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Product placement, also known as embedded marketing, is a
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
technique where references to specific brands or products are incorporated into another work, such as a film or television program, with specific promotional intent. While references to brands (real or fictional) may be voluntarily incorporated into works to maintain a feeling of realism or be a subject of commentary, product placement is the deliberate incorporation of references to a brand or product in exchange for compensation. Product placements may range from unobtrusive appearances within an environment, to prominent integration and acknowledgement of the product within the work. Common categories of products used for placements include
automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on Track (rail transport), rails (such as trains o ...

automobile
s and
consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum ...
. Works produced by
vertically integrated In microeconomics Microeconomics (from Greek prefix ''mikro-'' meaning "small" + ''economics'') is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and Theory of the firm, firms in making decisions regarding the allocation o ...
companies (such as
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
) may use placements to promote their other divisions as a form of
corporate synergy Corporate synergy refers to a financial benefit that a corporation expects to realize when it merges with or acquires another corporation. Corporate synergy occurs when corporations interact congruently. This type of synergy is a nearly ubiquitous ...
. During the 21st century, the use of product placement on television has grown, particularly to combat the wider use of
digital video recorder A digital video recorder (DVR) is an electronic device The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol ...

digital video recorder
s that can skip traditional commercial breaks, as well as to engage with younger demographics. Digital editing technology is also being used to tailor product placement to specific demographics or markets, and in some cases, add placements to works that did not originally have embedded advertising, or update existing placements.


History


Origins

Product placement began in the 19th century. By the time
Jules Verne Jules Gabriel Verne (;''Longman Pronunciation Dictionary John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939) is a British Phonetics, phonetician and Esperantist. Wells is a professor emeritus at University College London, where until his retirement ...

Jules Verne
published the adventure novel ''
Around the World in Eighty Days ''Around the World in Eighty Days'' (french: link=no, Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours) is an adventure novel by the French writer Jules Verne, first published in French in 1872. In the story, Phileas Fogg of London and his newly employe ...
'' (1873), his fame had led transport and shipping companies to lobby to be mentioned in the story. Whether Verne was actually paid to do so remains unknown.William Butcher (translation and introduction). ''Around the World in Eighty Days'', Oxford Worlds Classics, 1995, Introduction. Similarly, a painting by Edouard Manet (1881-1882) shows a bar at the
Folies Bergere Folies is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or wit ...

Folies Bergere
with distinctive bottles placed at either end of the counter. The beer bottle is immediately recognisable as Bass beer. Manet's motivations for including branded products in his painting are unknown; it may be that it simply added to the work's authenticity, but on the other hand the artist may have received some payment in return for its inclusion. Research reported by Jean-Marc Lehu (2007) suggests that films produced by
Auguste and Louis Lumière The Lumière brothers (, ; ), Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas Lumière (19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Lumière, Louis Jean Lumière (5 October 1864 – 6 June 1948), were manufacturers of photography equipment, best known for their cin ...
in 1896 were made at the request of a representative of
Lever Brothers Lever Brothers was a British manufacturing company founded in 1885 by two brothers: William Hesketh Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme (1851–1925), and James Darcy Lever (1854–1916). They invested in and successfully promoted a new soap-making proc ...
in France. The films feature Sunlight soap, which may be the first recorded instance of paid product placement in film. This led to cinema becoming one of the earliest channels used for product placement. With the arrival of photo-rich periodicals in the late 19th century, publishers found ways of lifting their paper's reputation by placing an issue of the magazine in photographs of prominent people. For example, the German magazine '' Die Woche'' in 1902 printed an article about a countess in her castle where she, in one of the photographs, holds a copy of the magazine in her hands. Product placement was a common feature of many of the earliest actualities and cinematic attractions from the first ten years of cinema history. During the next four decades, ''
Harrison's Reports ''Harrison's Reports'' was a New York City-based motion picture trade journal published weekly from 1919 to 1962. The typical issue was four letter-size pages sent to subscribers under a second-class mail permit. Its founder, editor and publisher w ...
'' frequently cited cases of on-screen brand-name placement.
Harrison Harrison may refer to: People * Harrison (name) * Harrison family of Virginia Places In Australia: * Harrison, Australian Capital Territory, suburb in the Canberra district of Gungahlin In Canada: * Inukjuak, Quebec, or "Port Harrison", Nu ...
condemned the practice as harmful to movie theatres, and his editorials reflected his hostility towards product placement in films. ''Harrison's Reports'' published its first denunciation of that practice over Red Crown gasoline's appearance in '' The Garage'' (1920). Another editorial criticised the collaboration between the Corona Typewriter company and
First National Pictures First National Pictures was an American motion picture production and distribution company. It was founded in 1917 as First National Exhibitors' Circuit, Inc., an association of independent theatre owners in the United States, and became the coun ...
when a Corona typewriter appeared in several films in the mid-1920s including ''
The Lost World The lost world is a subgenre of the fantasy or science fiction genres that involves the discovery of an unknown world out of time, place, or both. It began as a subgenre of the late-Victorian literature, Victorian adventure Romanticism, romance an ...
'' (1925). Recognisable brand names appeared in movies from cinema's earliest history. Before films had narrative form in the current sense, industrial concerns financed the making of what film scholar Tom Gunning described as "cinematic attractions", short films of one or two minutes. In the first decade or so of film (1895–1907) audiences attended films as "fairground attractions" interesting for their then-amazing visual effects. This format was better suited to product placement than narrative cinema. Leon Gurevitch argued that early cinematic attractions have more in common with television advertisements in the 1950s than they do with traditional films. Gurevitch suggested that as a result, the relationship between cinema and advertising is intertwined, suggesting that cinema was in part the result of advertising and the economic benefits that it provided early film makers.Gurevitch, L. (2009). "Problematic Dichotomies: Narrative and Spectacle in Film and Advertising Scholarship", ''Journal of Popular Narrative Media'', Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, Vol. 2 (2), 143-158. Segrave detailed the industries that advertised in these early films.


Movies and television


Early film

A feature film that has expectations of reaching millions of viewers attracts marketers. In many cases the film producers request no payment for product exposure when consumer brands appear in movies. Film productions need props for scenes, so each movie's ''
property masterThe property master, often called the prop(s) master, is an artistic and organizational employee in a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ...
'', who is responsible for gathering props for the film, contacts advertising agencies or product companies directly. In addition to items for on-screen use, the product or service supplier might provide a production with complimentary products or services. Tapping product placement channels can be particularly valuable for movies when a vintage product is required—such as a sign or bottle—that is not readily available. Although there is no definitive proof that product placement for Red Crown gasoline in ''The Garage'',
Fritz Lang Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-German-American film director, screenwriter, and occasional film producer and actor.Obituary ', August 4, 1976, p. 63. One of the best-known ''émigr ...
's ''
Dr. Mabuse the Gambler ''Dr. Mabuse the Gambler'' (german: Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler) is the first film in the Dr. Mabuse series about the character Doctor Mabuse who featured in the novels of Norbert Jacques. It was directed by Fritz Lang Friedrich Christian Anton ...
'' (1922) contained a prominent title card in the opening credits reading "The gowns of the female stars were designed by Vally Reinecke and made in the fashion studios of Flatow-Schädler und Mossner." Among
silent film A silent film is a film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or oth ...

silent film
s to feature product placement was ''
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'' (1927), the first to win the
Academy Award for Best Picture The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the Academy Awards The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises ...
. It contained a plug for Hershey's chocolate. Fritz Lang's film '' M'' (released in 1931) shows a banner display for Wrigley's PK Chewing Gum, for approximately 20–30 seconds. Another early example occurs in ''
Horse Feathers ''Horse Feathers'' is a 1932 pre-Code '' (1931) were able to feature criminal, anti-hero protagonists. File:LegsTurntab42ndStTrailer.jpg, upright=1.5, ''42nd Street (film), 42nd Street'' (1933) made concessions to the Hays Code in its d ...
'' (1932), where
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's character falls out of a canoe and into a river. She calls for a " life saver" and
Groucho Marx Julius Henry "Groucho" Marx (; October 2, 1890 – August 19, 1977) was an American comedian, actor, writer, stage, film, radio, and television star. He is generally considered to have been a master of quick wit and one of America's greatest com ...

