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Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an
academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the ...

academic
rank at
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...

universities
and other
post-secondary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, be ...
and research institutions in most countries. Literally, ''professor'' derives from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
as a "person who professes". Professors are usually
expert An expert is somebody who has a broad and deep competence in terms of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or obj ...

expert
s in their field and teachers of the highest rank. In most systems of
academic ranks Academic rank (also scientific rank) is the rank of a scientist or teacher in a college, high school, university or research establishment. The academic ranks indicate relative importance and power of individuals in academia. The academic rank ...
, "professor" as an unqualified title refers only to the most senior academic position, sometimes informally known as "full professor". In some countries and institutions, the word "professor" is also used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor; this is particularly the case in the United States, where the unqualified word is also used colloquially to refer to associate and assistant professors as well. This usage would be considered incorrect among other academic communities. However, the unqualified title "Professor" designated with a capital letter nearly always refers to a full professor. Professors often conduct
original research Research is " creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...
and commonly teach
undergraduate Undergraduate education ieducationconducted after secondary education and prior to postgraduate education. It typically includes all postsecondary programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry-level ...
,
professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowled ...
, or
postgraduate Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, u ...
courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with
graduate school File:CCMDonation49.JPG, Student receives degree from the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City, 2013 A graduate school (sometimes shortened to grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (e.g., ma ...
s, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a
thesis or dissertation A thesis, or dissertation (abbreviated diss.), is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher edu ...
. In many universities, full professors take on senior managerial roles such as leading departments, research teams and institutes, and filling roles such as
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, principal or
vice-chancellor A chancellor is a leader of a college or university, usually either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is ...
. The role of professor may be more public-facing than that of more junior staff, and professors are expected to be national or international leaders in their field of expertise.


Etymology

The term "professor" was first used in the late 14th century to mean "one who teaches a branch of knowledge". The word comes "...from Old French professeur (14c.) and directly from Latin professor'person who professes to be an expert in some art or science; teacher of highest rank'"; the Latin term came from the "...
agent noun In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the meth ...
from profiteri 'lay claim to, declare openly'." As a title that is "prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706". The " ort form prof is recorded from 1838". The term "professor" is also used with a different meaning: " e professing religion. This canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, but is obsolete in England."


Description

A professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
nations, as well as northern Europe, the title ''professor'' is the highest academic rank at a university. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...
, the title of ''professor'' applies to most post-doctoral academics, so a larger percentage are thus designated. In these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees (typically
PhD A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
degrees) or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...

universities
. An
emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, rabbi, emperor, or other person who has been "permitted to retain ...
professor is a title given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature and ongoing research. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are often given office or lab space, and use of libraries, labs, and so on. The term professor is also used in the titles '' assistant professor'' and '' associate professor'', which are not considered professor-level positions in all European countries. In Australia, the title ''associate professor'' is used in place of the term ''reader'' as used in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries; ranking above senior lecturer and below full professor. Beyond holding the proper academic title, universities in many countries also give notable artists, athletes and foreign dignitaries the title '' honorary professor'', even if these persons do not have the academic qualifications typically necessary for professorship and they do not take up professorial duties. However, such "professors" usually do not undertake academic work for the granting institution. In general, the title of professor is strictly used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis.


Tasks

Professors are qualified experts in their field who generally perform some or all the following tasks: * Managing
teaching Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed ...

teaching
, research, and publications in their departments (in countries where a professor is head of a department); * Presenting
lecture A lecture (from the Greek ''lecture'', meaning reading) is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. Lectures are used to convey critical in ...

lecture
s and
seminar A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution Academic institution is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childc ...

seminar
s in their specialties (i.e., they " profess"); * Performing, leading and publishing advanced
original research Research is " creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...
in
peer review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may r ...
ed journals in their fields; * Providing
community service Community service is unpaid work performed by a person or group of people for the benefit and betterment of their community without any form of compensation. Community service can be distinct from volunteering, since it is not always performed ...

