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A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a
dependent territory A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency (sometimes referred as an external territory) is a territory that does not possess full political independence or sovereignty as a sovereign state, yet remains politically outside the control ...
that has been granted local
autonomy In developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions ...

autonomy
over most internal affairs while still recognizing the
suzerainty Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized socia ...
of a more powerful
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
without being its direct possession. In exchange, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations depending on the terms of their arrangement. Usually protectorates are established
de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally ...
by a treaty. Under certain conditions as of Egypt under British rule (1882–1914) e.g., a state can also be labelled as a ''de facto'' protectorate or a "veiled protectorate". A protectorate is different from a
colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the ''metropole, metropol ...

colony
as they have local rulers, are not directly possessed and rarely experience
colonization Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their—or their ancestors'—former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such l ...
by the suzerain state. A state that is under the protection of another state while retaining its "international personality" is called a protected state, not a protectorate.


History

Protectorates form one of the oldest features of international relations, dating back to the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. ''Civitates foederatae'' were cities that were subordinate to Rome for their foreign relations. In the Middle Ages,
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
was a protectorate of France and Spain. Modern protectorate concepts were devised in the nineteenth century.


Typology


Foreign relations

In practice, a protectorate often has direct
foreign relations ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Polic ...

foreign relations
only with and transfers the management of all its more important international affairs to the protector. Similarly, the protectorate rarely takes military action on its own but relies on the protector for its defence. This is distinct from
annexation Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, ...
in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate. Protectorates differ from
League of Nations mandate A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global ...
s and their successors,
United Nations Trust Territories#REDIRECT United Nations trust territories United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandate A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of o ...
, whose administration is supervised, in varying degrees, by the
international community The international community is a vague phrase used in geopolitics Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic ...
. A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' administering power.


Protected state

A protected state has a form of protection where it continues to retain an "international personality" and enjoys an agreed amount of independence in conducting its foreign policy. For political and pragmatic reasons, the relationship of protection is not usually advertised, but described in euphemisms such as "an independent state with special treaty relations" with the protecting state. A protected state appears on world maps just as any other independent state. International administration of a state can also be regarded as an internationalized form of protection, where the protector is an international organisation rather than a state.


Colonial protection

Multiple regions like the
Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria Colonial Nigeria was ruled by the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for th ...
, the Colony and Protectorate of Lagos and similar were subjects of colonial protection. Conditions regarding protection are generally much less generous for areas of colonial protection. The protectorate was often reduced to a condition similar to a colony, but the pre-existing
native state In biochemistry, the native state of a protein or nucleic acid is its properly folded and/or assembled form, which is operative and functional. The native state of a biomolecule may possess all four levels of biomolecular structure, with the seco ...
continuing as the agent of
indirect rule Indirect rule was a system of governance used by the British and others to control parts of their colonial empire A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often called colonies), either contiguous with the imperial center or located ove ...
. Occasionally, a protectorate was established by another form of indirect rule: a
chartered company A chartered company is an association with investors or shareholder A shareholder (also known as stockholder) is an individual or institution (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more share (finance), shares of the share capital o ...
, which becomes a state in its European home state (but geographically overseas), allowed to be an independent country with its own foreign policy and generally its own armed forces. In fact, protectorates were declared despite not being duly entered into by the traditional states supposedly being protected, or only by a party of dubious authority in those states. Colonial protectors frequently decided to reshuffle several protectorates into a new, artificial unit without consulting the protectorates, a logic disrespectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain its protectorates' status and integrity. The Berlin agreement of February 26, 1885, allowed European colonial powers to establish protectorates in (the last region to be divided among them) by diplomatic notification, even without actual possession on the ground. This aspect of history is referred to as the
Scramble for Africa The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa, or the Conquest of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division, and colonisation of Africa, colonization of most of Africa by seven Western Europe, Western European powers during a ...
. A similar case is the formal use of such terms as ''colony'' and ''protectorate'' for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer or protector, of adjacent territories, over which it held () sway by protective or "raw" colonial logic.


