The curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as
religious education In secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin ''saeculum'', "worldly" or "of a generation") is the state of being unrelated or neutral in regards to religion and irreligion. Anything that does not have an explicit reference ...
can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms.


Bangladesh

Public or Government funded schools are found throughout
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
. These schools mostly teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, and 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children, especially girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as
Dhaka Dhaka ( or ; bn, ঢাকা, Ḍhākā, ), formerly known as Dacca, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upperca ...

Dhaka
, however, this is fairly uncommon. Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns usually do not. Public schools are often the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and
Chittagong Chittagong ( ; bn, চাটগাঁও, Cāṭgāon), officially Chattogram ( bn, চট্টগ্রাম), is a major coastal city and financial centre A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a c ...
. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the wr ...
.


Canada

Per the
Canadian constitution The Constitution of Canada (french: Constitution du Canada) is the supreme law in Canada. It outlines Canada's system of government and the civil and human rights of those who are citizens of Canada and non-citizens in Canada. Its contents ar ...
, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten (or equivalent) exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten (or equivalent) is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of hours provided varies widely. Starting at grade one, at about age six, there is universal Crown-funded access up to grade twelve (or equivalent). Schools are generally divided into elementary schools (kindergarten to Grade 6), junior high schools (Grades 7 to 9), and high schools (Grades 10 to 12). However, in many areas
middle schools A middle school (also known as intermediate school, junior high school, or lower secondary school) is an educational stage Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning Formal learning is education normally delivered by trained teac ...

middle schools
are also provided and in some schools, particularly in rural areas, the elementary and middle levels can be combined into one school. In 2003, Grade 13 (also known as the Ontario Academic Credit or "OAC" year) was eliminated in Ontario; it had previously been required only for students who intended to go on to university. Children are required to attend school until the age of sixteen in most provinces, while students in Ontario and New Brunswick must attend schools until the age of eighteen. Some Canadian provinces offer segregated-by-religious-choice, but nonetheless Crown-funded and Crown-regulated, religiously based education. In
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
, for example, Roman Catholic schools are known as "Catholic school" or "Separate school", not "Public school", although these are, by definition, no less "public" than their secular counterparts.


China

In China, state schools are funded and administered by the education sector within the government. Although some, especially high schools, have started to charge a fair portion of parents of students an additional tuition fee, due to the increased places offered by the schools in recent years. Top state schools are often very selective, however. Students who miss their entrance requirement may still gain places if they meet a relatively lower requirement and their parents are willing to pay for the additional fees. Some parents appreciate the idea as they may send their children to good schools even though they may not be academically qualified, while others believe that it is not fair for someone who has a background of poverty. The public spending on schools in China has been uneven due to insufficient investment in education. This condition is in favor of urban schools and it is promoted by past policies such as the mandate for rural public schools to have a higher student-to-teacher ratio. The inequality of resources is exacerbated by the way public schools in urban areas enjoy more support since local governments have more developed economies. Aside from the disparity between urban and rural public schools, there was also the dichotomized system adopted since 1978, which divided schools into two groups: key schools (''zhongdianxiao'') and non-key schools (''putongxiao''). Key schools receive more funding due to the goal of developing first-class education in a limited number of schools in a short period of time. The key school system was canceled by the 2006 amendment to the Compulsory Education Law, along with the introduction of reforms that address education inequality.


Denmark

The
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...

Danish
School system is supported today by tax-based
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
al and
municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
funding from
day care Child care, otherwise known as day care, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time, whose ages range from two weeks to twenty years. Child care is a broad topic that covers a wide spectrum of professionals, institutions ...
through primary and
secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Educatio ...
to
higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge ...
and there are no
tuition fees Tuition payments, usually known as tuition in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United S ...
for regular students in public schools and
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...
. The Danish public
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is an ...

primary school
s, covering the entire period of compulsory education, are called '' folkeskoler'' (literally 'people's schools' or 'public schools'). The ''Folkeskole'' consists of a pre-school class (mandatory since 2009), the 9-year obligatory course and a voluntary 11th year. It thus caters for pupils aged 6 to 17. It is also possible for parents to send their children to various kinds of
private school Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United ...
s. These schools also receive government funding, although they are not public. In addition to this funding, these schools may charge a fee from the parents.


France

The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. It is divided into three stages: # primary education (''enseignement primaire''); # secondary education (''enseignement secondaire''); # tertiary or college education (''enseignement supérieur'') Schooling in France is mandatory as of age 6, the first year of primary school. Many parents start sending their children earlier though, around age 3 as
kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th ...

kindergarten
classes (''maternelle'') are usually affiliated to a borough's (''commune'') primary school. Some even start earlier at age 2 in ''pré-maternelle'' or ''garderie'' class, which is essentially a daycare facility. French secondary education is divided into two schools: # the ''collège'' for the first four years directly following
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is an ...

primary school
; # the ''lycée'' for the next three years. The completion of secondary studies leads to the ''baccalauréat''. The ''
baccalauréat The ''baccalauréat'' (; ), often known in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas Franc ...
'' (also known as ''bac'') is the end-of-''lycée'' diploma students sit for in order to enter
university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...

university
, a ''
Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles The ''classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles'' (CPGE) (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval ...
'', or professional life. The term ''baccalauréat'' refers to the diploma and the examinations themselves. It is comparable to British
A-Levels#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the ...
, American s, the
Irish Leaving Certificate The Leaving Certificate Examination ('' ga, Scrúdú na hArdteistiméireachta''), commonly referred to as the Leaving Cert or (informally) the Leaving ('' ga, Ardteist , links=no''), is the final exam of the Republic of Ireland, Irish secondary ...
and German
Abitur ''Abitur'' () is a qualification granted at the end of secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a sta ...
. Most students sit for the ''baccalauréat général'' which is divided into 3 streams of study, called ''séries''. The ''série scientifique'' (S) is concerned with
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
and
natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...