community service
, including consulting functions (such as advising government and nonprofit organizations) or providing expert commentary on TV or radio news or public affairs programs; * Mentoring
graduate students A graduate school (sometimes shortened to grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (e.g., master's degree, master's and doctorate, doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous U ...
in their academic training; * Mentoring more junior academic staff; * Conducting administrative or managerial functions, usually at a high level (e.g. deans, heads of departments, research centers, etc.); and * Assessing students in their fields of expertise (e.g., through grading
examinations A test or examination (informally, exam or evaluation) is an educational assessment Educational assessment or educational evaluation is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge, skill, attitudes, and be ...
or
viva voce ''Viva voce'' is a Latin phrase literally meaning "with living voice" but most often translated as "by word of mouth." It may refer to: *Word of mouth *A voice vote in a deliberative assembly *An oral exam **Thesis defence, in academia *Spoken Evid ...
defenses). Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, protocols, place (country), and time. For example, professors at research-oriented universities in North America and, generally, at European universities, are promoted primarily on the basis of research achievements and external grant-raising success.


Around the world

Many
colleges A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...

colleges
and
universities A university () is an of (or ) and which awards s in several . Universities typically offer both and programs in different schools or faculties of learning. The word ''university'' is derived from the ''universitas magistrorum et scholari ...

universities
and other institutions of
higher learning ''Higher Learning'' is a 1995 American drama film In film and television show, television, drama is a category of narrative fiction (or docudrama, semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humour, humorous in tone. Drama of this kind is ...
throughout the world follow a similar hierarchical ranking structure amongst
scholars A scholar is a person who pursues academic and intellectual activities, particularly academics who apply their intellectualism into expertise in an area of Studying, study. A scholar can also be an academic, who works as a professor, teacher, or r ...
in
academia An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociol ...

academia
; the list above provides details.


Salary

A professor typically earns a base salary and a range of
employee benefits Employee benefits and (especially in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England ...
. In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in their institution (e.g., department chair, dean, head of graduate studies, etc.) earns additional income. Some professors also earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as
consulting A consultant (from la, consultare "to deliberate") is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and ...
, publishing academic or popular press books, giving speeches, or coaching executives. Some fields (e.g., business and computer science) give professors more opportunities for outside work.


Germany and Switzerland

A report from 2005 by the "Deutscher Hochschulverband DHV", a lobby group for German professors, the salary of professors, the annual salary of a German professor is
The euro sign () is the currency sign A currency symbol or currency sign is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money. Usage When writing currency amounts, the location of the sym ...

€
46,680 in group "W2" (mid-level) and €56,683 in group "W3" (the highest level), without performance-related bonuses. The anticipated average earnings with performance-related bonuses for a German professor is €71,500. The anticipated average earnings of a professor working in Switzerland vary for example between 158,953 CHF (€102,729) to 232,073 CHF (€149,985) at the
University of Zurich The University of Zurich (UZH, german: Universität Zürich) is a located in the city of , . It is the largest university in Switzerland, with its 28,000 enrolled students. It was founded in 1833 from the existing s of , , which go back to ...

University of Zurich
and 187,937 CHF (€121,461) to 247,280 CHF (€159,774) at the
ETH Zurich (colloquially) , former_name = eidgenössische polytechnische Schule , image = ETH Zürich am Abend.jpg , image_size = , established = , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and dis ...
; the regulations are different depending on the
Cantons of Switzerland The 26 cantons of Switzerland (german: Kanton; french: canton; it, cantone; Sursilvan Sursilvan (; also ''romontsch sursilvan'' ; Sursilvan, Vallader Vallader (Vallader, Sursilvan, Puter, Surmiran, and Rumantsch Grischun: ''vallader'' ...
.


Saudi Arabia

According to The Ministry of Civil Service, the salary of a professor in any public university is 344,497.5 SAR, or US$91,866.