Amical protection

In amical protection as of
United States of the Ionian Islands The United States of the Ionian Islands ( el, Ἡνωμένον Κράτος τῶν Ἰονίων Νήσων, Inoménon Krátos ton Ioníon Níson, ; it, Stati Uniti delle Isole Ionie) was a Greeks, Greek state (polity), state and amical protect ...
by Britain, the terms are often very favourable for the protectorate. The political interest of the protector is frequently moral (a matter of accepted moral obligation, prestige, ideology, internal popularity, or
dynastic A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). Th ...
, historical, or ethnocultural ties). Also, the protector's interest is in countering a rival or enemy power such as preventing the rival from obtaining or maintaining control of areas of strategic importance. This may involve a very weak protectorate surrendering control of its external relations but may not constitute any real sacrifice, as the protectorate may not have been able to have a similar use of them without the protector's strength. Amical protection was frequently extended by the to other Christian (generally European) states and to smaller states that had no significant importance. After 1815, non-Christian states (such as the Chinese Qing dynasty) also provided amical protection towards other much weaker states. In modern times, a form of amical protection can be seen as an important or defining feature of
microstates Image:BlankMap-World-v6 small states.png, upright=1.4, Map of the smallest states in the world by land area. Note many of these are not considered microstates A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very ...

microstates
. According to the definition proposed by Dumienski (2014): "microstates are modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints".


Argentina's protectorates

*
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea ( es, Guinea Ecuatorial; french: Guinée équatoriale; pt, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( es, link=no, República de Guinea Ecuatorial, french: link=no, République de Guinée équatoriale, ...

Equatorial Guinea
(1810–1816) *
Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = National seal , national_motto ...
(1820–1822) *
Riograndense Republic The Riograndense Republic, often called the Piratini Republic ( pt, República Rio-Grandense or ), was a ''de facto'' state that seceded from the Empire of Brazil and roughly coincided with the present state of Rio Grande do Sul. It was proclai ...
(1836-1845) *
Juliana Republic The Juliana Republic ( Portuguese: ''República Juliana'') was a revolutionary state that existed in the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' p ...
(1839-1845) *
Gobierno del Cerrito The Cerrito Government ( es, Gobierno del Cerrito, lit. "Little Hill Government") governed almost all the Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in t ...
(1843–1851) *
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es, República del Paraguay, links=no; gn, Tetã Paraguái, links=no), is a country in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively sma ...

Paraguay
(1876)


''De facto''

*
Liga Federal The Federal League or League of Free Peoples (Spanish: ''Liga Federal'' or ''Liga de los Pueblos Libres'') was an alliance of provinces in what is now Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, Repúbl ...
(1815–1820) * Republic of Tucumán (1820–1821) * National Territory of Misiones (1865–1954) * National Territory of the Gran Chaco (1874–1884) * National Territory of the Patagonia (1878–1884) * National Territory of the Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica and South Atlantic Islands (1884–1991)


Brazil's protectorates

* Republic of Acre (1899-1903)


British Empire's protectorates and protected states


Americas

* (1655–1860; over Central America's Miskito Indian nation)


Europe

*
Malta Protectorate Malta Protectorate ( it, Protettorato di Malta, mt, Protettorat ta' Malta) was the political term for Malta Malta (, ; in Maltese: ; Italian: ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta) and formerly Melita, i ...
(1800–1813);
Crown Colony of Malta The Crown Colony of the Island of Malta and its Dependencies (commonly known as the Crown Colony of Malta or simply Malta) was the British colony in the Maltese islands, today the modern Republic of Malta. It was established when the Malta Pro ...
proclaimed in 1813) (de jure part of the
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
but under British protection) *
Ionian islands The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, including th ...
(1815-1864) (a
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...

Greek
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
and amical protectorate of Great Britain between 1815 and 1864) *
British Cyprus British Cyprus was the island of Cyprus under the dominion of the British Empire, administered sequentially from 1878 to 1914 as a British protectorate, a unilaterally annexed military occupation from 1914 to 1925 and from 1925 to 1960 as a Crown ...
(1871–1914) (put under British military administration 1914–22 then proclaimed a Crown Colony 1922–60)


South Asia

*
Cis-Sutlej states The Cis-Sutlej states were a group of small states in Punjab region Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia South Asia is th ...
(1809–1862) * (1816–1923; protected state) *
Princely states A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state A vassal state is any state that has a mutual obligation to a superior state or empire, in a status simi ...
(1857–1947; vassal states) * (1861–1947) *
Maldive Islands Maldives (, ; dv, ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ, translit=Dhivehi Raajje), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a small archipelagic state in South Asia, situated in the Arabian Sea of the Indian Ocean. It lies southwest of Sri Lanka and Indi ...
(1887–1965) * (1879–1919; protected state) * (1910–1947; protected state)