natural science
s, the ''série économique et sociale'' (ES) with
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
and
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
s, and the ''série littéraire'' (L) focuses on and and
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...

philosophy
. The ''
Grandes écoles Grandes may refer to: *Agustín Muñoz Grandes, Spanish general and politician *Banksia ser. Grandes, a series of plant species native to Australia * Grandes y San Martín, a municipality located in the province of Ávila, Castile and León, Spain ...
'' of France are higher education establishments outside the mainstream framework of the public
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...

universities
. They are generally focused on a single subject area, such as
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
, have a moderate size, and are often quite (sometimes extremely) selective in their admission of students. They are widely regarded as prestigious, and traditionally have produced most of France's scientists and
executives Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
.


Germany

Education in Germany is provided to a large extent by the government, with control coming from state level, ''()'' and funding coming from two levels: federal and state. Curricula, funding, teaching, and other policies are set through the respective state's ministry of education. Decisions about the acknowledgment of private schools (the German equivalent to accreditation in the US) are also made by these ministries. However, public schools are automatically recognised, since these schools are supervised directly by the ministry of education bureaucracy. Although the first kindergarten in the world was opened in 1840 by
Friedrich Wilhelm August FröbelFriedrich may refer to: Names *Friedrich (surname)Friedrich or Friedrichs is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: Friedrich * Johannes Friedrich, Bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria * Ariane Friedrich, German high ...

Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel
in the German town of
Bad Blankenburg Bad Blankenburg () is a spa town A spa town is a resort town based on a mineral spa (a developed mineral spring). Patrons visit spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits. The word ''spa'' is derived from the name of ...
, and the term kindergarten is even a
loanword A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning ...
from the
German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultu ...

German language
, they are not part of the German school system. Article 7 Paragraph 6 of the German constitution (the ''
Grundgesetz The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the le ...
'') abolished pre-school as part of the German school system. However, virtually all German kindergartens are public. They are either directly run by municipal governments, or contracted out, most often, to the two largest
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
churches in Germany. These municipal kindergartens are financed by taxes and progressive income-based customer fees, but are not considered part of the public school system. A German public school does not charge tuition fees. The first stage of the German public school system is the ''Grundschule''. (Primary School – 1st to 4th grade or, in
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
and
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...

Brandenburg
, 1st to 6th grade) After Grundschule (at 10 or 12 years of age), there are four secondary schooling options: * ''
Hauptschule A ''Hauptschule'' (, "general school") is a secondary school in Germany, starting after four years of elementary schooling ('' Grundschule''), which offers Lower Secondary Education (Level 2) according to the International Standard Classification ...

Hauptschule
'' (the least academic, much like a modernised Volksschule) until 9th or, in Berlin and
North Rhine-Westphalia North Rhine-Westphalia (german: Nordrhein-Westfalen, ; Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics'', University of California Pre ...
, until 10th grade. The students attending those type of school may be awarded the Hauptschulabschluss or in some cases also the
Mittlere Reife The Mittlere Reife (, lit. ''"Middle Maturity"'') is a school-leaving certificate in Germany that is usually awarded after ten years of schooling. It is roughly comparable with the British GCSE The General Certificate of Secondary Education (G ...
* ''
Realschule ''Realschule'' () is a type of secondary school in Germany, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. It has also existed in Croatia (''realna gimnazija''), the Austrian Empire, the German Empire, Denmark and Norway (''realskole''), Sweden (''realskola''), ...

Realschule
'' (formerly Mittelschule) until 10th grade, usually awards the
Mittlere Reife The Mittlere Reife (, lit. ''"Middle Maturity"'') is a school-leaving certificate in Germany that is usually awarded after ten years of schooling. It is roughly comparable with the British GCSE The General Certificate of Secondary Education (G ...
* ''
Gymnasium Gymnasium may refer to: *Gymnasium (ancient Greece), educational and sporting institution *Gymnasium (school), type of secondary school that prepares students for higher education **Gymnasium (Denmark) **Gymnasium (Germany) **Gymnasium UNT, high ...
'' (high school) until 12th grade or 13th grade, with
Abitur ''Abitur'' () is a qualification granted at the end of secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a sta ...
as exit exam, qualifying for admission to university. * ''
Gesamtschule A comprehensive school is a public school for elementary aged or secondary aged children that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school system where admission is restricted ...
'' (comprehensive school) with all the options of the three "tracks" above. A Gesamtschule largely corresponds to an American high school. However, it offers the same school leaving certificates as the other three types of German secondary schools: the Hauptschulabschluss (school leaving certificate of a Hauptschule after 9th Grade or in Berlin and North Rhine-Westphalia after 10th grade), the Realschulabschluss, also called
Mittlere Reife The Mittlere Reife (, lit. ''"Middle Maturity"'') is a school-leaving certificate in Germany that is usually awarded after ten years of schooling. It is roughly comparable with the British GCSE The General Certificate of Secondary Education (G ...
, (school leaving certificate of a Realschule after 10th grade) and Abitur, also called Hochschulreife, after 13th or seldom after 12th grade. Students who graduate from Hauptschule or Realschule continue their schooling at a vocational school until they have full job qualifications. This type of German school, the ''Berufsschule'', is generally an upper-secondary public vocational school, controlled by the German federal government. It is part of Germany's
dual education system A dual education system combines apprenticeship An apprenticeship is a system for training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading). Appren ...
. Students who graduate from a vocational school and students who graduate with good
GPA The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit SI derived units are units of measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, ...
from a Realschule can continue their schooling at another type of German public secondary school, the ''Fachoberschule'', a vocational high school. The school leaving exam of this type of school, the ''Fachhochschulreife'', enables the graduate to start studying at a
Fachhochschule A ''Fachhochschule'' (; plural ''Fachhochschulen''), abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences (UAS) is a German tertiary education institution that specializes in a particular applied science or applied art, such as engineering, technol ...

