History and development
OriginsIn July 1776, during the , the , acting jointly through the , declared themselves to be 13 independent s, no longer under rule. Recognizing the necessity of closely coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress simultaneously began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, and the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the to establish a between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for . Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens. This institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of and ought to have functioned with respect to the royal : a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some formerly s (e.g., making war, receiving ambassadors, etc.) to Congress; the remaining prerogatives were lodged within their own respective state governments. The members of Congress elected a president of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral . Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the later office of president of the United States, it was a largely ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another. They witnessed their pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their commerce preyed upon by n , and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in , with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms. When the failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in . Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until and succeeded in securing 's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance ( did not send delegates) brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments. Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature. offered the greatest exception, having a strong, unitary governor with veto and appointment power elected to a three-year term, and eligible for reelection to an indefinite number of terms thereafter. It was through the closed-door negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the emerged.
DevelopmentAs the nation's first president, George Washington established many norms that would come to define the office. His decision to retire after two terms helped address fears that the nation would devolve into monarchy, and established a precedent that would not be broken until 1940 and would eventually be made permanent by the Twenty-Second Amendment. By the end of his presidency, political parties had developed, with defeating in 1796, the first truly contested presidential election. After Jefferson defeated Adams in 1800, he and his fellow Virginians and would each serve two terms, eventually dominating the nation's politics during the until Adams' son won election in 1824 after the split. The election of in 1828 was a significant milestone, as Jackson was not part of the Virginia and Massachusetts elite that had held the presidency for its first 40 years. sought to strengthen the presidency at the expense of Congress, while broadening public participation as the nation rapidly expanded westward. However, his successor, , became unpopular after the , and the death of and subsequent poor relations between and Congress led to further weakening of the office. Including Van Buren, in the 24 years between 1837 and 1861, six presidential terms would be filled by eight different men, with none winning re-election. The Senate played an important role during this period, with the Great Triumvirate of , , and playing key roles in shaping national policy in the 1830s and 1840s until debates over slavery began pulling the nation apart in the 1850s. 's leadership during the has led historians to regard him as one of the nation's greatest presidents. The circumstances of the war and Republican domination of Congress made the office very powerful, and Lincoln's re-election in 1864 was the first time a president had been re-elected since Jackson in 1832. After Lincoln's assassination, his successor lost all political support and was nearly removed from office, with Congress remaining powerful during the two-term presidency of Civil War general . After the end of , would eventually become the first Democratic president elected since before the war, running in three consecutive elections (1884, 1888, 1892) and winning twice. In 1900, became the first incumbent to win re-election since Grant in 1872. After McKinley's assassination, became a dominant figure in American politics. Historians believe Roosevelt permanently changed the political system by strengthening the presidency, with some key accomplishments including breaking up trusts, conservationism, labor reforms, making personal character as important as the issues, and hand-picking his successor, . The following decade, led the nation to victory during , although Wilson's proposal for the was rejected by the Senate. , while popular in office, would see his legacy tarnished by scandals, especially , and quickly became very unpopular after failing to alleviate the .
Imperial PresidencyThe ascendancy of in the election of 1932 led further toward what historians now describe as the Imperial Presidency. Backed by enormous Democratic majorities in Congress and public support for major change, Roosevelt's dramatically increased the size and scope of the federal government, including more executive agencies. The traditionally small presidential staff was greatly expanded, with the being created in 1939, none of whom require Senate confirmation. Roosevelt's unprecedented re-election to a third and fourth term, the victory of the United States in , and the nation's growing economy all helped established the office as a position of global leadership. His successors, and , were each re-elected as the led the presidency to be viewed as the "leader of the free world," while was a youthful and popular leader who benefitted from the rise of television in the 1960s. After lost popular support due to the and 's presidency collapsed in the , Congress enacted a series of reforms intended to reassert itself. These included the , enacted over Nixon's veto in 1973, and the that sought to strengthen congressional fiscal powers. By 1976, conceded that "the historic pendulum" had swung toward Congress, raising the possibility of a "disruptive" erosion of his ability to govern. Both Ford and his successor, , failed to win re-election. , who had been an actor before beginning his political career, used his talent as a communicator to help re-shape the American agenda away from New Deal policies toward more conservative ideology. His vice president, , would become the first vice president since 1836 to be directly elected to the presidency. With the Cold War ending and the United States becoming the world's undisputed leading power, , , and each served two terms as president. Meanwhile, Congress and the nation gradually became more politically polarized, especially following the 1994 mid-term elections that saw Republicans control the House for the first time in 40 years, and the rise of routine in the Senate in recent decades. Recent presidents have thus increasingly focused on s, agency regulations, and judicial appointments to implement major policies, at the expense of legislation and congressional power. Presidential elections in the 21st century have reflected this continuing polarization, with no candidate except Obama in 2008 winning by more than five percent of the popular vote and two — George W. Bush and — winning in the Electoral College while losing the popular vote. Both Clinton and Trump were impeached by a House controlled by the opposition party, but the impeachments did not appear to have long-term effects on their political standing.