Western Asia

*
British Residency of the Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf Residency was an official colonial subdivision (i.e., Residency (country subdivision), residency) of the British Raj from 1763 until 1947 (and remained British protectorates after Indian Independence Act 1947, Indian independence ...
(1822–1971); headquarters based in
Bushire Bushehr, Booshehr or Bushire ( fa, بوشهر ; also romanised as ''Būshehr'', ''Bouchehr'', ''Buschir'' and ''Busehr''), also known as Bandar Bushehr ( fa, ; also romanised as ''Bandar Būshehr'' and ''Bandar-e Būshehr''), previously Beh Ard ...

Bushire
,
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
**, protected state (1880–1971) **
Sheikhdom of Kuwait ) , image_map = kuwait in its region 1913-1922.jpg , image_map_caption = , capital = Kuwait City Kuwait City ( ar, مدينة الكويت) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait Kuwait (; ar, ا ...
, protected state (1899–1961) **
Qatar Qatar (, , or ; ar, قطر, Qaṭar ; local vernacular pronunciation: ), officially the State of Qatar,) is a country in Western Asia. It occupies the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares it ...

Qatar
(1916–1971) **; precursor state of the
UAE The United Arab Emirates (UAE; Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoff ...

UAE
, protected states (1892–1971) ***
Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (, ; ar, أَبُو ظَبْيٍ ' ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more fo ...

Abu Dhabi
(1820–1971) ***
Ajman Ajman ( ar, عجمان ') is the capital of the emirate of Ajman The Emirate of Ajman ( ar, إمارة عجمان; ) is one of the seven Emirates of the United Arab Emirates, emirates of the United Arab Emirates. It joined the United Arab Em ...
(1820–1971) ***
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
(1835–1971) ***
Fujairah Fujairah City ( ar, الفجيرة) is the capital of the emirate of Fujairah in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; Arabic: الإمارات العربية المتحدة '), sometimes simply called the Emirates (Arabi ...

Fujairah
(1952–1971) ***
Ras Al Khaimah Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) ( ar, رَأْس ٱلْخَيْمَة, historically Julfar) is the largest city and capital of the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. It is the List of cities in the United Arab Emirates, sixth-largest city in ...

Ras Al Khaimah
(1820–1971) ***
Sharjah Sharjah ( ar, ٱلشَّارقَة '; Gulf Arabic: ''aš-šārja'') is the List of cities in the United Arab Emirates, third-most populous city in the United Arab Emirates, after Dubai and Abu Dhabi, forming part of the Dubai-Sharjah-Ajman me ...

Sharjah
(1820–1971) ****
Kalba Kalba () is a city in the Emirate of Sharjah The Emirate of Sharjah (; ar, إِمَارَة ٱلشَّارِقَة ') is one of the emirates of the United Arab Emirates, which covers and has a population of over 1,400,000 (2015). It compris ...

Kalba
(1936–1951) *** Umm al-Qaiwain (1820–1971) ** (1892–1977; informal, protected state) *
Aden Protectorate The Aden Protectorate ( ar, محمية عدن ') was a British protectorate in southern Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of ...

Aden Protectorate
(1872–1963); precursor state of
South Yemen South Yemen ( ar, اليمن الجنوبي, al-Yaman al-Janubiyy), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen ( ar, جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية, Jumhūriyat al-Yaman al-Dīmuqrāṭīyah al-Sha'b ...