Groucho Marx
tosses her a
Life Savers Life Savers is an American brand of ring-shaped hard and soft candy. Its range of mints and fruit-flavored candies is known for its distinctive packaging, coming in paper-wrapped aluminum foil Aluminium (aluminum in American English, Amer ...
candy. ''
It's a Wonderful Life ''It's a Wonderful Life'' is a 1946 American Christmas Christmas (or the Feast of the Nativity) is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultura ...

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'' (1946) depicts a young boy with aspirations to be an explorer, displaying a prominent copy of ''
National Geographic ''National Geographic'' (formerly the ''National Geographic Magazine'', sometimes branded as NAT GEO) is an American monthly magazine published by the National Geographic Society The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Was ...
'' magazine. In ''
Love Happy ''Love Happy'' is a 1949 American musical comedy film, released by United Artists United Artists Corporation (UA), currently doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American digital production company. Founded in 1919 by D. ...
'' (1949), cavorts on a rooftop among various billboards and at one point escapes from the villains on the old
Mobil Mobil Corporation, (originally Standard Oil Company of New York and then Socony-Vacuum Oil Company) was an American oil company that merged with Exxon Exxon is the brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature th ...

Mobil
logo, the "Flying Red Horse". ''Harrison's Reports'' severely criticised this scene in its film review and in a front-page editorial. In ''
Gun Crazy ''Gun Crazy'' (also known as ''Deadly Is the Female'') is a 1950 American crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple ...
'' (1949), the climactic crime is the payroll robbery of the
Armour Armour (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage a ...

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meat-packing plant, where a
Bulova Bulova is an American watch brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business Business is the activity ...

Bulova
clock is prominently displayed.


=Later films

= The James Bond film '' You Only Live Twice'' (1967) featured the
Toyota 2000GT The Toyota 2000GT is a limited-production front mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive, two-door, two-seat sports car A sports car is a car designed with an emphasis on dynamic performance, such as Automobile handling, handling, acceleration, top spee ...

Toyota 2000GT
, and the films ''
Smokey and the Bandit ''Smokey and the Bandit'' is a 1977 American road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or by some form of ...
'' (1977) and ''
The Cannonball Run ''The Cannonball Run'' is a 1981 action comedy film. It was directed by Hal Needham, produced by Hong Kong's Orange Sky Golden Harvest, Golden Harvest films, and distributed by 20th Century Fox. Filmed in Panavision, it features an all-star suppo ...
'' (1981) film series featured conspicuous placements. The science fiction film '' E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial'' (1982) is often cited for its multiple, obvious placements, including the candy
Reese's Pieces Reese's Pieces are a peanut butter Peanut butter is a food Paste (food), paste or Spread (food), spread made from Grinding (abrasive cutting), ground, dry roasting, dry-roasted peanuts. It commonly contains additional ingredients that modify th ...

Reese's Pieces
, into the plot. In the New World Pictures dub of ''
The Return of Godzilla is a 1984 Japanese ''kaiju'' film directed by Koji Hashimoto, with special effects by Teruyoshi Nakano. The film features the fictional monster character Godzilla. Produced and distributed by Toho Studios, it is the 16th film in the ''Godzil ...
'', ''Godzilla 1984'',
Dr Pepper Dr Pepper is a carbonated soft drink A soft drink (see § Terminology for other names) is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that contin ...
was prominently placed into the new scenes shot for the dub. In a scene shot at an American military base, a vending machine is directly between two characters, and in similar scenes characters are often depicted drinking the soft drink.
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Cheerios
and
Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical sub ...

Coca-Cola
were placed in the
Andrew Lloyd Webber Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is an English composer and impresario of musical theatre. Several of his musicals have run for more than a decade both in the West End theatre, West End and on Broadway theatre, Br ...
musical ''Evita'', in '' Superman: The Movie'', and in its sequel ''
Superman II ''Superman II'' is a 1980 superhero film directed by Richard Lester and written by Mario Puzo and David Newman (screenwriter), David and Leslie Newman from a story by Puzo based on the DC Comics character Superman. It is the second installment in ...
''.
Clark Kent Superman is a superhero A superhero or superheroine is a stock character Stock (also capital stock) is all of the shares into which ownership of a corporation is divided.Longman Business English Dictionary In American English, th ...

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eats Cheerios for breakfast in ''Smallville''. In ''
Superman II ''Superman II'' is a 1980 superhero film directed by Richard Lester and written by Mario Puzo and David Newman (screenwriter), David and Leslie Newman from a story by Puzo based on the DC Comics character Superman. It is the second installment in ...
''s climax, Superman crashes into a giant Coca-Cola advertisement and saves people on a bus bearing an ad for ''Evita'', before he smashes into a Marlboro delivery truck. In the film ''
Cast Away ''Cast Away'' is a 2000 American survival drama film In film and television show, television, drama is a category of narrative fiction (or docudrama, semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humour, humorous in tone. Drama of this kin ...

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'', Tom Hanks, the lead character, is a
FedEx FedEx Corporation, formerly Federal Express Corporation and later FDX Corporation, is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational f ...

FedEx
employee. A volleyball from
Wilson Sporting Goods The Wilson Sporting Goods Company is an American sports equipment manufacturer based in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates ...
is also prominently featured in the film. References to the delivery company FedEx are made throughout the film, and the company is central to the plot. ''
The Internship ''The Internship'' is a 2013 American comedy film directed by Shawn Levy, written by Vince Vaughn and Jared Stern, and produced by Vaughn and Levy. The film stars Vince Vaughn and Owen Wilson as recently laid-off salesmen who attempt to compete w ...
'' (2013), which features two unemployed
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slacker
friends seeking employment at
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
, was described by Tom Brook of the
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
as "one huge advertisement for Google" that took "product placement to a startling new extreme". ''
Rolling Stone ''Rolling Stone'' is an American monthly magazine that focuses on music, politics, and popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish ...
'' magazine included it on a list of the 10 Egregious Product Placements in film.


Early radio and television

Over-the-air (OTA) radio and television in the United States are not funded through end user license or subscription. In US
radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device ...

radio
since the 1930s and
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...

television
since the 1950s, programs have been normally
underwritten Underwriting (UW) services are provided by some large financial institutions, such as banks, insurance companies and investment houses, whereby they guarantee payment in case of damage or financial loss and accept the financial risk for liability ...
by
sponsor Sponsor or sponsorship may refer to a person or organization with some role (especially one of responsibility) regarding another person or organisation: *Sponsor (commercial), supporter of an event, activity, or person *Sponsor (legislative), a pers ...
s. ''
Soap opera A soap opera or ''soap'' for short is a radio or television serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments * Serial (literature), serialised fiction in print * Serial (publishing), p ...
s'' were named for the
consumer packaged goods Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG), also known as consumer packaged goods (CPG), are products that are sold quickly and at a relatively low cost. Examples include non-durable household goods such as packaged foods, beverages, toiletries, candies, ...
products advertised by
Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational consumer goods A final good or consumer good is a final product In Production (economics), production, a final product, or finished product is a product (business), product th ...
and
Unilever Unilever PLC is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a so ...