Fachhochschule
(polytechnic), and in
Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U. ...
also at a university within the state. The Abitur from a Gesamtschule or Gymnasium enables the graduate to start studying at a polytechnic or at a university in all states of Germany. A number of schools for mature students exists. Schools such as the Abendrealschule serve students that are headed for the
Mittlere Reife The Mittlere Reife (, lit. ''"Middle Maturity"'') is a school-leaving certificate in Germany that is usually awarded after ten years of schooling. It is roughly comparable with the British GCSE The General Certificate of Secondary Education (G ...
. Schools such as the Aufbaugymnasium or the
Abendgymnasium An Abendgymnasium or "Evening Gymnasium" is a German class of secondary school for adults over the age of 19 which allows them to gain the Abitur. Classes are usually held after 17:30 at night, although some classes may be held in the mornings fo ...

Abendgymnasium
prepare students for college and finish with the
Abitur ''Abitur'' () is a qualification granted at the end of secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a sta ...
. These schools are usually free of charge. In Germany, most institutions of higher education are subsidised by German states and are therefore also referred to as ''staatliche Hochschulen.'' (public universities) In most German states, admission to public universities is still cheap, about two hundred Euro per semester. In 2005, many states introduced additional fees of 500 Euro per semester to achieve a better teaching-quality; however, all of these states (except Lower Saxony, which will follow in 2014/15) have abolished tuition fees as of autumn 2013. Nevertheless, additional fees for guest or graduate students are charged by many universities.


Hong Kong

In
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a List of cities in China, city and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of China on the ...

Hong Kong
the term ''government schools'' is used for free schools funded by the government. There are also subsidised schools (which are the majority in Hong Kong and many of which are run by religious organisations), "
Direct Subsidy Scheme The Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) is instituted by the Education Bureau The Education Bureau (EDB) is responsible for implementing education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, sk ...
" schools, private schools and international schools in Hong Kong. Some schools are international schools, which are not subsidised by the government.


India

During British rule, a number of state higher education establishments were set up (such as Universities in
Chennai Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...

Chennai
,
Kolkata Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , the official name until 2001) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upperca ...
, and
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United ...

Mumbai
), but little was done by the British in terms of primary and secondary schooling. Other indigenous forms of education are being revived in various ways across India. According to current estimates, 80% of all Indian schools are government schools making the government the major provider of education. However, because of the poor quality of public education, 27% of Indian children are privately educated. According to some research, private schools often provide superior educational results at a fraction of the unit cost of government schools. The teacher to student ratio is usually much lower in private schools than in the government ones, creating more competitive students. Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: federal, state, and local. The Nalanda University was the oldest university-system of education in the world. Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British Raj.


Indonesia

Education in
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
is overseen by two government ministries: the Ministry of Education and Culture for all education matters up to the tertiary education, and the Ministry of Religious Affairs for Islamic schools matters up to the tertiary education. Education may be obtained from state schools,
private school Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United ...
s, or through
homeschooling Homeschooling or home schooling, also known as home education or elective home education (EHE), is the education of School-age, school-aged children at home or a variety of places other than a school. Usually conducted by a parent, tutor, or ...
. There is a 12 years
compulsory education Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by the government. This education may take place at a registered school A school is an designed to provide s and s for the teaching of ...
program from government. The Indonesian educational system is divided into three stages: * primary education (''pendidikan dasar''); * secondary education (''pendidikan menengah''); * tertiary education (''perguruan tinggi'')


Ireland

In the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective id ...

Republic of Ireland
, post-primary education comprises secondary, community and comprehensive schools, as well as community colleges (formerly vocational schools). Most secondary schools are publicly funded, and regulated by the state, but privately owned and managed. Community colleges are state-established and administered by Education and Training Boards (ETBs), while community and comprehensive schools are managed by Boards of Management of differing compositions. Privately owned and managed secondary schools receive a direct grant from the state, and are subdivided into fee-paying and non fee-paying schools. The vast majority of these schools are operated by religious organisations, primarily the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
and the
Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland ( ga, Eaglais na hÉireann, ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ul ...
. The charging of fees is a decision of the individual school. The Irish constitution requires the state to "endeavour to supplement and give reasonable aid to private and corporate educational initiative, and, when the public good requires it, provide other educational facilities or institutions with due regard, however, for the rights of parents, especially in the matter of religious and moral formation." In practice, most people are educated by Catholic institutions as there are few alternatives in much of the country. Non fee-paying secondary schools are usually considered to be public or state schools, while private school and fee-paying schools are considered synonymous. This is colloquial and not technically accurate. All schools which are provided for by the state, including privately run and fee-paying secondary schools, teach the national curriculum. All students are expected to take the standardised Junior Certificate examination after three years. An optional non-academic Transition Year is provided by most but not all secondary schools immediately following the Junior Certificate. Students subsequently take one of three Leaving Certificate programmes: the traditional Leaving Certificate, the Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme (LCVP) or the Leaving Certificate Applied (LCA). The vast majority of secondary school students take the traditional Leaving Certificate. Both the traditional Leaving Certificate and the Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme can lead to third-level education, with LCVP more focused on practical skills.