South Yemen
**Eastern Protectorate States (mostly in Haudhramaut); later the
Protectorate of South Arabia The Protectorate of South Arabia Eastern consisted of various states located at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsu ...
(1963–1967) ***
Kathiri Kathiri ( ar, ٱلْكَثِيْرِي, al-Kathīrī), officially the Kathiri State of Seiyun in Hadhramaut ( ar, ٱلسَّلْطَنَة ٱلْكَثِيْرِيَّة - سَيْؤُوْن - حَضْرَمَوْت, al-Salṭanah al-Kathīrīyah - ...
*** Mahra ***
Qu'aiti Qu'aiti ar, ٱلْقُعَيْطِي '), officially the Qu'aiti State in Hadhramaut ( ar, ٱلدَّوْلَة ٱلْقُعَيْطِيَّة ٱلْحَضْرَمِيَّة, Ad-Dawlah Al-Quʿayṭiyyah Al-Ḥaḍramiyyah or the Qu'aiti Sultanate o ...
***
Upper Yafa Upper Yafa or Upper Yafa'i ( ar, يافع العليا ''),'' officially State of Upper Yafa ( ar, دولة يافع العليا '')'', was a military alliance in the British Aden Protectorate and the Protectorate of South Arabia. It was rul ...
(consisted of five Sheikhdoms:
Al-Busi Al-Bu`si, Busi, Bo'sī, ( ''Bu`sī''), or the Bu`si Sheikhdom ( ''Mashyakhat al-Bu`sī''), was a small state in the British Empire, British Aden Protectorate. It was one of the states of Upper Yafa. History Busi was established around the 18th cent ...
,
Al-Dhubi Al-Dhubi, Al-Dubi ( ''Dhubī''), or the Dhubi Sheikhdom ( ''Mashyakhat ad-Dhubī''), was a small state in the British Empire, British Aden Protectorate. Dhubi was located between Mawsata in the southwest, Hadrami sheikhdom, Hadrami in the northeast, ...
, Hadrami,
Maflahi Muflihi, Muflahi ( '), Muflihi or the Muflahi Sheikhdom ( '), was a state in the British Empire, British Aden Protectorate. Its last sheikh, Kassim Abdulrahaman Al-Muflihi, was deposed in 1967 upon the founding of the People's Republic of South Yeme ...
, and
Mawsata Mawsata, Mausata (), or the Mawsata State ( '), was a state in the British Empire, British Aden Protectorate. Mawsata was located in the western and southwestern part of Upper Yafa. The main mountain in the area is Jabal Darfan. Mawsata was the mos ...
) *** Hawra *** Irqa **Western Protectorate States; later the
Federation of South Arabia A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a political union, union of partially Federated state, self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central #Federal governments, federal gover ...
(1959/1962–1967), including
Aden Colony Aden Colony ( ar, مستعمرة عدن '), also the Colony of Aden, was a British Crown colony from 1937 to 1963 located in the south of contemporary Yemen. It consisted of the port of Aden and its immediate surroundings (an area of ). Prior ...
*** Wahidi Sultanates (these included:
Balhaf Balhaf is an industrial port town and an oasis in an area of coastal dunes in the Burum Coastal Area of . It has palm trees and white sand, which gives way to fields of black lava and to the fishing port of Bir-Ali. Qana, a major point of departure ...
, Azzan, Bir Ali, and Habban) ***
Beihan Beihan ( ar, بيحان), also known as Bayhan al Qisab (Arabic: بيحان القصاب), is a town in western Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Hou ...
***
Dhala Dhale or Dhala, also spelled Dali and Dhalea and sometimes prefixed with Al or Ad ( ar, الضالع ''Aḍ-Ḍāliʿ''), is the capital town of Dhale Governorate in south-western Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered) ...
and
Qutaibi Qutaibi ( ar, قطيبي ') or the Qutaibi Sheikhdom ( ar, مشيخة القطيبي ') was a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutio ...
***
Fadhli Fadhli ( ar, فضلي '), or the Fadhli Sultanate ( ar, السلطنة الفضلية '), was an independent sultanate on the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula from the 17th century until 1967.
***
Lahej Lahij or Lahej ( ar, لحج, Laḥj, links=no) is a city and an area located between Ta'izz and Aden in Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi ta ...
***
Lower Yafa Lower Yafa, Lower Yafa'i ( '), or the Sultanate of Lower Yafa ( ar, سلطنة يافع السفلى ''),'' was a state in the British Aden Protectorate. Lower Yafa was ruled by the Al Afifi dynasty and its capital was at Jaʿār, Jaar. This fo ...
***
Audhali Audhali ( ' or '), or the Audhali Sultanate ( ar, سلطنة العوذلي '), was a state in the British Aden Protectorate. It was a founding member of the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South in 1959 and its successor, the Federation of S ...