Unilever
. When television began to grow popular, DuMont's 1950s '' Cavalcade of Stars'' show did not rely on a sole sponsor. Sponsorship continues with programs sponsored by major vendors such as
Hallmark Cards Hallmark Cards, Inc. is a private, family-owned United States, American company based in Kansas City, Missouri. Founded in 1910 by Joyce Hall, Hallmark is the oldest and largest manufacturer of greeting cards in the United States. In 1985, the co ...
. The conspicuous display of
Studebaker Studebaker ( or British ) was an American wagon and automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that ...

Studebaker
motor vehicles in the television series ''
Mister Ed ''Mister Ed'' is an American television sitcom produced by Filmways that aired in syndication from January 5 to July 2, 1961, and then on CBS from October 1, 1961 to February 6, 1966. The show's title character is a talking horse which origina ...
'' (1961–1966), which was sponsored by the Studebaker Corporation from 1961 to 1963, as well as the display of
Ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
vehicles on the series ''
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'' (1961–1966), which was sponsored by the Ford Motor Company from 1961 to 1965, are other examples of television product placement.


Types

Placements fall into two categories: paid and unpaid. Subcategories are basic, when a logo is merely visible, and advanced, whereby the product or brand is spoken by characters in the show or movie. Barter and service deals (mobile phones provided for crew use, for instance) are also common practices. Content providers may trade product placements for help funding advertisements tied-in with a film's release, a show's new season or other event. Still another variant, known as an advertisement placement, displays an
advertisement Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...

advertisement
for the product (rather than the product itself) which appears in the production, such as a
Lucky Strike Lucky Strike is an American brand of cigarettes owned by the British American Tobacco group. Individual cigarettes of the brand are often referred to colloquially as "Luckies." Lucky Strike was the top-selling cigarette brand in the United State ...

Lucky Strike
cigarette advertisement on a
billboard A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising Out-of-home (OOH) advertising, also called outdoor advertising, outdoor media, and out-of-home media, is advertising experienced ...
or a truck with a milk ad on its trailer.


Re-placement

Placing contemporary products into existing content creates new opportunities for marketers. These can be during reruns or video release. An early example of product replacement is the 1993 Sylvester Stallone action film '' Demolition Man''. The film includes a plot point that in the future world of 2032,
Taco Bell Taco Bell is an American-based chain of fast food restaurant in England A fast food restaurant, also known as a quick service restaurant (QSR) within the industry, is a specific type of restaurant that serves fast food cuisine and has ...

Taco Bell
is the only remaining restaurant franchise. Since Taco Bell was not well known outside of the U.S., for the international release of the film it was replaced with
Pizza Hut Pizza Hut is an American multinational restaurant chain and international Franchising, franchise founded in 1958 in Wichita, Kansas by Dan and Frank Carney. They serve their signature pan pizza and other dishes including pasta, breadsticks and des ...

Pizza Hut
, another restaurant chain owned by
Yum! Brands Yum! Brands, Inc. (or Yum!), formerly Tricon Global Restaurants, Inc., is an American fast food corporation listed on the Fortune 1000. Yum! operates the brands KFC, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, The Habit Burger Grill, and WingStreet worldwide, ex ...
. Lines were re-dubbed and logos changed during post-production. In television examples include ''
Numb3rs ''Numbers'' (stylized as ''NUMB3RS'') is an American crime drama Crime films, in the broadest sense, is a film genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre generally involve various aspects of cri ...
'' and '' Still Standing''; where a scene may be shot originally with a blank table, with sponsored products digitally added, possibly for each airing. As of 2007, dynamic or switchable placements became possible. Placements can be customised based upon factors such as demographics,
psychographics Psychographics is a qualitative methodology used to describe trait Trait may refer to: * Phenotypic trait in biology, which involve genes and characteristics of organisms * Trait (computer programming), a model for structuring object-oriented prog ...
or behavioral information about the consumer. In-game advertising vendors such as
Massive Incorporated Massive Incorporated was an advertising company that provided software and services to dynamically host advertisements within video games. Massive Incorporated was purchased by Microsoft in May 2006 for approximately $200 million to $400 million. ...
transmit user information such as individual player IDs and data about what was on the screen and for how long to their servers, enabling user-specific placements. Hypervideo techniques allow the insertion of interactive elements into video.


Brand integration

Brand integration, a variant of product placement, is when "the product or company name becomes part of the show in such a way that it contributes to the narrative and creates an environment of brand awareness beyond that produced by advanced placement." While this type of advertising is common on unscripted shows such as ''
The Apprentice An Apprenticeship, apprentice is someone who is in training for a trade, profession or in the context of the British abolition of slavery an obligatory status whereby the former slave was forced to labour for three quarters of the time for their for ...
'', it can also be used in scripted television. An early example was by Abercrombie & Fitch, when one of its stores provided the notional venue for part of the romantic comedy film ''Man's Favorite Sport?'' (1964). On ''All My Children'' one character took a job at Revlon. The character's job became part of the character's development. ''Jurassic Park (film), Jurassic Park'' not only prominently features
Ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
cars and other commercial products, but also includes a scene displaying its own promotional merchandise. One shot shows the "Jurassic Park Souvenir Store", with products that it offered for sale to fans.


Product displacement

A real brand logo may be hidden or replaced with fictional brand names in a production, either to imitate, satirize or differentiate the product from a real corporate brand.Robin Andersen, Jonathan Gray, ''Battleground: The Media'' (2008), p. 386. Such a device may be required where real corporations are unwilling to license their brand names for use in the fictional work, particularly where the work holds the product in a negative light. According to Danny Boyle, director of the film ''Slumdog Millionaire'' (2008), the makers used "product displacement" to accommodate sponsors such as Mercedes-Benz that refused to allow their products to be used in non-flattering settings. While Mercedes did not mind having a gangster driving their cars, they objected to their products being shown in a slum. The makers removed logos digitally in post-production, costing "tens of thousands of pounds". When such issues are brought up in advance of filming, production companies often resort to "greeking", the practice of simply covering logos with tape, but one of them driven by Latika is shown to have the logos on the car keys. Similarly, in ''The Blues Brothers (film), The Blues Brothers'' (1980), portions of the defunct Dixie Square Mall in Harvey, Illinois, were reconstructed in façade and used as the scene of an indoor car chase. Signage belonging to mall tenants was replaced with that of other vendors; for instance, a Walgreens would become a Toys "R" Us. ''Cars (film), Cars'' (2006) parodies NASCAR, an advertising-heavy sport which controversially had long allowed alcohol (drug), alcohol and tobacco sponsorships. NASCAR's sponsors were replaced with fictional brand, fictional or parody brands; Dinoco Oil takes pride of place, followed by a string of invented automotive aftermarket products marketed in a similar means to Medication, pharmaceutical products. Dale Earnhardt Jr., "Dale Earnhardt Inc." displaced "Junior #8"'s sponsor Budweiser (Anheuser-Busch), Budweiser to avoid advertising beer in a Pixar, Disney & Pixar feature. The racing series portrayed in the film is also known as the "Piston Cup", as a pun on the NASCAR Cup Series' past sponsor of Winston (cigarette), Winston cigarettes (during which time it was known as the "Winston Cup Series"; it has since been succeeded by phone carrier Sprint Corporation, Sprint and energy drink Monster Energy).


Audio vs visual

Placements can be sound-only, visual-only or a combination of both. The Russian television show дом-2 (phonetically ''Dom-2'') (similar to ''Big Brother (TV series), Big Brother'') often features participants stating something along the lines of, "Oh, did you check out the new product X by company Y yet?" after which the camera zooms in on the named product, explicitly combining an audio mention with a visual image. In ''The Real World/Road Rules Challenge'' participants often make a similar comment, usually pertaining to the mobile device and carrier for a text message. An experiment from 2002 tested the relationship between auditory vs visual product placement and if the product had higher or lower connection to the plot to how well it was remembered by viewers. The results of the experiment concluded that regardless of if the product had higher or lower connection to the plot, in either circumstance an auditory product placement was more likely to be remembered by viewers than a visual product placement.