Italy

In Italy a state school system or Education System has existed since 1859 (2 Years before the Italian Unification). Italy has a long history of Universities: funded in 1088, the University of Bologna is the oldest university in the World and 5/10 of the oldest university are currently based in Italy. Oldest Universities. The Italian school system is divided into 3 grades: # Primary education (Non compulsory nursery school and Elementary School) # Secondary Education (First grade (11-14) and Second grade (14-19)) # Higher Education (University (19+)) In Italy there are 3 different types of schools and upper education: * Pubbliche - Public/State owned school: completely free of charge for the entire compursory school (until age of 16). After that - for the last 2 years of High School - students have to pay a tax of €15.13/year. Public University is free of charge for lower income's students and increase in % based on income. Each University chooses the max amount of tuition and how to cluster it based on student's income. * Paritarie - Private owned school that have signed an agreement with the MIUR and that are included in the (Italian) National Education System. The government privide for those schools a specific grant for each student. Students usually have to pay a high fee for each year in the school. Paritarie's schools are considered part of the Educational System and students of those schools receives the same type of Diploma and can access to the same support (local school government) of the state owned schools. * Private (Non Paritarie) - Private owned school not included in the National Education System. They don't receive gov. founds and they have to pass the final exams in a Public or Paraitaria's school in order to get a Diploma. As an interesting fact and differently from other countries, in the Italian Educational System public schools statistically give students a better preparation compared to paritarie and private schools.


Japan

Most students attend public schools through the lower secondary level, but private education is popular at the upper secondary and university levels.


South Korea

(Contents from Wikipedia Korea)
Koryo Dynasty Goryeo (; ) was a Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been Division of Korea, divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Dem ...
(고려) The first public education system on record was put in place during Koryo Dynasty. The national school system was put in place under Hak-Je (학제 , 學制 , Education Policy) enacted by King SeongJong which was modelled after the public education systems of Song Dynasty and Tang Dynasty, China. Hak-Je involved operating national universities, called
Gukjagam The Gukjagam, known at times as Gukhak or Seonggyungwan, was the highest educational institution of the Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), hu ...
in the capital and called HyangAk in other regions. In King SeongJong Year 6, 987 A.D., a pair of a medical doctor and a scholarly doctor were appointed to administer academic systems and curriculums at Hyang-Ak: scholarly education included subjects of geography, history, math, law, and others. In King SeongJong Year 11, 992 A.D., the first known national public schools called Ju-Hak (주학 , 州學) were opened in each Ju and Gun, states and counties, to improve nationwide academic performances.
Joseon Joseon (also transcribed as Chosŏn, ko, 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was the last dynastic kingdom of Korea. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye Taejo of Joseon ...
Dynasty (조선) Joseon changed the name of the university to
Seonggyungwan Sungkyunkwan was the foremost educational institution in Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been Division of Korea, divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign sta ...
(성균관). Dae-Han-Je-Guk (대한제국) Im-Si-Jeong-Bu (임시정부) Dae-Han-Min-Guk (대한민국, a.k.a. South Korea) After the seize fire agreement for the civil war was declared, north and south states of Korea established their own education system. In
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
, education in public schools (1-12) is compulsory with the exception of kindergarten. All aspects of public education are the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, which executes administration of schools, allocation of funding, certification of teachers and schools, and curriculum development with standardised textbooks across the country. In the year 2000, South Korea spent 4.2% of its GDP in education. As of 2007 UN Education Index, South Korea is ranked 8th in the world.


Malaysia

Education in
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
is overseen by two government ministries: the
Ministry of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for education. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of Education, Department of Education, and Ministry of Publ ...
for matters up to the secondary level, and the
Ministry of Higher Education{{Unreferenced, date=March 2019, bot=noref (GreenC bot) A Ministry of Higher Education is a government department that focuses on the provision or regulation of institutions of higher education. In some countries these exist as ministries compounded ...
for tertiary education. Although education is the responsibility of the federal government, each
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
has an Education Department to help co-ordinate educational matters in their respective states. The main legislation governing education is the Education Act of 1996. Education may be obtained from government-sponsored schools,
private school Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United ...
s, or through
homeschooling Homeschooling or home schooling, also known as home education or elective home education (EHE), is the education of School-age, school-aged children at home or a variety of places other than a school. Usually conducted by a parent, tutor, or ...
. By law,
primary education Primary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool/kindergarten and before secondary school. Primary education takes place in primary school, the elementary school or first and middle school depending on ...
is compulsory. As in other Asian countries such as Singapore and China,
standardised test A standardized test is a Test (assessment), test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner. Standardized tests are designed in such a way that the questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpre ...
s are a common feature.


New Zealand

Both state and
state-integrated school In New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 List of islands of New Zealand, small ...
s are government-funded. The latter are former private schools which are now "integrated" into the state system under the ''Private Schools Conditional Integration Act 1975'' "on a basis which will preserve and safeguard the special character of the education provided by them". According to an
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

OECD
report, about 86% of all school-aged children attend state schools and 10% attend state integrated schools. The government provides education as a right—it is freely available up to the end of the calendar year following a student's 19th birthday. Primary and secondary education is compulsory for students between the ages of 6 and 16, although in practice most children enrol at school on their 5th birthday. Most students start at age 5 and remain in school for the full 13 years. While there is overlap in some schools, primary school ends at Year 8 and secondary school at Year 13. The last two years of primary school are normally considered intermediate school instead of primary school, and is normally a school in itself, leaving primary school to end at Year 6.


Philippines

Philippines has had a
public education State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, th ...
system since 1863 and is the oldest in Asia. It was created during the
Spanish colonization The Spanish Empire ( es, Imperio Español; la, Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy ( es, Monarquía Católica), was a colonial empire governed by Spain that ...
of the islands and mandated the establishment of a school for boys and a school for girls in every municiapality. The modern public schools in the Philippines are run by the
Department of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversigh ...
. Some public schools collect miscellaneous school fees for the better utilisation of school extra-curricular activities and/or for improving school equipment and services.