Critics of presidency's evolutionThe nation's expected the —which was the first branch of government described in the —to be the dominant branch of government; they did not expect a strong executive department. However, presidential power has shifted over time, which has resulted in claims that the modern presidency has become too powerful, unchecked, unbalanced, and "monarchist" in nature. In 2008 Professor Dana D. Nelson expressed belief that presidents over the previous thirty years worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies". She criticized proponents of the for expanding "the many existing uncheckable executive powers—such as executive orders, decrees, memorandums, proclamations, national security directives and legislative signing statements—that already allow presidents to enact a good deal of foreign and domestic policy without aid, interference or consent from Congress". Bill Wilson, board member of Americans for Limited Government, opined that the expanded presidency was "the greatest threat ever to individual freedom and democratic rule".
Legislative powersArticle I, Section1 of the Constitution vests all Right of initiative (legislative), lawmaking power in Congress's hands, and Ineligibility Clause, Article 1, Section 6, Clause2 prevents the president (and all other executive branch officers) from simultaneously being a member of Congress. Nevertheless, the modern presidency exerts significant power over legislation, both due to constitutional provisions and historical developments over time.
Signing and vetoing billsThe president's most significant legislative power derives from the Presentment Clause, which gives the president the power to veto any Bill (law), bill passed by . While Congress can override a presidential veto, it requires a Supermajority#Two-thirds vote, two-thirds vote of both houses, which is usually very difficult to achieve except for widely supported bipartisan legislation. The framers of the Constitution feared that Congress would seek to increase its power and enable a "tyranny of the majority," so giving the indirectly elected president a veto was viewed as an important check on the legislative power. While believed the veto should only be used in cases where a bill was unconstitutional, it is now routinely used in cases where presidents have policy disagreements with a bill. The veto – or threat of a veto – has thus evolved to make the modern presidency a central part of the American legislative process. Specifically, under the Presentment Clause, once a bill has been presented by Congress, the president has three options: # Sign the legislation within ten days, excluding Sundays—the bill Coming into force, becomes law. # Veto#United States, Veto the legislation within the above timeframe and return it to the house of Congress from which it originated, expressing any objections—the bill does not become law, unless both houses of Congress vote to override the veto by a Supermajority#Two-thirds vote, two-thirds vote. # Take no action on the legislation within the above timeframe—the bill becomes law, as if the president had signed it, unless Congress is adjourned at the time, in which case it does not become law (a pocket veto). In 1996, Congress attempted to enhance the president's veto power with the Line Item Veto Act of 1996, Line Item Veto Act. The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit. Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses. In ''Clinton v. City of New York'', , the Supreme Court of the United States, U.S. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional.
Setting the agendaFor most of American history, candidates for president have sought election on the basis of a promised legislative agenda. Formally, Article Two of the United States Constitution#Section 3: Presidential responsibilities, Article II, Section 3, Clause 2 requires the president to recommend such measures to Congress which the president deems "necessary and expedient." This is done through the constitutionally-based State of the Union address, which usually outlines the president's legislative proposals for the coming year, and through other formal and informal communications with Congress. The president can be involved in crafting legislation by suggesting, requesting, or even insisting that Congress enact laws he believes are needed. Additionally, he can attempt to shape legislation during the legislative process by exerting influence on individual members of Congress. Presidents possess this power because the Constitution is silent about who can write legislation, but the power is limited because only members of Congress can introduce legislation. The president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress. Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.