Branded content

"Branded content" refers to works that are funded or produced by an advertiser as a vehicle for their brand. Some forms of branded content do include self-placed product placement (such as a series of made-for-TV movies produced by Walmart and
Procter & Gamble The Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) is an American multinational consumer goods A final good or consumer good is a final product In Production (economics), production, a final product, or finished product is a product (business), product th ...
, which featured placements for P&G products and Walmart store brands), but some (such as, most prominently, the media operations of Red Bull) are focused more upon producing content that is consistent with the brand's values and demographics, rather than being a promotion for their products (in this case, energy drinks) first and foremost.


Cross-promotion

Larger, Vertical integration, vertically integrated conglomerates may include references to their own products and services in works as a form of
corporate synergy Corporate synergy refers to a financial benefit that a corporation expects to realize when it merges with or acquires another corporation. Corporate synergy occurs when corporations interact congruently. This type of synergy is a nearly ubiquitous ...
. Owing to its common ownership, Sony Pictures films have featured placements of
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
's
consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum ...
products, particularly Sony Xperia, Xperia smartphones, among other products. The Portrayal of James Bond in film, James Bond films ''Skyfall'' and ''Spectre (2015 film), Spectre'' prominently feature placements of the Sony Xperia T, Xperia T and Sony Xperia Z5, Z5 smartphones respectively, and the T was distributed with pre-loaded add-on content relating to ''Skyfall'' and the film franchise. Similarly, it is not uncommon for films produced by media conglomerates to include portrayals of programming from their respective television channels in-universe, such as some 20th Century Fox films incorporating the then-co-owned Fox News Channel into scenes portraying newscasts.


Parodies

The Pilot (30 Rock), pilot episode of the NBC sitcom ''30 Rock'' featured the General Electric (at the time an 80% owner of NBC) Trivection oven, but was said to be a joke by the show's creator. The show later parodied placement. The 1988 film ''Return of the Killer Tomatoes'' mocked the concept when at one point the film stops for lack of money. The character played by George Clooney suggests product placement as a way to continue. This was followed by several scenes with blatant product placement, including a Pepsi-Cola, Pepsi billboard installed in front of the villain's mansion. The 1994 film ''The Making of '...And God Spoke''' is a mockumentary about the filming of a biblical epic. When running low on funds to complete the film within a film, the desperate producers resort to product placement, resulting in the absurd anachronism of Moses descending from Mt. Sinai carrying the Ten Commandments and a six-pack of Coca-Cola. The film ''Fight Club (film), Fight Club'', directed by David Fincher, bit the hand that fed it by depicting acts of violence against most of the products that paid to be placed in the film. Examples include the scene where the Apple Store (retail), Apple Store is broken into, the scene where Brad Pitt and Edward Norton smash the headlights of a Volkswagen New Beetle, new Volkswagen Beetle, and try to blow up a "popular coffee franchise", a thinly veiled dig at Starbucks. The film ''Superstar (1999 film), Superstar'', starring Will Ferrell and Molly Shannon, shows every resident in town driving Volkswagen New Beetles, possibly for comic effect. Similarly, the film ''Mr. Deeds'' shows Adam Sandler's character purchasing a Chevrolet Corvette for every resident of his town. The 2006 Will Ferrell comedy film ''Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby'' parodied the large amount of sponsorship in NASCAR, having the title character at one point drive with a "dangerous and inconvenient" decal of the Fig Newtons logo covering his windshield, bluntly serving as a spokesperson for Big Red (gum), Big Red chewing gum, and including a plug for Powerade into a saying of Grace (prayer), grace before dinner. ''Wayne's World (film), Wayne's World'' featured a scene where Wayne refuses to allow his show's sponsor to appear on the air. When told it is part of his contract, Wayne argues that the deal "didn't include selling out" while conspicuously drinking a can of Pepsi, eating Doritos, and displaying a
Pizza Hut Pizza Hut is an American multinational restaurant chain and international Franchising, franchise founded in 1958 in Wichita, Kansas by Dan and Frank Carney. They serve their signature pan pizza and other dishes including pasta, breadsticks and des ...

Pizza Hut
pizza. Garth then laments that "people only do things because they get paid" while his entire wardrobe consists of Reebok athletic wear. Finally, Wayne complains of a headache and Garth advises him to take Nuprin while cutting to a few seconds of a Nuprin TV ad. ''Kung Pow! Enter the Fist'' spoofed its product placements, highlighting the anachronistic inclusion of a
Taco Bell Taco Bell is an American-based chain of fast food restaurant in England A fast food restaurant, also known as a quick service restaurant (QSR) within the industry, is a specific type of restaurant that serves fast food cuisine and has ...

Taco Bell
. In a similar vein, in ''Looney Tunes: Back In Action'', the main characters stumble across a Wal-Mart while stranded in the middle of Death Valley and acquire supplies just for providing an endorsement. ''Kannagi: Crazy Shrine Maidens'' poked fun at its sponsor Sony by having one character give another a Blu-ray Disc with the tagline "It's a Sony", only for them to complain that they do not have a Blu-ray player, to which the character responds with a version in Betamax.


Faux placements

Some films do not wish to depict real brands onscreen, so fake brands are created for products shown onscreen. ''X-Files'' (1993–2002) (as well as many other films and television productions) featured the fictional Morley (cigarette), Morley brand of cigarettes, the choice of the Cigarette Smoking Man. The company producing Morleys was also involved in a cover-up conspiracy, ''Brand X''. ''Ghostbusters'' had a faux product in the climax of the film when the team faces the Stay Puft Marshmallow Man. Previously in the film, Stay-Puft brand marshmallows are shown in Dana's apartment and a Stay-Puft billboard is visible (via a matte painting) when the Ghostbusters' storage grid is deactivated and the imprisoned ghosts are released. Similar in form, Mel Brooks used the same device in the comedy spoof ''Spaceballs'', which parodied ''Star Wars'': in one scene, he opened up a can of Perri-Air canned air, a play on the name Perrier, the brand of bottled water. ''The Truman Show'' used fake placements to advance the narrative of the reality television set. Truman's wife places products in front of hidden cameras, even naming them in dialogue with her husband. This increases Truman's suspicions as he comes to realize his surroundings are intentionally fabricated. Some filmmakers created fictional products that appear in multiple movies. Examples include Kevin Smith (Nails Cigarettes, Mooby the Golden Calf, Mooby Corporation, Chewlees Gum, Discreeto Burritos) and Quentin Tarantino (Red Apple Cigarettes, Jack Rabbit Slim's Restaurants, Big Kahuna Burger). This went even further with the fictional brand Binford Tools which appeared in TV shows Home Improvement (TV series), ''Home Improvement'' and Last Man Standing (U.S. TV series), ''Last Man Standing'' and in the ''Toy Story (franchise), Toy Story'' movie franchise, all starring Tim Allen. This practice is also fairly common in certain comics, such as Svetlana Chmakova's ''Dramacon'', which makes several product-placement-esque usages of "Pawky", (a modification of the name of the Japanese snack "Pocky", popular among anime and manga fans) or Naoko Takeuchi's ''Sailor Moon'', which includes numerous references to the series ''Codename: Sailor V'', from which ''Sailor Moon'' was spun off. This practice is also common in certain "reality-based" video games such as the Grand Theft Auto, ''Grand Theft Auto'' series, which feature fictitious stores such as Ammu-Nation, Vinyl Countdown, Gash (spoofing Gap (clothing retailer), Gap) Zip, Pizza Boy, etc.