Audhali
***
Haushabi Haushabi or Hawshabi ( ''al-Ḥawshabī'' or ''al-Ḥawāshab''), or the Haushabi Sultanate ( ''Salṭanat al-Ḥawāshab''), was a state in the British Aden Protectorate. Its capital was Musaymir. The area is now part of the Republic of Yemen ...
***
Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom The Upper Aulaqi Sheikhdom ( ') was a state in the British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irela ...
*** Upper Aulaqi Sultanate ***
Lower Aulaqi Lower Aulaqi ( '), or the Lower Aulaqi Sultanate ( ar, سلطنة العوالق السفلى '), was a state in the Aden Protectorate, the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South, and its successor, the Federation of South Arabia. Its capital wa ...
*** Alawi ***
Aqrabi ‘Aqrabi ( '), or the Aqrabi Sheikhdom ( '), was a state in the British Empire, British Aden Protectorate, the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South, and its successor, the Federation of South Arabia. Its capital was Bir Ahmad. The state was ab ...

Aqrabi
***
Dathina Dathina ( '), the Dathina Sheikhdom ( ar, مشيخة دثينة '), or sometimes the Dathina Confederation, was a state in the British Empire, British Aden Protectorate, the Federation of Arab Emirates of the South, and its successor, the Federation ...

Dathina
*** Shaib


Africa

* (1884–1960) * Bechuanaland Protectorate (1885–1966) * Protectorate (1889–1964) * Nyasaland Protectorate (1893–1964) ( British Central Africa Protectorate from 1889 until 1907) * (1890–1963) * Gambia Colony and Protectorate* (1894–1965) * Uganda Protectorate (1894–1962) * East Africa Protectorate (1895–1920) * Sierra Leone Protectorate* (1896–1961) * Northern Nigeria Protectorate* (1900–1914) * Eswatini#British rule over Swaziland (1906–1968), Swaziland (1903–1968) * Southern Nigeria Protectorate (1900–1914) * Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (British protectorate) (1901-1957) * Sultanate of Egypt (1914–1922) * Kenya Colony, Kenya Protectorate* (1920–1963) * (1922–1936) * (1924–1964) *protectorates which existed alongside a colony of the same name


De facto

* History of Egypt_under the British#Veiled Protectorate (1882–1913), Khediviate of Egypt (1882–1913)


Oceania

* (1884–1888) * Tokelau (1877–1916) * Kingdom of Rarotonga, Cook Islands (1888–1893) * (1892–1916) * British Solomon Islands (1893–1978) * Niue (1900–1901) * (1900–1970)


East and Southeast Asia

* British North Borneo (1888–1946) * (1888–1984) * (1888–1946) * Federation of Malaya (1948–1957) ** (1895–1946) *** (1888–1895) **** Sungai Ujong (1874–1888) **** Jelebu (1886–1895)1946) *** (1888–1895) *** (1874–1895) *** (1874–1895) ** Unfederated Malay States (1904/09–1946) *** (1914–1946) **** Muar District, Muar (1897–1909) *** (1909–1946) **** Kulim (1894–1909) *** (1909–1946) *** (1909–1946) *** (1909–1946)


China's protectorates

* Han dynasty: **Protectorate of the Western Regions *Tang dynasty: **Protectorate General to Pacify the West **Protectorate General to Pacify the North **Protectorate General to Pacify the East *Yuan dynasty: ** Goryeo (1270–1356) *Qing dynasty: **Tibet under Qing rule, Tibet