Promulgating regulationsMany laws enacted by Congress do not address every possible detail, and either explicitly or implicitly delegate powers of implementation to an appropriate federal agency. As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of List of federal agencies in the United States, agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress. In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents. One critic charged that presidents could appoint a "virtual army of 'czars'—each wholly unaccountable to Congress yet tasked with spearheading major policy efforts for the White House". Presidents have been criticized for making signing statements when signing congressional legislation about how they understand a bill or plan to execute it. This practice has been criticized by the American Bar Association as unconstitutional. Conservative commentator George Will wrote of an "increasingly swollen executive branch" and "the eclipse of Congress".
Convening and adjourning CongressTo allow the government to act quickly in case of a major domestic or international crisis arising when Congress is not in session, the president is empowered by Article Two of the United States Constitution#Clause 3: Calling Congress into the extraordinary session; adjourning Congress, Article II, Section3 of the Constitution to call a special session of one or both houses of Congress. Since first did so in 1797, the president has called the full Congress to convene for a special session on 27 occasions. Harry S. Truman was the most recent to do so in July 1948 (the so-called "Turnip Day Session"). In addition, prior to ratification of the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twentieth Amendment in 1933, which brought forward the date on which Congress convenes from December to January, newly United States presidential inauguration, inaugurated presidents would routinely call the Senate to meet to confirm nominations or ratify treaties. In practice, the power has fallen into disuse in the modern era as Congress now formally remains in session year-round, convening pro forma sessions every three days even when ostensibly in recess. Correspondingly, the president is authorized to adjourn Congress if the House and Senate cannot agree on the time of adjournment; no president has ever had to exercise this power.
Executive powersThe president is head of the executive branch of the federal government and is Article Two of the United States Constitution, constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed". The executive branch has over four million employees, including the military.
Administrative powersPresidents make numerous executive branch appointments: an incoming president may make up to 6,000 before taking office and 8,000 more while serving. Ambassadors, members of the Cabinet of the United States, Cabinet, and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the "United States Senate#Checks and balances, advice and consent" of a majority of the Senate. When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. Recess appointments are temporary and expire at the end of the next session of the Senate. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue. Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. However, Congress can curtail and constrain a president's authority to fire commissioners of independent regulatory agencies and certain inferior executive officers by statute. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Within the Executive Office, the president's innermost layer of aides (and their assistants) are located in the White House Office. The president also possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government by issuing various Presidential directive, types of directives, such as Presidential proclamation (United States), presidential proclamation and s. When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad. Even so, these directives are subject to Judicial review in the United States, judicial review by U.S. federal courts, which can find them to be unconstitutional. Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order via legislation (e.g., Congressional Review Act).
Foreign affairsArticle Two of the United States Constitution#Section 3: Presidential responsibilities, Article II, Section 3, Clause 4 requires the president to "receive Ambassadors." This clause, known as the Reception Clause, has been interpreted to imply that the president possesses broad power over matters of foreign policy, and to provide support for the president's exclusive authority to grant diplomatic recognition, recognition to a foreign government. The Constitution also empowers the president to appoint United States ambassadors, and to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries. Such agreements, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate (by a Supermajority, two-thirds majority vote), become binding with the force of federal law. While foreign affairs has always been a significant element of presidential responsibilities, advances in technology since the Constitution's adoption have increased presidential power. Where formerly ambassadors were vested with significant power to independently negotiate on behalf of the United States, presidents now routinely meet directly with leaders of foreign countries.