Latin America

In some countries, such as
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
and Mexico, the term "public schools" (''escuelas públicas'' in
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, ''escolas públicas'' in
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
) is used for educational institutions owned by the federal, state, or city governments which do not charge tuition. Such schools exist in all levels of education, from the very beginning through post-secondary studies. Mexico has nine years of free and compulsory primary and secondary education.
Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several ...

Panama
has 11 years of compulsory education, from Pre-kindergarten to 9th grade, with children first entering at 4 or 5 years old and parents are required by law to give financial support to their children until they are 25 years old if they are studying. In Panama, it is very common for students to complete 18 years of education, from pre-kindergarten to 12th grade in high school, with an additional 4 years in university, followed by a thesis, which can take another 3 years or more, as the thesis is thoroughly checked for quality, spelling, grammar, content and length before being summited for review by a professor.
Education in Argentina Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed ...
is a responsibility shared by the national government, the provinces and federal district and private institutions, though basic guidelines have historically been set by the Ministry of Education. Closely associated in Argentina with President Domingo Sarmiento's assertion that "the sovereign should be educated" ("sovereign" referring to the people), education has been extended nearly universally and its maintenance remains central to political and cultural debate. Even though education at all levels, including universities, has always been free, there is a large number of private schools and universities.


Romania

All schools up to
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...

high school
are publicly funded in Romania and regulated by the Ministry of National Education. Higher education like universities may be state sponsored under certain conditions (family income and school performance). Although there are private schools in Romania, they aren't a popular choice since the quality of education is on par with the public schools.


Russia

Education in Russia is provided predominantly by the state and is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia's expenditure on education has grown from 2.7% of the GDP in 2005 to 3.8% in 2013, but remains below the OECD average of 5.2%.


South Africa

In
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...

South Africa
, a state school or government school refers to a school that is state-controlled. These are officially called public schools according to the South African Schools Act of 1996, but it is a term that is not used colloquially. The Act recognised two categories of schools: public and independent.
Independent school An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
s include all private schools and schools that are privately governed. Independent schools with low tuition fees are state-aided and receive a subsidy on a sliding-scale. Traditional private schools that charge high fees receive no state subsidy. State schools are all state-owned, including section 21 schools (formerly referred to as "model C" or semi-private schools) that have a governing body and a degree of budget autonomy, as these are still fully owned and accountable to the state.


Spain


Sri Lanka

Most of the schools in
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
are maintained by the government as a part of the free education. With the establishment of the provincial council system in the 1980s the central government handed control of most schools to local governments. However the old schools which had been around since the colonial times were retained by the central government, thus creating three types of government schools: National Schools, Provincial Schools, and Piriven. National Schools come under the direct control of the Ministry of Education therefore have direct funding from the ministry. Provincial Schools consists of the vast majority of schools in Sri Lanka which are funded and controlled by the local governments. Piriven are monastic college (similar to a seminary) for the education of Buddhist priests. These have been the centres of secondary and higher education in ancient times for lay people as well. Today these are funded and maintained by the Ministry of Education.


Sweden

Swedish state schools are funded by tax money. This goes for both primary schools (Swedish: ''grundskola''), and secondary school (Swedish: ''gymnasium'') and universities. When studying at a university, however, you might have to pay for accommodation and literature. There are private schools as well who also receive funding from the government, but they may charge a fee from the parents. Compulsory education starts at six years of age, starting in ''förskola'' (pre-school). The Swedish primary school is split into three parts; ''Lågstadiet'' – “the low stage”, which covers grades 1 to 3. This is where you learn the basics of the three main subjects – in Swedish called ''kärnämnen'' – Swedish, English and mathematics. It also includes some natural science. ''Mellanstadiet'' – “the middle stage”, which covers grades 4 to 6, introduces the children to more detailed subjects.
Woodwork Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic materiala natural composite material, ...
and
needlework Needlework is decorative sewing Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a sewing needle A sewing needle, used for hand- sewing, is a long slender tool with a pointed tip at one end and a hole (or '' ...

needlework
, social and domestic science, and even a second, foreign language in grade 6, a ''B-språk'' (B-language). The languages available are usually ,
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
or
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
depending on the school. ''Högstadiet'', “the high stage”, is the last stage of the compulsory education, between grades 7 and 9. This is when studies get more in-depth and are taken to an international level. Swedish children take national exams at grades 3, 6 and 9. Children at grade 3 take these exams in two of the three main subjects:
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
and
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
. In grade 6 the exams extend to the third main subject, English, and in grade 9 the exams also extend to one of the subjects in
natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or ph ...

natural science
s, and one of the four subjects in "Samhällsorientering" (
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

geography
,
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
,
religious studies Religious studies, also known as the study of religion, is an academic field devoted to research into religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there ...
, and
civics Civics is the study of the rights and obligations of citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditi ...
). They first receive grades in grade 6. The grading system is letter-based, ranging from A-F, where F is the lowest grade and A is the highest. F means "not approved", while all other ratings above F mean "approved". There are only objectives for E, C and A; D means the person has met most (but not all) objectives for C, while B means the person has met most objectives for A. When applying to ''gymnasium'' (senior high schools) or universities, a ''meritvärde'' (“meritous point value”) is calculated. E is worth 10 points, D 12.5 points, C 15 points, and so on. Children that are not approved in Swedish, English or mathematics will have to study at a special high school program called the “introductory program”. Once they are approved, they may apply to an ordinary high school program. Swedes study at high school for three years, between the ages of 16 and 18.