Dutch Empire's protectorates

*Various sultanates in the Dutch East Indies (present Indonesia) **Trumon Sultanate (1770?), Langkat Sultanate (26 October 1869), Deli Sultanate (22 August 1862), Asahan Sultanate (27 September 1865), Siak Sultanate (1 February 1858) and Indragiri Sultanate (1838?) in Sumatra **Jogjakarta Sultanate (13 February 1755), Mataram Empire and Surakarta Sunanate (26 February 1677), Duchy of Mangkunegara (24 February 1757) and Duchy of Paku Alaman (22 June 1812) in Java. **Sumbawa Sultanate (?) and Bima Sultanate (8 December 1669) in Lesser Sunda Islands. **Pontianak Sultanate (16 August 1819), Sambas Sultanate (1819), Kubu Sultanate (4 June 1823), Landak Sultanate (?), Mempawah Sultanate (?), Matan Sultanate (?), Sanggau Sultanate (?), Sekadau Sultanate (?), Simpang Sultanate (?), Sintang Sultanate (1822), Sukadana Sultanate (?), Kota Waringin Sultanate (?), Kutai Kertanegara Sultanate (8 August 1825), Gunung Tabur Sultanate (?) and Bulungan Sultanate (?) in Borneo. **Gowa Sultanate (1669), Bone Sultanate (?), Sidenreng Sultanate (?), Soppeng Sultanate (?), Butung Sultanate (?), Muna Sultanate (?) and Banggai Sultanate (?) in Celebes. **Ternate (12 October 1676) and Batjan Sultanate (?) in Maluku Islands, The Moluccas. **Kaimana Sultanate (?) in Netherlands New Guinea, Dutch New Guinea.


France's protectorates and protected states


Africa

The legal regime of "protection" was the formal legal structure under which French colonial empire, French colonial forces expanded in Africa between the 1830s and 1900. Almost every pre-existing state in the area later covered by French West Africa was placed under protectorate status at some point, although wikt:direct rule, direct rule gradually replaced protectorate agreements. Formal ruling structures, or fictive recreations of them, were largely retained as the lowest level authority figure in the French Cercle (French colonial), Cercles, with leaders appointed and removed by French officials. * Benin traditional states **Independent of Danhome, under French protectorate, from 1889 **Porto-Novo a French protectorate, 23 February 1863 – 2 January 1865. Cotonou a French Protectorate, 19 May 1868. Porto-Novo French protectorate, 14 April 1882. * Central African Republic traditional states: **French protectorate over Dar al-Kuti (1912 Sultanate suppressed by the French), 12 December 1897 **French protectorate over the Sultanate of Bangassou, 1894 * Burkina Faso was since 20 February 1895 a French protectorate named French Upper Volta, Upper Volta (Haute-Volta) * Chad: Baghirmi state 20 September 1897 a French protectorate * Côte d'Ivoire: 10 January 1889 French protectorate of Ivory Coast *Guinea: 5 August 1849 French protectorate over coastal region; (Riviéres du Sud). *Niger, Sultanate of Damagaram (Zinder), 30 July 1899 under French protectorate over the native rulers, titled Sarkin Damagaram or Sultan *Senegal: 4 February 1850 First of several French protectorate treaties with local rulers *Comoros 21 April 1886 French protectorate (Anjouan) until 25 July 1912 when annexed. *Present Djibouti was originally, since 24 June 1884, the Territory of Obock and Protectorate of Tadjoura (Territoires Français d'Obock, Tadjoura, Dankils et Somalis), a French protectorate recognized by Britain on 9 February 1888, renamed on 20 May 1896 as Djibouti, French Somaliland (Côte Française des Somalis). *Mauritania on 12 May 1903 French protectorate; within Mauritanian several traditional states: **Adrar (region), Adrar emirate since 9 January 1909 French protectorate (before Spanish) **The Taganit confederation's emirate (founded by Idaw `Ish dynasty), since 1905 under French protectorate. **Brakna confederation's emirate **Emirate of Trarza: 15 December 1902 placed under French protectorate status. * Morocco – most of the sultanate was under French protectorate of Morocco, French protectorate (30 March 1912 – 7 April 1956) although, in theory, it remained a sovereign state under the Treaty of Fez; this fact was confirmed by the International Court of Justice in 1952. **The northern part of Morocco was under Spanish protectorate of Morocco, Spanish protectorate in the same period. *Traditional Madagascar States ** Kingdom of Imerina under French protectorate, 6 August 1896. French Madagascar colony, 28 February 1897. * Tunisia (12 May 1881 – 20 March 1956): became a French protectorate of Tunisia, French protectorate by treaty


Americas

* Second Mexican Empire (1863-1867), established by Emperor Napoleon III during the Second French intervention in Mexico and ruled by the Austrian-born, French puppet monarch Maximilian I of Mexico, Maximilian I


Asia

*French Indochina until 1953/54: ** Annam (French protectorate), Annam and Tonkin 6 June 1884 ** Cambodia 11 August 1863 ** Laos 3 October 1893 ** Vietnam 6 June 1884


Europe

* Rhenish Republic (1923–1924) * Saar Protectorate (1947–1956), not colonial or amical, but a former part of Germany that would by referendum return to it, in fact a re-edition of a former Saar (League of Nations), League of Nations mandate. Most French protectorates were colonial.