Commander-in-chiefOne of the most important of executive powers is the president's role as of the . The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military. The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the president as commander-in-chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the president wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority. The framers of the Constitution took care to limit the president's powers regarding the military; explained this in Federalist No. 69: In the modern era, pursuant to the , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual. Additionally, Congress provides a check to presidential military power through its control over military spending and regulation. Presidents have historically initiated the process for going to war, but critics have charged that there have been several conflicts in which presidents did not get official declarations, including 's military move into Panama in 1903, the Korean War, the , and the invasions of Grenada in 1983 and Panama in 1989. The amount of military detail handled personally by the president in wartime has varied greatly. , the first U.S. president, firmly established civilian control of the military, military subordination under civilian authority. In 1794, Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12,000 militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion—a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay an excise tax on spirits. According to historian Joseph Ellis, this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though briefly took control of artillery units in Burning of Washington, defense of Washington, D.C., during the War of 1812. was deeply involved in overall strategy and in day-to-day operations during the American Civil War, 1861–1865; historians have given Lincoln high praise for his strategic sense and his ability to select and encourage commanders such as . The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the United States Department of Defense, Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the United States Secretary of Defense, secretary of defense. The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combatant Commands assist with the operation as outlined in the presidentially approved Unified Command Plan (UCP).
Juridical powers and privilegesThe president has the power to nominate United States federal judge, federal judges, including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States. However, these nominations require Advice and consent#United States, Senate confirmation before they may take office. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance. When nominating judges to United States district court, U.S. district courts, presidents often respect the long-standing tradition of senatorial courtesy. Presidents may also grant pardons and Pardon#Related concepts, reprieves. pardoned a month after taking office. Presidents often grant pardons shortly before leaving office, like when pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office; this is often Controversy, controversial. Two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy. The first is executive privilege, which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties. first claimed the privilege when Congress requested to see Chief Justice of the United States, Chief Justice John Jay's notes from an unpopular treaty negotiation with Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain. While not enshrined in the Constitution or any other law, Washington's action created the precedent for the privilege. When Richard Nixon, Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the , the Supreme Court ruled in ''United States v. Nixon'', , that executive privilege did not apply in cases where a president was attempting to avoid criminal prosecution. When Bill Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Clinton–Lewinsky scandal, Lewinsky scandal, the Supreme Court ruled in ''Clinton v. Jones'', , that the privilege also could not be used in civil suits. These cases established the Precedent, legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined. Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president. The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from Discovery (law), discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security. Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in ''Totten v. United States'' , when the Supreme Court dismissed a case brought by a former Union spy. However, the privilege was not formally recognized by the U.S. Supreme Court until ''United States v. Reynolds'' , where it was held to be a common law Evidence (law), evidentiary privilege. Before the September 11 attacks, use of the privilege had been rare, but increasing in frequency. Since 2001, the government has asserted the privilege in more cases and at earlier stages of the litigation, thus in some instances causing dismissal of the suits before reaching the merits of the claims, as in the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Ninth Circuit's ruling in ''Mohamed v. Jeppesen Dataplan, Inc.'' Critics of the privilege claim its use has become a tool for the government to cover up illegal or embarrassing government actions. The degree to which the president personally has absolute immunity from court cases is contested and has been the subject of several Supreme Court decisions. ''Nixon v. Fitzgerald'' (1982) dismissed a civil lawsuit against by-then former president Richard Nixon based on his official actions. ''Clinton v. Jones'' (1997) decided that a president has no immunity against civil suits for actions taken before becoming president, and ruled that a sexual harassment suit could proceed without delay, even against a sitting president. The 2019 Mueller report on Russian interference in the 2016 presidential election detailed evidence of possible obstruction of justice, but investigators declined to refer for prosecution based on a United States Department of Justice policy against indicting an incumbent president. The report noted that impeachment by Congress was available as a remedy. As of October 2019, a case was pending in the federal courts regarding access to personal tax returns in a criminal case brought against Donald Trump by the New York County District Attorney alleging violations of New York state law.