Spain

The salaries of civil servant professors in Spain are fixed on a nationwide basis, but there are some bonuses related to performance and seniority and a number of bonuses granted by the Autonomous Regional governments. These bonuses include three-year premiums (, according to seniority), five-year premiums (, according to compliance with teaching criteria set by the university) and six-year premiums (, according to compliance with research criteria laid down by the national government). These salary bonuses are relatively small. Nevertheless, the total number of is a prerequisite for being a member of different committees. The importance of these as a
prestige Prestige refers to a good reputation or high esteem; in earlier usage, ''prestige'' meant "showiness". (19th c.) Prestige may also refer to: Arts, entertainment and media Films *Prestige (film), ''Prestige'' (film), a 1932 American film directed ...

prestige
factor in the university was enhanced by legislation in 2001 (LOU). Some indicative numbers can be interesting, in spite of the variance in the data. We report net monthly payments (after taxes and social security fees), without bonuses: Ayudante, €1,200; Ayudante Doctor, €1,400; Contratado Doctor; €1,800; Professor Titular, €2,000; Catedrático, €2,400. There are a total of 14 payments per year, including 2 extra payments in July and December (but for less than a normal monthly payment).


Netherlands

In 2007 the Dutch social fund for the academic sector SoFoKleS commissioned a comparative study of the wage structure of academic professions in the Netherlands in relation to that of other countries. Among the countries reviewed are the United States, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, France, Sweden and the Netherlands. To improve comparability, adjustments have been made to correct for
purchasing power Purchasing power is the amount of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Im ...
and taxes. Because of differences between institutions in the US and UK these countries have two listings of which one denotes the salary in top-tier institutions (based on the Shanghai-ranking).


United States

Professors in the United States Professors in the United States commonly occupy any of several positions in academia An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiar ...
commonly occupy any of several positions in
academia An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociol ...

academia
. In the U.S., the word "professor" informally refers collectively to the
academic ranks Academic rank (also scientific rank) is the rank of a scientist or teacher in a college, high school, university or research establishment. The academic ranks indicate relative importance and power of individuals in academia. The academic rank ...
of assistant professor, associate professor, or professor. This usage differs from the predominant usage of the word professor internationally, where the unqualified word professor only refers to "full professors." The majority of university lecturers and instructors in the United States, , do not occupy these
tenure-track Tenure is a category of academic appointment existing in some countries. A tenured post is an indefinite academic appointment that can be terminated only for cause or under extraordinary circumstances, such as financial exigency or program discon ...
ranks, but are part-time adjuncts.


Table of wages

The table below shows the final reference wages (per year) expressed in net amounts of Dutch Euros in 2014. (i.e., converted into Dutch
purchasing power Purchasing power is the amount of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Im ...
).


Research professor

In a number of countries, the title "research professor" refers to a professor who is exclusively or mainly engaged in research, and who has few or no teaching obligations. For example, the title is used in this sense in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
(where it is known as a research professor at some universities and professorial research fellow at some other institutions) and in
northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern region of Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54th parallel north, 54°N, or may be based on other geographic ...
. A research professor is usually the most senior rank of a research-focused career pathway in those countries and is regarded as equal to the ordinary full professor rank. Most often they are permanent employees, and the position is often held by particularly distinguished scholars; thus the position is often seen as more prestigious than an ordinary full professorship. The title is used in a somewhat similar sense in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
, with the exception that research professors in the United States are often not permanent employees and often must fund their salary from external sources, which is usually not the case elsewhere.


In fiction

Traditional fictional portrayals of professors, in accordance with a
stereotype Police officers buying doughnuts and coffee, an example of perceived stereotypical behavior in North America. Social psychology Social psychology is the Science, scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individu ...
, are shy, absent-minded individuals often lost in thought. In many cases, fictional professors are socially or physically awkward. Examples include the 1961 film ''
The Absent-Minded Professor ''The Absent-Minded Professor'' is a 1961 American science fiction comedy Science fiction comedy (sci-fi comedy) or comic science fiction is a subgenre Genre () is any form or type of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare ...
'' or
Professor Calculus Professor Cuthbert Calculus (french: Professeur Tryphon Tournesol , meaning "Professor Tryphon Sunflower ''Helianthus'' () is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classific ...
of ''
The Adventures of Tintin ''The Adventures of Tintin'' (french: Les Aventures de Tintin ) is a series of 24 ''bande dessinée'' albums created by Belgian Belgians ( nl, Belgen, french: Belges, german: Belgier) are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a f ...
'' stories. Professors have also been portrayed as being misguided into an evil pathway, such as Professor Metz, who helped Bond villain Blofeld in the film '' Diamonds Are Forever''; or simply evil, like
Professor Moriarty Professor James Moriarty is a fictional character In fiction Fiction generally is a narrative form, in any media (communication), medium, consisting of people, events, or places that are imagination, imaginary—in other words, not based st ...
,
archenemy An archenemy (or arch-enemy) is the main enemy An enemy or a foe is an individual or a group that is considered as forcefully adverse or threatening. The concept of an enemy has been observed to be "basic for both individuals and communities". ...
of British detective
Sherlock Holmes Sherlock Holmes () is a fictional detective created by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer and physician. He created the character Sherlock Holmes ...