Oceania

* French Polynesia, mainly Society Islands, the Society Islands (several others were immediately annexed). All eventually were annexed by 1889. **Otaheiti (native king styled Ari`i rahi) becomes a French protectorate known as Tahiti, 1842–1880 **Raiatea and Tahaa (after temporary annexation by Otaheiti; (title Ari`i) a French protectorate, 1880) **Mangareva (one of the Gambier Islands; ruler title `Akariki) a French protectorate, 16 February 1844 (unratified) and 30 November 1871 *Wallis and Futuna: **Wallis declared to be a French protectorate by King of Uvea (Wallis and Futuna), Uvea and Captain Mallet, 4 November 1842. Officially in a treaty becomes a French protectorate, 5 April 1887. **Sigave and Alo (Wallis and Futuna), Alo on the islands of Futuna (Wallis and Futuna), Futuna and Alofi Island, Alofi signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888.


Germany's protectorates

The German Empire used the word ', literally protectorate, for all of its colonial possessions until they were lost during World War I, regardless of the actual level of government control. Cases involving indirect rule included: * German New Guinea (1884–1914), now part of Papua New Guinea * German South West Africa (1884–1914), present-day Namibia * Togoland (1884–1914), now part of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands * North Solomon Islands (1885–1914), now part of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands * Wituland (1885–1890), now part of Kenya * Ruanda-Urundi (1894–1916) * German Samoa (1900–1914), present-day Samoa * Marshall Islands * Nauru, various officials posted with the Head Chiefs * Gwandu, Gando Emirate (1895-1897) * Gourma Province, Gulmu (1895-1897) Before and during World War II, Nazi Germany designated the rump of occupied Czechoslovakia and Denmark as protectorates: * Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939–1945) * Denmark in World War II, Denmark (1940–1943)


India's protectorates

* Kingdom of Bhutan, Bhutan (1947–present; protected state). * Kingdom of Sikkim (1950–1975), later acceded to India as Sikkim, State of Sikkim.


Italy's protectorates and protected states

* Italian protectorate over Albania, The Albanian Republic (1917–1920) and the Italian protectorate of Albania (1939–1943), Albanian Kingdom (1939–1940) * Independent State of Croatia (1941–1943) * Monaco under amical Protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia 20 November 1815 to 1860. * Ethiopia : 2 May 1889 Treaty of Wuchale, in the Italian language version, stated that Ethiopia was to become an Italian protectorate, while the Ethiopian Amharic language version merely stated that the Emperor could, if he so chose, go through Italy to conduct foreign affairs. When the differences in the versions came to light, Emperor of Ethiopia, Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia, Menelik II abrogated first the article in question (XVII), and later the whole treaty. The event culminated in the First Italo-Ethiopian War, in which Ethiopia was victorious and defended her sovereignty in 1896. * Italian Libya, Libya: on 15 October 1912 Italian protectorate declared over Cirenaica (Cyrenaica) until 17 May 1919. * Banaadir, Benadir Coast in Somalia: 3 August 1889 Italian protectorate (in the northeast; unoccupied until May 1893), until 16 March 1905 when it changed to Italian Somaliland. ** Majerteen#The Majeerteen Sultanates, Majeerteen Sultanate since 7 April 1889 under Italian protectorate (renewed 7 April 1895), then in 1927 incorporated into the Italian colony. ** Sultanate of Hobyo since December 1888 under Italian protectorate (renewed 11 April 1895), then in October 1925 incorporated into the Italian colony (known as ''Obbia'').