Reverse placement

So-called "reverse product placement" creates real products to match those seen in a fictional setting, typically as a tie-in. ''Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory'' (1971) led to a real The Willy Wonka Candy Company, Willy Wonka candy company, established soon after the film's release. In 1949, Crazy Eddie was created as a fictional car dealer in the film ''A Letter to Three Wives''. That name, bestowed in 1971 upon a real-life electronics chain in New York City, appeared in 1984 in an ad in ''Splash (film), Splash''. Crazy Eddie's memorable ads are parodied in ''Howard the Duck'', featuring a duck version of the famous pitchman, and UHF (film), ''UHF'', as "Crazy Ernie", a used car salesman, threatens to club a baby seal if nobody comes in to buy a car. In 2007, as a promotional tie-in for ''The Simpsons Movie'', 7-Eleven temporarily turned twelve of its locations into Kwik-E-Marts—a fictional chain of convenience stores within the universe of ''The Simpsons''. The stores sold Products produced from The Simpsons, real-world versions of food and drink brands seen in the franchise, including Buzz Cola, Duff Beer and Krusty-O's.


Music and recording industries

While radio and television stations are regulated by national governments, producers of printed or recorded works are not, leading marketers to attempt to get products mentioned in lyrics of popular songs. In 2008, The Kluger Agency was claimed to have proposed placement of ''Jeff Crouse#Notable works, Double Happiness Jeans'', a virtual sweatshop created as part of the ''Invisible Threads'' project for the 2008 Sundance Festival, in a Pussycat Dolls song for a fee. The firm was not intended to represent a commercial product. It had been invented as a collaboration between Jeff Crouse of the Anti-Advertising Agency and Stephanie Rothenberg. While the product technically existed at the time, ''Double Happiness'' was intended to be a critical piece. In January 2009, ''Migra Corridos'', a five-song EP including accordion ballad "El Mas Grande Enemigo", had received airplay on twenty-five Mexican radio stations. The tune purports to be the lament of a would-be immigrant left to die in the Arizona desert by people smuggling, coyotes (people smugglers). No disclosure was made to the radio stations that the United States Border Patrol, U.S. Border Patrol had commissioned the project with content devised by Elevación, a Hispanic advertising agency based in Washington, D.C. and New York City. In 2010, a video for Lady Gaga's "Telephone (Lady Gaga song), Telephone" was panned by critics for displaying nine brands in nine minutes (including her own line of Heartbeats headphones), many as paid product placements. Other 2010 music videos displayed the PlentyofFish website include Natasha Bedingfield's "Touch (Natasha Bedingfield song), Touch", Flo Rida and Akon's "R.O.O.T.S.#Singles, Available", Jason Derulo's "Ridin' Solo", and 3OH!3's "Double Vision (3OH!3 song), Double Vision". In 2011, Britney Spears's music video for "Hold It Against Me" advertised PlentyofFish and
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
; one ''Washington Post'' review denounced the video as an informercial. Jennifer Lopez's Fiat Automobiles, Fiat-sponsored music video "Papi (song), Papi" was edited for broadcast as a 30-second advertisement for the Fiat 500 (2007), Fiat 500 Cabrio in 2011. The original video also advertised BlackBerry, Tous Designer House, Tous, Planet Love Match and Crown Royal. Alcohol advertising in music videos drew criticism from Curtin University in Perth, Australia in 2011. An Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC) exists in Australia to handle complaints, but a placement of Midori (liqueur), Midori liqueur in Cobra Starship's "You Make Me Feel..." was judged not to be alcohol advertising. Rap music, Rap and hip hop music, hip hop are notorious for the high level of product placement in lyrics and music videos; as rappers flaunt luxury brands to show off their wealthy lifestyle, companies pay to have their products named in tracks. This integration began in 1986 with Run-DMC's "My Adidas." Hennessy and Alizé (drink), Alizé are notable as alcoholic drinks which became popular after being promoted in rap.


Comics

South African football comic book ''Supa Strikas'' accepts product placement to allow for the comic's free distribution. Product placement occurs throughout the publication; on players' shirts, billboards and signage, and through the branding of locations or scenarios. ''Supa Strikas'' receives the majority of its support from Chevron Corporation, Chevron, via its Caltex and Texaco brands. In markets where Chevron lacks a presence, other brands step in, e.g., including Visa Inc., Visa in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Other brands include their logos included as both billboard and background advertising, and through the branding of locations and scenarios. These companies include Metropolitan Life, Nike, Inc., Nike, Spur Steak Ranches and the South African National Roads Agency, among others. Other titles adopted the same system, including cricket comic ''Supa Tigers'' and ''Strike Zone''.


Sports

Product placement has long been prevalent in sports at all levels.


NFL

While now-defunct NFL Europe allowed liberal use of team uniforms by sponsors, the main National Football League (NFL) does not. For instance, the league prohibits logos of sponsors painted onto the fields, although Gillette Stadium in Foxborough, Massachusetts, has their stadium's logomark painted onto the FieldTurf field. In 2008, the league allowed sponsors on the practice jerseys of the uniforms, but not game uniforms. In 1991, the league allowed uniform suppliers to display their logos on their NFL-related products. Since 2012, Nike, Inc., Nike has been the league's official uniform supplier. Early on, two of the league's flagship teams—the Green Bay Packers and the Pittsburgh Steelers—adopted their identity from corporate sponsors. The Packers adopted the name "Packers" because they were sponsored by the Indian Packing Company. They later had "ACME PACKERS" written on their uniforms in the early 1920s after the Acme Packing Company bought Indian Packing. The Steelers adopted their current logo in 1962 as a product-placement deal with the American Iron and Steel Institute, which owned the rights to the Steelmark logo. The Steelers later were allowed to add "-ers" to the Steelmark logo the following year so that they could own a trademark on the logo. (The Steelers' J.P. Rooneys, pre-NFL predecessors also regularly sold naming rights to companies in the Pittsburgh area.) The league has placed itself. NFL Japan was a sponsor of the football-themed anime series ''Eyeshield 21''.


Auto racing

In auto racing, the concept of the factory-backed contestant, who is provided with vehicles and technical support in return for the car's manufacturer obtaining visibility for its products in competition, dates in NASCAR to the 1950s and Marshall Teague (racing driver), Marshall Teague's factory-backed Fabulous Hudson Hornet. "Win on Sunday, sell on Monday" was once a common adage among automakers. In Formula One, a number of major racing teams were once sponsored by tobacco companies, including Marlboro (which has had tenures with Scuderia Ferrari, Ferrari and the McLaren team. Due to tightening regulations on Regulation of nicotine advertising, tobacco advertising worldwide, many of these sponsorships have either been dropped, or downplayed and replaced with subliminal versions on vehicle livery when races are held in regions with heavy restrictions or outright bans on the marketing of cigarettes (such as the European Union).


Notable placements

Car, Automobiles, Clothing, apparel, Drink, beverages, home appliance, home goods, furniture, consumer electronics, computers, restaurants, financial institutions, travel, airlines and websites are just a few of the product categories.
FedEx FedEx Corporation, formerly Federal Express Corporation and later FDX Corporation, is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational f ...

FedEx
provided vehicles, access, and logistical support for the making of ''
Cast Away ''Cast Away'' is a 2000 American survival drama film In film and television show, television, drama is a category of narrative fiction (or docudrama, semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humour, humorous in tone. Drama of this kin ...

Cast Away
''. The movie depicted real FedEx locations, and the company's CEO appeared in one scene.