United Kingdom


England and Wales

The term "state school" refers to government-funded schools which provide education free of charge to pupils. There are a number of categories of English state-funded schools including
academy schools An Academy school in Education in England, England is a State-funded schools (England), state-funded school which is directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. The terms of the arrangements are s ...
, community schools,
faith school A faith school is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal ...
s,
foundation school In England and Wales, a foundation school is a state-funded school in which the school governor, governing body has greater freedom in the running of the school than in Community school (England and Wales), community schools. Foundation schools wer ...
s, free schools,
studio schoolA studio school is a type of secondary school in England that is designed to give students practical skills in workplace environments as well as traditional academic and vocational courses of study. Like traditional schools, studio schools teach the ...
s,
university technical college#REDIRECT University technical college {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
s, and a small number of state boarding schools and
City Technology College The BRIT School for Performing Arts and Technology in Croydon, London In Education in England, England, a City Technology College (CTC) is a State-funded schools (England), state-funded all-ability secondary school that charges no fees but is indep ...
s. About one third of English state-funded schools are
faith school A faith school is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal ...
s;
Governance & Affiliations – The Education Company
i.e. affiliated with religious groups, most often from the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
(approximately 2/3 of faith schools), or the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Roman Catholic Church
(around 3/10). There are also schools affiliated to other Christian churches; in 2011, there were 42 Jewish, 12 Muslim, 3 Sikh and 1 Hindu faith schools.BBC News 3 Dec 2011
Catholic faith schools in academy switch
These
faith school A faith school is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal ...
s include sub-categories such as faith-
academy schools An Academy school in Education in England, England is a State-funded schools (England), state-funded school which is directly funded by the Department for Education and independent of local authority control. The terms of the arrangements are s ...
,
voluntary aided schoolA voluntary aided school (VA school) is a state-funded school in England and Wales in which a foundation or trust (usually a religious organisation), contributes to building costs and has a substantial influence in the running of the school. In mos ...
s, and
voluntary controlled school A voluntary controlled school (VC school) is a state-funded school in in which a or (usually a Christian denomination) has some formal influence in the running of the school. Such schools have less autonomy than s, in which the foundation pays ...
s: most voluntary controlled schools are faith schools. All of these are funded through national and local taxation. All state-funded schools in England are required to follow the
National CurriculumA national curriculum is a common programme of study in school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Mo ...
, which is made up of twelve subjects. Every state school must offer a curriculum which is balanced and broadly based and which promotes the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of pupils at the school and of society, and prepares pupils at the school for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of later life. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a
Open Government Licence v3.0
© Crown copyright.
For each of the statutory curriculum subjects, the
Secretary of State for Education The Secretary of State for Education, also referred to as the Education Secretary, is a secretary of state position within the Government of the United Kingdom The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Maje ...
is required to set out a Programme of Study which outlines the content and matters which must be taught in those subjects at the relevant Key Stages. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a
Open Government Licence v3.0
© Crown copyright.
Teachers should set high expectations for every pupil. They should plan stretching work for pupils whose attainment is significantly above the expected standard. Teachers should use appropriate assessment to set targets which are deliberately ambitious. A number of state-funded secondary schools are
specialist school A specialist school, also called a specialist college, is a type of secondary school in the United Kingdom that specialises in a certain Academic field, field of curriculum. In England, most specialist schools were originally maintained schoo ...
s, receiving extra funding to develop one or more subjects in which the school specialises, such as Cirencester Deer Park School which currently has 5 specialisms. State schools may request payment from parents for
extracurricular activities An extracurricular activity (ECA) or extra academic activity (EAA) or Cultural Activities, cultural activities is an activity, performed by students, that falls outside the realm of the normal curriculum of school, college or university education ...
such as swimming lessons and field trips, provided these charges are voluntary. In contrast to this are fee-paying schools, such as " independent (or private) schools" and " public schools". In
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
, the term "public school" is used to refer to fee-paying schools for students aged around 13 to 18. They acquired the name "public" as in they were open to anyone who could meet the fees, distinguished from religious schools which are open only to members of that religion. There are also public schools associated with particular religions.
Grammar schools A grammar school is one of several different types of school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countr ...
can be run by the local authority, a foundation body or an academy trust. They select their pupils based on academic ability. Text was copied from this source, which is available under a
Open Government Licence v3.0
© Crown copyright.
The original purpose of
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
grammar schools was the teaching of Latin. Over time the
curriculum In education Education is the process of facilitating , or the acquisition of , s, , morals, s, s, and personal development. Educational methods include , , , and directed . Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educat ...
was broadened, first to include
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
, and later English and other
European languages Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. Out of a total European population of 744 million as of 2018, some 94% are native speakers of an Indo-European language; within Indo-European, the three largest phyla are '' ...

European languages
,
natural sciences Natural science is a Branches of science, branch of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of Phenomenon, natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer ...
,
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
,
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
,
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

geography
, and other subjects. In areas children can enter a prestigious
grammar school A grammar school is one of several different types of school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most coun ...
if they pass the
eleven plus exam The eleven-plus (11+) is an Test (assessment), examination administered to some students in England and Northern Ireland in their last year of primary education, which governs admission to grammar schools and other secondary schools which use ac ...
; there are also a number of isolated fully selective grammar schools and a few dozen partially selective schools. The oldest state school in England is Beverley Grammar School, which was founded in 700 AD.


Scotland

The
Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland (CoS; sco, The Scots Kirk; gd, Eaglais na h-Alba), also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis ...

Church of Scotland
was established in 1560, during the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...