Sherlock Holmes
. The modern animated series ''
Futurama ''Futurama'' is an American animated Animation is a method in which figures Figure may refer to: General *A shape, drawing, depiction, or geometric configuration *Figure (wood), wood appearance *Figure (music), distinguished from musical ...
'' has
Professor Hubert Farnsworth Professor Hubert J. Farnsworth, or simply Professor Farnsworth, is a fictional character in the American Animated series, animated television series ''Futurama''. The mad scientist proprietor of the Planet Express delivery service for whom the main ...
, a typical absent-minded but genius-level professor. A related stereotype is the
mad scientist Mad scientist (also mad doctor or mad professor) is a of a who is described as "mad" or "insane" owing to a combination of unusual or unsettling personality traits and the unabashedly ambitious, or tic nature of their experiments. As a in fic ...

mad scientist
.
Vladimir Nabokov Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (russian: link=no, Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков ; 2 July 1977), also known by the pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym ...
, author and professor of
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
at
Cornell Cornell University is a Private university, private Ivy League and Statutory college, statutory Land-grant university, land-grant research university, based in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, Cornell ...
, frequently used professors as the
protagonist 200px, Shakespeare's ''Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.'' William Morris Hunt, oil on canvas, c. 1864 A protagonist (from grc, πρωταγωνιστής, translit=prōtagōnistḗs, lit=one who plays the first part, chief actor) is the main character ...
s in his novels. Professor Henry Higgins is a main character in
George Bernard Shaw George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemic Polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range ...

George Bernard Shaw
's play '' Pygmalion''. In the ''
Harry Potter ''Harry Potter'' is a series of seven fantasy literature, fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling. The novels chronicle the lives of a young Magician (fantasy), wizard, Harry Potter (character), Harry Potter, and his friends H ...

Harry Potter
'' series, set at the wizard school
Hogwarts Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry () is a fictional British boarding school of magic Magic or Magick may refer to: * Ceremonial magic, encompasses a wide variety of rituals of magic * Chaos magic#REDIRECT Chaos magic {{Redirect cat ...

Hogwarts
, the teachers are known as professors, many of whom play important roles, notably Professors Dumbledore, McGonagall and . In the board game ''
Cluedo ''Cluedo'' (), known as ''Clue'' in North America, is a for three to six players (depending on editions) that was devised in 1943 by British board game designer . The game was first manufactured by in the United Kingdom in 1949. Since then, ...
'', Professor Plum has been depicted as an absent-minded academic.
Christopher Lloyd Christopher Allen Lloyd (born October 22, 1938) is an American actor. He has appeared in theater productions, films, and television since 1961, and is best known for portraying Dr. Emmett "Doc" Brown in the ''Back to the Future'' trilogy (1985 ...
played Plum's
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...
counterpart, a
psychologist A psychologist is a professional who practices psychology and studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenting with, and observing, interpreting, and recording how ...
who had an affair with one of his patients. Since the 1980s and 1990s, various stereotypes were re-evaluated, including professors. Writers began to depict professors as just normal human beings and might be quite well-rounded in abilities, excelling both in intelligence and in physical skills. An example of a fictional professor not depicted as shy or absent-minded is
Indiana Jones ''Indiana Jones'' is an American media franchise based on the adventures of Indiana Jones (character), Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones Jr., a fictional professor of archaeology, that began in 1981 with the film ''Raiders of the Lost Ark''. In ...
, a professor as well as an
archeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological ...