Automobiles

The most common product (business), products to be promoted in this way are automobiles. Frequently, all the important vehicles in a film or television series are supplied by one manufacturer. The James Bond film franchise has been well known for featuring product placements for List of James Bond vehicles, various vehicles, particularly luxury vehicle, luxury and sports cars. Aston Martin has been the most synonymous with the franchise, dating back to the appearance of the Aston Martin DB5 as Bond's vehicle in ''Goldfinger (film), Goldfinger'' (1964). ''Cars (film), Cars'' (2006) portrays a mix of real and fictional vehicles as characters. None are directly paid product placements, but many are factory-backed by manufacturers who provided technical assistance and vehicles during production. The Lexus LC 500 was featured in the 2018 film ''Black Panther (film), Black Panther''. The Audi R8 was featured in the ''Tony Stark (Marvel Cinematic Universe), Iron Man'' film series, while the Acura NSX Roadster was featured in ''The Avengers (2012 film), The Avengers''.


Apparel and accessories

The James Bond series has also featured associations with various accessory and fashion brands, such as Rolex and Omega SA, Omega watches, Calvin Klein (fashion house), Calvin Klein clothing, and Samsonite luggage. Vera Wang, Carolina Herrera, Christian Lacroix, Lanvin (company), Lanvin, Dior, Oscar De La Renta, Manolo Blahnik and Vivienne Westwood were all featured in the TV series ''Sex and the City''. Under Armour, an athletic wear company, currently worth $6.67 billion, has been featured in films such as the ''Fast and the Furious'' ''The Martian (film), The Martian'', ''22 Jump Street'', and ''Fantastic Four (2015 film), Fantastic Four'' to name a few.


Consumer electronics and computers

Apple Inc., Apple's products frequently appear in films, music videos and on television. Apple has stated that they do not pay for this, but declined to discuss how its products are placed; some Apple placements may have stemmed from their products' ubiquity and position as a status symbol rather than actual paid promotion. Similarly, Pixar films have often included references to Apple products, although this is an homage to Apple co-founder Steve Jobs having been an early investor in the studio. The 2010 ''Modern Family'' episode "Game Changer (Modern Family), Game Changer" prominently featured the iPad and aired prior to its launch, while the 2015 episode "Connection Lost" was presented entirely from the perspective of Claire Dunphy's Macbook laptop, who interacted with other characters via FaceTime video calls and iMessage, while also using other macOS, Mac OS X applications. Show creator Steven Levitan said the show had an ongoing relationship with Apple, but did not elaborate further. In the case of the former, while the episode's credits did state that the iPad was "provided" by Apple, the company did not pay the show's broadcaster American Broadcasting Company, ABC for the integration, nor buy any commercial time during the episode. Similarly, Apple did not provide any financial compensation for "Connection Lost", but did provide MacBook Pro and iPhone hardware for the filming, and a Mac Pro workstation for post-production. In video games, the most common placements are for processors or graphics cards. For example, in EA's ''Battlefield 2142'', ads for Intel Core 2 processors appear on map billboards. EA's ''The Sims'' contains in-game advertising for Intel and for McDonald's. Rare (company), Rare's ''Perfect Dark Zero'' features many ads for Samsung in their menus.


Food and beverage

The use of
Reese's Pieces Reese's Pieces are a peanut butter Peanut butter is a food Paste (food), paste or Spread (food), spread made from Grinding (abrasive cutting), ground, dry roasting, dry-roasted peanuts. It commonly contains additional ingredients that modify th ...

Reese's Pieces
as a prominent plot element in the film '' E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial'' was the result of a sponsorship deal; it was originally intended for the titular character's favorite food to be M&Ms candies, but Mars, Incorporated turned down an offer, believing the film's alien would scare children. The Hershey Company took the sponsorship instead, which included the rights for the company to cross-promote Reese's Pieces with the film. The deal was considered a major coup for the company; sales of Reese's Pieces tripled, and some retailers had trouble meeting demand for the product. Alongside List of films considered the worst, criticism for trying to ride off the popularity of ''E.T.'', the film ''Mac and Me'' was widely criticised for containing numerous placements for Coca-Cola soft drinks and the fast food chain McDonald's; both brands are integral to the film's plot, while McDonald's mascot Ronald McDonald makes an appearance during a dance scene set at a McDonald's, and is credited as appearing in the film "as himself". Critics also noted that the name of the alien creature featured in the film, "Mac", could also be interpreted as a reference to the chain's notable burger, the Big Mac. Its producer R.J. Louis denied that the film was funded by McDonald's; he had previously worked on campaigns for the company and wanted to make a film that would help benefit the Ronald McDonald House Charities, and had to pursue rights to portray the McDonald's brand in the film (noting that he was "still the only person in the universe that ever had the exclusive motion picture rights to the McDonald's trademark, their actors, their characters, and the whole company"), but did receive funding from one of the chain's major suppliers, Golden State Foods. He also justified the extended dance scene, as trips to McDonald's were often seen as a "treat" for children of the era, and explained that "Mac" was meant to be an acronym for "Mysterious Alien Creature". The James Bond series has also prominently featured placements for liquor, tied to the character's recurring Shaken, not stirred, affinity for martinis (particularly, Vesper (cocktail), vespers), although ''Skyfall'' deviated from this tradition by entering into a promotional deal with Dutch brewery Heineken N.V., Heineken (which also allowed the company to feature Bond actor Daniel Craig in an accompanying ad campaign).


Tobacco

Tobacco companies have made direct payment to stars for using their cigarettes in films. Sylvester Stallone received US$500,000 to use Brown and Williamson tobacco products in five feature films. In response to a ''Christian Science Monitor'' article accusing the industry of deliberately using product placement as an advertising strategy, the Tobacco Institute claimed that product placement is driven by filmmakers to "achieve desired artistic effects but also to offset production costs". It also claimed "the 1970 federal ban on cigarette advertising on television and radio does not prohibit payments to filmmakers for the use of cigarettes in a film." The rebuttal concludes with the sentiment that smoking in film provides a certain "aesthetic" which is legitimate and at the filmmaker's discretion.


Airlines

Many airlines have advertised prominently in film, in some cases to promote a new flight route or just to increase public awareness of the company. Pan Am advertised in many films, including ''2001: A Space Odyssey (film), 2001: A Space Odyssey'' and James Bond (character), James Bond films. American Airlines was advertised in ''Home Alone'' and ''Home Alone 2'', and a model of a Virgin Atlantic Boeing 747 was shown in ''Wayne's World (film), Wayne's World''. Mike Myers' later film, ''Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me'', featured a major promotion with Virgin, including repainting some of Virgin's fleet to read "Virgin Shaglantic". American Airlines and Hilton Hotels & Resorts, Hilton Hotels were featured in the film ''Up in the Air (2009 film), Up in the Air''. George Clooney, an avid flyer is constantly seen in the airport because of his career. This film was a huge endorsement for American Airlines, yet no payment was exchanged between the filmmaker and the airline. Turkish Airlines was featured in the film ''Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice''. Warner Bros and Turkish Airlines signed a contract together to help promote and endorse the film.


Radio, television and publishing


Television

The list of television shows with the most instances of product placement (November 2007 – 2008; according to Nielsen Media Research) included: * ''The Biggest Loser (U.S. TV series), The Biggest Loser'' – 6,248 * ''American Idol'' – 3,000 * ''Extreme Makeover: Home Edition'' – 3,371 * ''America's Toughest Jobs'' – 2,807 * ''One Tree Hill (TV series), One Tree Hill'' – 2,575 * ''Deal or No Deal'' – 2,292 * ''America's Next Top Model'' – 2,241 * ''Last Comic Standing'' – 1,993 * ''Kitchen Nightmares'' – 1,853 * ''Hell's Kitchen (U.S. TV series), Hell's Kitchen'' – 1,807 * ''Glenn Martin, DDS'' M&M's, Mrs. Butterworth, etc. Nielsen called a scene in an episode of CBS' ''Mike & Molly'' of Mike eating M&M's in Carl's apartment 2013's best branded and opinion-shifting product integration in a scripted show. Television shows going back to the 1970s with The Love Boat featured product placements when using the Princess Cruise Lines and shows as recent as Modern Family have featured characters trying to procure an Apple iPad.