Protestant Reformation
period as the official state religion in Scotland, and in the following year it set out to provide a school in every
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...
controlled by the local kirk-session, with education to be provided free to the poor, and the expectation that church pressure would ensure that all children took part. In the year of 1633 the
Parliament of Scotland The Parliament of Scotland ( sco, Pairlament o Scotland; gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba) was the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereig ...
introduced local taxation to fund this provision. Schooling was not free, but the tax support kept fees low, and the church and charity funded poorer students. This had considerable success, but by the late 18th century the physical extent of some parishes and population growth in others led to an increasing role for "adventure schools" funded from fees and for schools funded by religious charities, initially
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
and later
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
. In 1872 education for all children aged 5 to 13 was made compulsory with "public schools" (in the Scots meaning of schools for the general public) under local school boards. The leaving age was raised to 14 in 1883, and a Leaving Certificate Examination was introduced in 1888 to set national standards for secondary education. School fees were ended in 1890. The
Scottish Education Department The Scottish Government Education Directorates were a group of the civil service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected ...
ran the system centrally, with
local authorities Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geograp ...
running the schools with considerable autonomy. In 1999, following devolution from the
Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kin ...
to the new
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; Scots language, Scots: ''Scots Pairlament'') is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, Unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyro ...

Scottish Parliament
, central organisation of education was taken over by departments of the
Scottish Executive sco, Scots Govrenment , border = , image = Scottish Government Logo.svg , image_size = 275px , date = , country = Scotland , address = St Andrew's HouseCalton HillEdinburgh , leade ...
, with running the schools coming under unitary authority districts. In Scotland, the term ''public school'', in official use since 1872, traditionally means "a state-controlled school run by the local burgh or county education authority, generally non-fee-paying and supported by contributions from local and national taxation".Scottish National Dictionary
Largely due to the earlier introduction of state-administered universal education in Scotland and opposed to the rest of the United Kingdom, the term became associated with state schools. The designation was incorporated into the name of many of these older publicly run institutions. Children in Scottish state schools (or public schools) typically start
primary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is an ...

primary school
, or attend a junior school, aged between four and a half and five and a half depending on when the child's birthday falls. Children born between March and August would start school at the age of five years and those born between September and February start school at age four-and-a-half. Pupils remain at primary school for seven years completing Primary One to Seven. Then aged eleven or twelve, pupils start
secondary school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (ages 11 to 14) and upper secondary educat ...
for a compulsory period of four years, with a final two years thereafter being optional. Pupils take National 4 & 5 examinations at the age of fifteen/sixteen, sometimes earlier, most often for up to eight subjects. These include compulsory exams in English,
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
, a foreign language, a
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...

science
subject and a social subject. It is now a requirement of the Scottish Government that all pupils have two hours of physical education a week. Each school may arrange these compulsory requirements in different combinations. The minimum school leaving age is generally sixteen, after completion of Standard Grade examinations. Pupils who continue their school education after the age of sixteen, may choose to study for
Access Access may refer to: Companies and organizations * ACCESS (Australia), an Australian youth network * Access (credit card), a former credit card in the United Kingdom * Access Co., a Japanese software company * Access International Advisors, a hed ...
, Intermediate or
Higher Grade In the Scottish secondary education system, the Higher () is one of the national school-leaving certificate exams and university entrance qualifications of the Scottish Qualifications Certificate (SQC) offered by the Scottish Qualifications Au ...
and
Advanced Higher The Advanced Higher is an optional qualification which forms part of the Scottish secondary education system brought in to replace the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies (CSYS). The first certification of Advanced Higher was in 2001. It is normally t ...
exams. The
Curriculum for Excellence Curriculum for Excellence is the national curriculum In education, a curriculum (; plural curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specific ...
was introduced to secondary schools in session 2012/2013. The assessment of pupils' attainment will change, with 'National' qualifications replacing most Standard Grade and Intermediate Grade qualifications.


United States

In the United States, the term "state school" is colloquial for
state university A state university system in the United States is a group of Public university, public universities supported by an individual state (U.S.), state, Territories of the United States, territory or District of Columbia, federal district. These sys ...
, a college, or a university in a state university system. Instead, the term "public school" is used for elementary, middle, and high schools funded and/or run by a governmental entity. "Private school" generally refers to primary, secondary and tertiary educational institutions that are not government-owned; in practice the term is generally used to refer to non-sectarian schools. Elementary, middle, and high schools that are operated by a religious organisation are commonly called "
parochial school A parochial school is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two deca ...
s" (though, in practice, the term is generally used to refer only to schools operated by the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...
or some other mainline denomination; the term "Christian school" is generally used to refer to schools operated by Evangelical, Pentecostal/Charismatic, or Fundamentalist Christian churches). The role of the federal government in education is limited and indirect. Direct control of education is a power reserved to the states under the
Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution The Tenth Amendment (Amendment X) to the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. This founding document, originally comprising seven articles, delineates th ...
because the Constitution does not explicitly or implicitly give the federal government authority to regulate education. However, any public or private school that accepts educational funding from the federal government, including participation in collegiate federal financial aid programs (such as
Pell Grant A Pell Grant is a subsidy A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy. Although commonly extende ...
s and
Stafford Loan A Stafford Loan was a student loan offered from the United States Department of Education The United States Department of Education (ED or DoEd), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a United States Cabinet, Cabinet-level ...
s), by accepting the funds or participating in a particular federal program, subjects itself to federal jurisdiction to the extent of that participation. The
United States Department of Education The United States Department of Education (sometimes shortened to the ED, ED or DoEd) is a United States Cabinet, Cabinet-level department of the federal government of the United States, United States government. It began operating on May 4, 198 ...
supervises the role of the federal government in education. Direct regulation of public, private and parochial schools is done by state and territorial governments; schools in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
, are regulated by the District Government. Broad regulation of public schools is typically accomplished through a
state education agency A state education agency or state department of education is the state-level government organization within each U.S. state or territory responsible for education, including providing information, resources, and technical assistance on education ...
and a state department of education. There is usually a state superintendent of schools, who is appointed or elected to co-ordinate the state department of education, the state ''board'' of education, and the state legislature itself. Statewide education policies are disseminated to school "districts" or their equivalents. They are associated with counties, or with groups of counties, but their boundaries are not necessarily coterminous with county boundaries. The intermediate school districts encompass many local school districts. The local school districts operate with their own local boards, which oversee operations of the individual schools within their jurisdiction. In most states, the county or regional "intermediate" school districts merely implement state education policy and provide the channels through which a local district communicates with a state board of education, state superintendent, and department of education. They do not establish county or regional policies of their own. Local
school district A school district is a special-purpose district that operates local public Primary school, primary and Secondary school, secondary schools in various nations. North America United States In the U.S, most K–12 public schools function as uni ...
s are administered by local
school boards A board of education, school committee or school board is the board of directors A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth Englis ...
, which operate public
elementary In computational complexity theory, the complexity class ELEMENTARY of elementary recursive functions is the union of the classes : \begin \mathsf & = \bigcup_ k\mathsf \\ & = \mathsf\left(2^n\right)\cup\mathsf\left(2^\right)\ ...