archeologist
-
adventurer An adventure is an exciting experience that is typically bold, sometimes risky or undertaking. Adventures may be activities with some potential for physical danger such as traveling, exploring, skydiving, mountain climbing, scuba diving, river ra ...

adventurer
, who is skilled at both scholarship and fighting. The popularity of the ''Indiana Jones'' movie franchise had a significant impact on the previous stereotype, and created a new archetype which is both deeply knowledgeable and physically capable. The character generally referred to simply as the Professor on the television sit com series, ''
Gilligan's Island ''Gilligan's Island'' is an American sitcom A sitcom, clipping Clipping may refer to: Words * Clipping (morphology) In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every ...
'', although described alternatively as a high-school science teacher or research scientist, is depicted as a sensible advisor, a clever inventor, and a helpful friend to his fellow
castaway Castaways may need to survive on a deserted island. A castaway is a person who is cast adrift or ashore. While the situation usually happens after a shipwreck A shipwreck is the remains of a ship that has wrecked, which are found either ...

castaway
s.
John Houseman John Houseman (born Jacques Haussmann; September 22, 1902 – October 31, 1988) was a Romanian-born British-American actor and producer of theatre, film, and television. He became known for his highly publicized collaboration with director ...

John Houseman
's portrayal of law school professor Charles W. Kingsfield, Jr., in ''
The Paper ChasePaper Chase or Paperchase may refer to: * Paper Chase (game), a racing game * Paperchase, a UK premium stationery retailer operating internationally. * ''The Paper Chase'', a 1966 memoir by Hal Porter Fiction * The Paper Chase (novel), ''The Pape ...
'' (1973) remains the
epitome An epitome (; gr, ἐπιτομή, from ἐπιτέμνειν ''epitemnein'' meaning "to cut short") is a summary or miniature form, or an instance that represents a larger reality, also used as a synonym A synonym is a word, morpheme A ...
of the strict, authoritarian professor who demands perfection from students.
Annalise Keating Annalise Keating Esq. (née Anna-Mae Harkness) is a fictional character in the legal drama series ''How to Get Away with Murder''. Series creator Peter Nowalk is responsible for creating and developing the character, and American actress Viola Dav ...
(played by
Viola Davis Viola Davis (born August 11, 1965) is an American actress and producer. The recipient of an Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film i ...

Viola Davis
) from the
American Broadcasting Company The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American multinational commercial broadcast television network A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes intercon ...
(ABC)
legal drama A legal drama, or a courtroom drama, is a genre of film and television that generally focuses on narratives regarding legal practice Legal practice is sometimes used to distinguish the body of judicial or administrative precedent A precedent i ...
mystery Mystery, The Mystery, Mysteries or The Mysteries may refer to: People * Mystery (pickup artist) Erik von Markovik (born September 24, 1971), more popularly known by his stage name, Mystery, is a Canadian pickup artist who developed a system of ...
television series ''
How to Get Away with Murder ''How to Get Away with Murder'' is an American legal thriller television series that premiered on American Broadcasting Company, ABC on September 25, 2014, and concluded on May 14, 2020. The series was created by Peter Nowalk, and produced by Sh ...
'' is a
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...
professor at the fictional Middleton University. Early in the series, Annalise is a self-sufficient and confident woman, respected for being a great law professor and a great lawyer, feared and admired by her students, whose image breaks down as the series progresses. Mysterious, older men with magical powers (and unclear academic standing) are sometimes given the title of "Professor" in literature and theater. Notable examples include Professor Marvel in ''The Wizard of Oz'' and Professor Drosselmeyer (as he is sometimes known) from the ballet ''
The Nutcracker ''The Nutcracker'' ( rus, Щелкунчик, Shchelkunchik, links=no ) is an 1892 two-act ballet (""; russian: балет-феерия, link=no, ), originally choreographed by Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov with a score by Pyotr Ilyich Tchai ...