Japan's protectorates

* Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, Korean Empire (1905–1910) * Manchukuo (1932–1945) * Mengjiang (1939–1945)


Poland's protectorates

* Feodosia#Kaffa (Genoese colony), Kaffa (1462–1475)


Portugal's protectorates

* Cabinda (province), Cabinda (Portuguese Congo) (1885–1974), Portugal first claimed sovereignty over Cabinda in the February 1885 Treaty of Simulambuco, which gave Cabinda the status of a protectorate of the Portuguese Crown under the request of "the princes and governors of Cabinda". * Kingdom of Kongo (1857–1914) * Gaza Empire (1824–1895), now part of Mozambique * Angoche Sultanate (1903–1910)


Russia's and the Soviet Union's protectorates

* Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti (1783–1801) * Kingdom of Imereti (1804–1810) * Revolutionary Serbia (1807–1812) * Principality of Serbia (1826–1856), now part of Serbia * Principality of Moldavia, Moldavia (1829–1856), now part of Moldova, Romania and Ukraine * Wallachia (1829–1856) *Emirate of Bukhara (1873–1920) * Khanate of Khiva (1873–1920) * Uryankhay Krai (1914) * Second East Turkestan Republic (1944-1949), now part of Xinjiang, China


''De facto''

Some sources mention following states as ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' Russian protectorates: * South Ossetia (2008–present) * Transnistria (1992–present) * Abkhazia (1994–present) * Donetsk People's Republic (2015–present) * Luhansk People's Republic (2015–present) * Republic of Artsakh (2020-present)


Spain's protectorates

* Spanish Morocco protectorate from 27 November 1912 until 2 April 1958 (Northern zone until 7 April 1956, Southern zone (Cape Juby) until 2 April 1958).


Turkey's and the Ottoman Empire's protectorates and protected states

* Aceh Sultanate (1569–1903) * Maldives (1560–1590) * Cossack Hetmanate (1669–1685)


''De facto''

* Northern Cyprus (1983–present)


United Nations' protectorates

* United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor, UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (1999–2002)


United States' protectorates and protected states

* Liberia (1822–1847) * Republic of Texas (1836-1845) * Republic of Cuba (1902–1959), Cuba (1898–1934) * Republic of Negros (1899–1901) * Republic of Zamboanga (1899–1903) * Sultanate of Sulu (1903–1915) * Commonwealth of the Philippines, Philippines (1935–1946), under the provisions of the Tydings–McDuffie Act, the territory would become self-governing although its military and foreign affairs would be under the United States.


Contemporary usage by the United States

Some agencies of the United States government, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency, still use the term protectorate to refer to insular areas of the United States such as Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This was also the case with the Philippines and (it can be argued via the Platt Amendment) Cuba at the end of Spanish colonialism, colonial rule. Liberia was the only African nation that was a colony for the United States but the government had no control over the land as it was controlled by the privately owned American Colonization Society. It was, however, a protectorate from January 7, 1822, until the Liberian Declaration of Independence from the American Colonization Society on July 26, 1847. Liberia was founded and established as a homeland for freed African-Americans and ex-Caribbean slaves who left the United States and the Caribbean islands with help and support from the American Colonization Society. However, the agency responsible for the administration of those areas, the Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) within the United States Department of Interior, uses only the term "insular area" rather than protectorate. * Panama Canal Zone (1903–1979) * Puerto Rico * Northern Mariana Islands * Guam * U.S. Virgin Islands


''De facto''

* Territory of Alaska (1867–1958) * Territory of Hawaii (1898–1959) * United States occupation of Haiti, Haiti (1915–1934) * United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1916–1924), Dominican Republic (1916–1924)


Joint protectorates

* Republic of Ragusa (1684–1798), a joint Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg Austrian–Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish protectorate *The
United States of the Ionian Islands The United States of the Ionian Islands ( el, Ἡνωμένον Κράτος τῶν Ἰονίων Νήσων, Inoménon Krátos ton Ioníon Níson, ; it, Stati Uniti delle Isole Ionie) was a Greeks, Greek state (polity), state and amical protect ...
and the Septinsular Republic were federal republics of seven formerly Venetian (see Provveditore) Ionian islands (Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Cerigo, and Paxos (island), Paxos), officially under joint protectorate of the Allied Christian Powers, a British amical protectorate from 1815 to 1864. * Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956)


See also

*British Protected Person *Client state *European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina *EUFOR Althea *High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina *
League of Nations mandate A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global ...
*List of countries without armed forces *Peace Implementation Council *Protector (title), Protector (titles for Head of State, Heads of State and other individual persons) *Puerto Rico *Timeline of national independence *Tribute


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * *


French

* {{Authority control Colonialism Constitutional state types Client state