Video sharing website

YouTubers are allowed to do product placement. For instance, the ''LinusTechTips'' channel by Linus Sebastian. Notifying YouTube is required, and YouTube reserves the right to ban it.


Literature

In 2001, British author Fay Weldon published ''The Bulgari Connection'', a novel commissioned by Italian jewellery company Bulgari. According to ''The Independent'', this was the first instance of a literary product-placement deal between an established writer of fiction and a commercial partner.


Product placement in the luxury sector

It’s important to note that brand meaning is primarily a psychological perspective of the concept. It is really about the vision in the eyes of consumers. This is interesting because of the endorsement that affects these mental associations. Endorsement can be significant enough to change the brand's culture. In the cases studied, the companies take a mainly reactive role when faced with unsolicited endorsement events related to their brand. Consumers have a definite influence on the image of brands. On one hand, they are important influencers through their interpretation of the brand. (Batey, 2008, p. 126) suggests that the meaning of brands in the eyes of consumers should guide managers when developing marketing strategies. On the other hand, the work of creating meaning for consumers contributes to the development of a brand. (Brown et al., 2003, pp. 19-33) refers to consumers as co-authors of the essence of the brand. (Bengtsson, 2005, pp. 322-329) refers to brand creation as a process that is strongly influenced by culture. In the literature, placement is defined as: "the practice of placing branded products in popular media programming content" (Russell, 2002, pp. 306-318). The brands to which the dissertation exposes itself belong to the field of luxury goods. The associations created by luxury brands have a greater significance in their meaning than those created by traditional brands (Keller, 2009). Therefore, the freedom of endorsers brings with it the possibility that the message they send about the brand may change. The credibility of these endorsers is controversial, because most of them choose the brand in exchange of remuneration or benefits. However, not all influencers will have such an important role to play, some will be more influential than others and their impact on brand change will be more visible (Pongsakornrungsilpet & Schroed, 2011).


Legal considerations


United States

Much of U.S. broadcast law pertaining to on-air product promotion dates to the payola scandals of 1950s broadcast radio. An investigation launched in November 1959 into allegations that some radio disc jockeys had accepted bribes in return for radio airplay ended with a US$2,500 fine for disc jockey Alan Freed (of WABC (AM), WABC and WINS (AM), WINS) for violating commercial bribery laws. On September 13, 1960, the U.S. government banned payola in broadcasting. Under "All matter broadcast by any radio station for which money, service, or other valuable consideration is directly or indirectly paid, or promised to or charged or accepted by, the station so broadcasting, from any person, shall, at the time the same is so broadcast, be announced as paid for or furnished, as the case may be, by such person..." with similar and related provisions reflected in Federal Communications Commission regulations as . These provisions have governed subsequent payola investigations, including a 2005 investigation into Sony BMG and other major record companies. Often, a broadcaster claimed to have complied by placing an acknowledgement in an inconspicuous place, such as embedded within the credits. In 2005 U.S. Federal Communications Commission commissioner Jonathan Adelstein stated "if broadcasters and cable TV companies insist on further commercializing new and other shows alike, that is their business. But if they do so without disclosing it to the viewing public, that is payola, and that is the FCC's business."


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, placement by commercial broadcasters was forbidden prior to 2011. On February 28, 2011, telecommunications regulator Ofcom legalised placements in certain types of programming. A placement must be "editorially justified" and not place "undue prominence" on the product. Product placements are not allowed for products that cannot legally be advertised on television, including alcohol, baby milk, gambling products, medication or junk food. Placements are not allowed during children's, news, public affairs and religious programs. Additionally, broadcasters must disclose placements on-air by displaying a "PP" icon on-screen during the program for at least three seconds at the beginning, after every commercial break, and at the end. The first legal product placement on British television came during an episode of ''This Morning (TV programme), This Morning'', for a Nestlé-produced coffee maker. As with all other advertising, the
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
is barred from using placements on its publicly funded services.


Extreme examples

''Back to the Future Part II'' included production placement for futuristic versions of Nike, Inc., Nike footwear, Pepsi-Cola and ''USA Today''. ''Blade Runner'' included prominent placement for many brands. The logos of Atari, Bell System, Bell,
Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical sub ...

Coca-Cola
, Cuisinart and Pan American World Airways, Pan Am, all market leaders at the time, were prominently displayed, and all experienced setbacks after the film's release.
Coca-Cola Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated Carbonation is the chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical A chemical sub ...

Coca-Cola
and Cuisinart recovered, and Tsingtao Brewery, Tsingtao beer was also featured in the film and was more successful after the film than before. ''I, Robot (film), I, Robot'' offers placements for Converse (shoe company), Converse, Ovaltine, Audi, FedEx, Dos Equis and JVC among others, all of them introduced within the film's first ten minutes. One moment includes a straightforward advertisement where Will Smith's character responds to a compliment about his shoes, to which he replies "Converse All-Stars, vintage 2004" (the year of the film's release). Audi created a special car for the film, the Audi RSQ. Surveys conducted in the US showed that the placements boosted the brand's image. The Audi RSQ appears for nine minutes, and other Audis also appear in the film. ''I, Robot'' was ranked "the worst film for product placement" on a British site. ''The Island (2005 film), The Island'' features at least 35 individual products or brands, including cars, bottled water, shoes, credit cards, beer, ice cream, and a web search engine. In the movie's DVD Commentary track, director Michael Bay claims he added the advertisements for greater realism. ''Josie and the Pussycats (film), Josie and the Pussycats'' contains placements in most of the shots. This appears to be done ironically, as the plot of the film revolves around subliminal messages in advertising. The film's general message can also be construed as an anti-consumerist one. The film neither sought nor received compensation for the placements. The 2009 ''Star Trek (film), Star Trek'', in a scene where young James Kirk drives and crashes a Chevrolet Corvette, he operates a Nokia touch-screen smartphone. Before running the car off the cliff while being chased by a hovering motorcycle cop, the distinct Nokia tune, Nokia trademark ring tone can be heard. The Finnish phone maker offered ''Star Trek'' apps for its phones. The use of contemporary products was ridiculed, as the scene is set in the year 2255. "Hawaii Five-0 (2010 TV series, season 2), The Package", a 2012 episode of ''Hawaii Five-0 (2010 TV series), Hawaii Five-0'', was heavily criticised and mocked for a 50-second sequence in which a character praised Subway (restaurant), Subway sandwiches and promoted the Subway diet. The 2013 Filipino film ''My Little Bossings'' attracted criticism for its extensive use of product placement. Reviewers panned the film for being "one long commercial", where advertisements for brands endorsed by the characters' actors are frequently interspersed into the film. Zig Marasigan of ''Rappler'' described the film's use of product endorsements as "some of the most distasteful examples of local product placement while no effort is made to weave them into the narrative." In a similar vein to early radio and television programs, sponsored programs in the Philippines are not uncommon, where children's programs like ''Tropang Potchi'' and ''Jollitown'' were produced on behalf of companies, prominently featuring products and related properties in the shows in question.


Viewer response

In April 2009, fans of the television series ''Chuck (TV series), Chuck'' responded to a placement by Subway (restaurant), Subway restaurants with a grassroots effort to save the show from cancellation. The movement gained support from cast and crew, with series star Zachary Levi leading hundreds of fans to a Subway restaurant in Birmingham, United Kingdom.