The Nutcracker
''. Also, the magician played by Christian Bale in the film, ''
The Prestige ''The Prestige'' is a 1995 novel by British writer Christopher Priest (novelist), Christopher Priest. It tells the story of a prolonged feud between two stage magicians in late 1800s England. It is Epistolary novel, epistolary in structure; tha ...
'', adopts 'The Professor' as his
stage name A stage name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which differs from their original or true name (orthonym). This a ...
. A variation of this type of non-academic professor is the "crackpot inventor", as portrayed by Professor Potts in the film version of ''
Chitty Chitty Bang Bang ''Chitty Chitty Bang Bang'' is a 1968 musical-fantasy film directed by Ken Hughes with a screenplay co-written by Roald Dahl and Hughes, loosely based on Ian Fleming Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was a Britis ...
'' or the Jerry Lewis-inspired ''
Professor Frink Professor John I.Q. Nerdelbaum Frink Jr., is a recurring character in the Animated cartoon, animated television series ''The Simpsons''. He is voiced by Hank Azaria, and first appeared in the 1991 episode "Old Money (The Simpsons episode), Old Mone ...
'' character on ''
The Simpsons ''The Simpsons'' is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of American life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer Simpson, Homer, Marge Si ...
''. Other professors of this type are the thoughtful and kind Professor Digory Kirke of C.S. Lewis' ''
Chronicles of Narnia ''The Chronicles of Narnia'' is a series of fantasy novels by British author C. S. Lewis. Written by Lewis, illustrated by Pauline Baynes Pauline Diana Baynes (9 September 1922 – 1 August 2008) was an English people, English ill ...
''.


Non-academic usage

The title has been used by
comedian A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a , (in which they are called "readers"), , (in which they are called "listeners"), (in which th ...

comedian
s, such as "Professor"
Irwin Corey "Professor" Irwin Corey (July 29, 1914 – February 6, 2017) was an American stand-up comic Stand-up comedy is a comedy Comedy (from the el, wikt:κωμῳδία, κωμῳδία, ''kōmōdía'') is a genre of fiction consisting of disco ...
and
Soupy Sales Milton Supman (January 8, 1926 – October 22, 2009), known professionally as Soupy Sales, was an American comedian, actor, radio/television personality, and jazz aficionado. He was best known for his local and network children's television show ' ...
in his role as "The Big Professor". In the past,
pianist A pianist ( , ) is an individual musician who plays the piano The piano is an acoustic Acoustic may refer to: Music Albums * Acoustic (Bayside EP), ''Acoustic'' (Bayside EP) * Acoustic (Britt Nicole EP), ''Acoustic'' (Britt Nicole EP) ...

pianist
s in saloons and other rough environments have been called "professor". The
puppeteer A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object, called a puppet A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer A puppeteer is a perso ...

puppeteer
of a
Punch and Judy Punch and Judy is a traditional puppet A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate o ...

Punch and Judy
show is also traditionally known as "
Professor Professor (commonly abbreviated as Prof.) is an academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, hig ...

Professor
". Aside from such examples in the performing arts, one apparently novel example is known where the title of professor has latterly been applied to a college appointee with an explicitly “non-academic role”, which seems to be primarily linked to claims of “strategic importance”.


See also

*
Academic discipline An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact is ...
*
Adjunct professor Adjunct professor (adjunct lecturer, adjunct instructor, adjunct faculty or contingent academic labor collectively) is a type of academic appointment in higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also ref ...
* ''Sacrae Theologiae Professor'' (S.T.P.) – degree now awarded as S.T.D. or
Doctor of Divinity A Doctor of Divinity (D.D. or DDiv; la, Doctor Divinitatis) is the holder of an advanced academic degree in divinity (academic discipline), divinity. In the United Kingdom, it is considered as an advanced doctoral degree. At the University of ...
(D.D.) * ''
Emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, rabbi, emperor, or other person who has been "permitted to retain ...
'' *
Habilitation Habilitation is the procedure to achieve the highest university degree in many European countries in which the candidate fulfills certain criteria set by the university which require excellence in research, teaching, and further education. Its qua ...
*
Scholarly method The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and Practice theory, practices used by scholars and Academy#Academic personnel, academics to make their claims about the subject as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them ...
* School and university in literature


References


External links

* * * {{Authority control Academic ranks Education and training occupations