elementary
and
high schools A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education (age 12 to 15) and upper secondary education ...
within their boundaries. Public schools are often funded by local taxpayers, and most school boards are elected. However, some states have adopted new funding models that are not dependent upon the local economy. Public schools are provided mainly by local governments. Curricula, funding, teaching, and other policies are set through locally elected school boards by jurisdiction over school districts. The school districts are special-purpose districts authorised by provisions of state law. Generally, state governments set minimum standards relating to almost all activities of elementary and high schools, as well as funding and authorisation to enact local school taxes to support the schools, primarily through real property taxes. The federal government funds aid to states and school districts that meet minimum federal standards. School accreditation decisions are made by voluntary regional associations. The first free public school in America was the Syms-Eaton Academy (1634) in
Hampton, Virginia Hampton () is an independent city (United States), independent city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population was 137,438; in 2019, it wa ...
, and the first tax-supported public school in America was in
Dedham, Massachusetts Dedham ( ) is a New England town, town in and the county seat of Norfolk County, Massachusetts, Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 25,364 at the 2020 census. It is located on Boston's southwest border. On the northwe ...
, founded by Rev. Ralph Wheelock."Mr. Wheelock's Cure", by Christopher Gleason Clark, published in the July 1998 issue of "The New England Historical and Genealogical Register", July 1998, Volume 152 In the United States, 88% of students attend public schools, compared with 9% who attend
parochial school A parochial school is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two deca ...
s, 1% who attend private
independent school An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
s, and 2% who are
homeschooled Homeschooling or home schooling, also known as home education or elective home education (EHE), is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, ...
. Public school is normally split up into three stages:
elementary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

elementary school
(
kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally made in the late 18th ...

kindergarten
to 5th or 6th grade), ("intermediate" or junior high school) from 5th, 6th, or 7th grade to 8th or 9th grade, and
high school A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a ...
(9th or 10th to 12th grade). The middle school format is increasingly common in which the elementary school contains kindergarten or 1st grade to 5th or 6th grade and the middle School contains 6th or 7th and 8th grade. In addition, some elementary schools are splitting into two levels, sometimes in separate buildings:
elementary school A primary school (in Ireland, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, and South Africa), junior school (in Australia), elementary school or grade school (in North America and the Philippines) is a school A school is ...

elementary school
(usually K-2) and intermediate (3-5). The K-8 format is also an emerging popular concept in which students may attend only two schools for all of their K-12 education. Many
charter school A charter school is a school that receives government funding but operates independently of the established state school School district, system in which it is located. It is independent in the sense that it operates according to the basic Cha ...
s feature the K-8 format in which all elementary grades are housed in one section of the school, and the traditional junior high school students are housed in another section of the school. Some very small school districts, primarily in rural areas, still maintain a K-12 system in which all students are housed in a single school. A few 7-12 schools also exist. In the United States, institutions of
higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge ...
that are operated and subsidised by the
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
are also referred to as "public." However, unlike public high schools,
public universities A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a natio ...
charge tuition, but fees are usually much lower than those charged by
private universities Private universities (and private colleges) are usually not operated by governments, although many receive tax breaks, public student loans, and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation ...
, particularly for students who meet in-state residency criteria.
Community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, ...
s, state colleges, and state universities are examples of public institutions of higher education. In particular, many state universities are regarded as among the best institutions of higher education in the US but usually are surpassed in ranking by certain private universities and colleges, such as those of the
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
, which are often very expensive and extremely selective in the students they accept. In several states, the administrations of public universities are elected via the general electoral ballot.


See also

*
Education Index An Education index is found as a component of the Human Development Index published every year by the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international ...
*
Free education Free education is education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, ...
*
Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university #REDIRECT Public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, ...


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* Heller, Frank
Lessons from Maine: Education Vouchers for Students since 1873
Cato Institute The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded in 1977 by Ed Crane (political activist), Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer o ...

Cato Institute
, Sep. 10, 2001. * Thattai, Deeptha
A History of Public Education in the United States
* Michael Pons, NEA

* Steve Suitts, Southern Education Foundation.
Crisis of a New Majority: Low-Income Students in the South's Public Schools
''Southern Spaces''. April 16, 2008. * Li Yi. 2005. The Structure and Evolution of Chinese Social Stratification. University Press of America.


External links



at the
Good Schools Guide ''The Good Schools Guide'' is a guide to British schools, both state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''T ...
* {{Authority control Public education Schools