Criticism

Placement continues to grow, despite consumer groups such as Commercial Alert that object to the practise as "an affront to basic honesty". The group requested disclosure of all product-placement arrangements and notification before and during embedded advertisements. It justifies this to allow parents to protect easily influenced children. In 2005, the Writers Guild of America, a trade union representing authors of television scripts, objected that its members were forced to produce disguised ad copy. Some scholars argue that product placement may inherently affect the creativity and originality of movies as film producers may re-write scripts in order to incorporate products. Most typically, product placement and merchandise are most successful amongst specific genres of movies which may eventually limit the diversity of films.


Research


Effectiveness

As with most marketing tactics, product placement leads to explicit as well as implicit advertising effects. Explicit effects can be observed directly and are usually visible by higher recall scores. They are highly connected to the conscious mind. Implicit effects can be observed by a change in behavior – like a higher purchase intention. They are fully based on the subconscious mind. Implicit effects are more relevant for purchase decisions and therefore more valuable than explicit reactions. According to a 2009 study of product placement in movies from 2002, product placement in movies are effective financially. The study observed the relationship of a company having a product placed in a movie and that company's stock price. After accounting for other variables, the study found that companies on average have their stock price increase by 0.89% due to product placement during the movie's opening.


Recall

Recall describes whether people can name a product after seeing it within the content. Research showed that there is a significant relationship between product placement and recall.


Attitude

Product placement also leads to changes in attitude towards the product or brand.


Purchase intention

A lot of research has shown a higher purchase intention as a result of product placement.


Subconscious effects

Product placement affects the audience on a conscious, but also subconscious level. Science showed that there does not even need to be an explicit, conscious effect to activate subconscious effects. For example, product placement can lead to an exclusion of competing brands from the consideration set of the audience – subconsciously. It is also hoped to bypass advertising defense reactions of consumers by focusing on the subconscious character of product placement.


Negative effects

Under specific circumstances, product placement can lead to no or even negative effects. This usually happens if the product placement is too obvious, while the audience also feels it is being manipulated.


Placement moderators


=Congruence

= The better the product placement fits the surrounding content, the better the implicit effectiveness (like attitude or purchase-intention) will be.


=Audio vs visual

= After viewing a ''Seinfeld'' episode with visual, auditory and audiovisual product placements, a recall task indicated that audiovisual product placements were recalled the best, visual product placements somewhat less and audio placements least. In a recognition test audiovisual was still remembered the best but audio placements were remembered second best and visual placements were remembered third best. As indicated, the type of placement that is most effective seems to vary depending on task, but audiovisual placements seem to be often the most effective. However, audiovisual product placements are not remembered best when there is more than one audiovisual placement at once, making it hard to remember each one. In case the placement is only on the audio level, advertisers must make sure it is very prominent to have any effect at all.


=Character attractiveness

= People tended to like brand names that were paired with attractive faces more than those paired with unattractive faces. The more times a brand was paired with an attractive face, the more people liked it.


=Product prominence

= Product placement perceived to disrupt a movie, especially when repeated, were found in one study to be counterproductive. Moderate repetition of subtle product placements did not increase people's feelings of distraction. Products that are integrated within the plot of a movie are better recall, although not if more than one product is shown at a time. In one study placements connected to the story were recognized most often, products used by the main character were remembered less often and products in the background were remembered least often. Placements were found more effective on a larger screen compared to on a smaller one. Also, products placed in the first half of a movie tend to be remembered better than products in the second half of a movie, which demonstrates the primacy effect.


=Level of Involvement

= High involvement with the program makes it easier for people to recognize the product placement. This can lead to positive effects, but might also lead to negative reactions. The same applies for high product category involvement.


Audience demographics


Cultural attributes

Older research cited a difference between different cultural areas. For example, Australians, Austrians and Germans tended to evaluate product placement more critically and show less positive reactions than Americans or people from certain Asian countries such as India.


Age

Children are usually more easily influenced than adults. In a 2013 study on children's (age 6-14) ability to recognize product placement in film; the following results were found. Children between ages 6 and 9 did not understand that a company had to pay for the product to be in the film or had confusion on why a company would pay to have a product appear in a film. After age 10 most children were able to identify that an external company paid for the product to appear. Children between age 6 and 9 could not identify themselves as the target audience for the product placement. After age 10 most children understood that the product placement was targeted towards them. Children between age 6 and 9 could not identify the intention of product placement. Children between age 10 and 12 still had confusion over the intention of a company placing their product in a film. Children over the age of 12 had full understanding of the marketing intentions of a company placing its product in a film.


Sex

If the product is endorsed by a person, there are stronger Priming (psychology), priming effects if the audience is the same sex. Women tend to be influenced a little more easily, but show more negative reactions when the product can be described as ethically questionable (e.g. alcohol).


Measurement

Tools It is very difficult to measure the effect of a product placement on viewers : access to exposed audience, recruitment, interviews, database for results comparison, independence from agencies... And more of 70 criteria must be analysed to be comprehensive. To measure the success of product placement, one first tracks the parameters of the placement itself, like the ease of identification, screen time, number of exposure(s), or association with a main character. That information is also often used to determine the price of a specific placement. Secondly, the effectiveness is measured using direct (for explicit memory effects) as well as indirect (for implicit memory effects) measurements.


Measurement of the explicit memory

Explicit effects are measured by recall or recognition tests. Subjects are asked to name the products that he or she noticed (free recall). This survey can be also aided by giving additional information like a specific product category. At recognition tests, a selection of products is shown to the interviewed person, who then needs to select the ones that he has seen before.


Measurement of the implicit memory

Implicit effects are measured in an indirect way by observing a change in behavior. This can be done by tracking the consideration set and buying behavior of people, measuring brain activities or using abstract indirect test settings like the word fragment or word stem completion test. The implicit association test (IAT) is also an applicable measurement tool.


Ethics

Many argue that product placement is ethically questionable, because it manipulates people against their will. A contrary view is, even if product placement is only perceived unconsciously, it is still evaluated by our mind. It cannot make people act against their beliefs. Most people also appreciate the fact that movies look more realistic with real brands and do not feel disturbed by the placements. Additionally, further research argues that product placement is not any different from other marketing tactics when it comes to ethics.


See also

* Subliminal advertising * ''The Greatest Movie Ever Sold''


References


Further reading

* Simon J. Pervan and Brett A. S. Martin (2002
Product placement in US and New Zealand television soap operas: an exploratory study
(''Journal of Marketing Communications'') * * *Chan, F.F.Y. (2012). "Product Placement and Its Effectiveness: A Systematic Review and Propositions for Future Research." The Marketing Review. 12(1): 39–60. doi: 10.1362/146934712X13286274424271 * Gurevitch, Leon. (2010)
"The Cinemas of Transactions: The Exchangable Currency of Digital Attractions Across Audiovisual Economies"
Journal of Television and New Media, Sage Publications, New York, 11 (5), 367–385. * Gurevitch, Leon. (2010)
The Cinemas of Interactions: Cinematics and the ‘Game Effect’ in the Age of Digital Attractions
Forthcoming (December) in Senses of Cinema Journal, Online Journal AFI/RMIT, Melbourne, Issue 57. * Gurevitch, Leon. (2009)
"Problematic Dichotomies: Narrative and Spectacle in Film and Advertising Scholarship
, Journal of Popular Narrative Media, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, Vol. 2 (2), 143-158. * Marich, Robert (2013) "Marketing To Moviegoers: Third Edition", SIU Press books,

' p. 166-180. * * Pascal Schumacher: Effektivität von Ausgestaltungsformen des Product Placement, Fribourg 2007 * * * * Product Placement mit Startschwierigkeiten (Matthias Alefeld
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