Head of stateAs , the president represents the United States government to its own people, and represents the nation to the rest of the world. For example, during a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State visits to the United States, State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn (White House), South Lawn, a custom was begun by in 1961. This is followed by a state dinner given by the president which is held in the State Dining Room of the White House, State Dining Room later in the evening. As a national leader, the president also fulfills many less formal ceremonial duties. For example, started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in 1910 at Griffith Stadium, Washington, D.C., on the Minnesota Twins#Washington Nationals/Senators: 1901–1960, Washington Senators's Opening Day. Every president since Taft, except for , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, All-Star Game, or the World Series, usually with much fanfare. Every president since has served as honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America. Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Rutherford B. Hayes began in 1878 the first White House egg rolling for local children. Beginning in 1947, during the Harry S. Truman administration, every Thanksgiving (United States), Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House. Since 1989, when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life. Presidential traditions also involve the president's role as head of government. Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the United States presidential transition, presidential transition. and his successors have also left a private message on the desk of the Oval Office on United States presidential inauguration, Inauguration Day for the incoming president. The modern presidency holds the president as one of the nation's premier celebrities. Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves. One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office". Administration public relations managers staged carefully crafted Photo op, photo-ops of smiling presidents with smiling crowds for television cameras. One critic wrote the image of was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of Patrol torpedo boat PT-109, PT 109 and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions. As a result, some political commentators have opined that American voters have unrealistic expectations of presidents: voters expect a president to "drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees".
Head of partyThe president is typically considered to be the head of his or her political party. Since the entire House of Representatives and at least one-third of the Senate is elected simultaneously with the president, candidates from a political party inevitably have their electoral success intertwined with the performance of the party's presidential candidate. The coattail effect, or lack thereof, will also often impact a party's candidates at state and local levels of government as well. However, there are often tensions between a president and others in the party, with presidents who lose significant support from their party's caucus in Congress generally viewed to be weaker and less effective.
Global leaderWith the rise of the United States as a in the 20th century, and the United States having the world's largest economy into the 21st century, the president is typically viewed as a global leader, and at times the world's most powerful political figure. The position of the United States as the leading member of NATO, and the country's strong relationships with other wealthy or democratic nations like those comprising the European Union, have led to the moniker that the president is the "leader of the free world."
EligibilityArticle Two of the United States Constitution#Clause 5: Qualifications for office, Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency. To serve as president, one must: * be a Natural-born-citizen clause (United States), natural-born citizen of the United States; * be at least 35 years old; * be a Residency (domicile)#United States, resident in the United States for at least 14 years. A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions: * Under Article One of the United States Constitution#Clause 7: Judgment in cases of impeachment; Punishment on conviction, Article I, Section 3, Clause 7, having been impeached, convicted and disqualified from holding further public office, although there is some legal debate as to whether the disqualification clause also includes the presidential office: the only previous persons so punished were three federal judges. * Under Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution#Participants in rebellion, Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment, no person who swore an oath to support the Constitution, and later rebelled against the United States, is eligible to hold any office. However, this disqualification can be lifted by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress. There is, again, some debate as to whether the clause as written allows disqualification from the presidential position, or whether it would first require litigation outside of Congress, although there is precedent for use of this amendment outside of the original intended purpose of excluding Confederates from public office after the Civil War. * Under the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-second Amendment, no person can be elected president more than twice. The amendment also specifies that if any eligible person serves as president or acting president for more than two years of a term for which some other eligible person was elected president, the former can only be elected president once.
Campaigns and nominationThe modern presidential campaign begins before the United States presidential primary, primary elections, which the two major political parties use to clear the field of candidates before their United States presidential nominating convention, national nominating conventions, where the most successful candidate is made the party's presidential nominee. Typically, the party's presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee, and this choice is Rubber stamp (politics), rubber-stamped by the convention. The most common previous profession of presidents is lawyer. Nominees participate in United States presidential debates, nationally televised debates, and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic and Republican Party (United States), Republican nominees, Third party (United States), third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the 1992 debates. Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.
ElectionThe president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the Washington, D.C., District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms. As prescribed by Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress. Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state. Currently, all states and the District of Columbia select their electors based on a popular election. In all but two states, the party whose presidential–vice presidential Ticket (election), ticket receives a Plurality (voting), plurality of popular votes in the state has its entire Slate (elections), slate of elector nominees chosen as the state's electors. Maine and Nebraska deviate from this practice, awarding two electors to the statewide winner and one to the winner in each List of United States congressional districts, congressional district. On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals (and in Washington, D.C.) to vote for president and, on a separate ballot, for vice president. They typically vote for the candidates of the Political parties in the United States, party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 32 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are Promise, pledged. The constitutionality of these laws was upheld in ''Chiafalo v. Washington'' (2020). Following the vote, each state then sends a certified record of their electoral votes to Congress. The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January. If a candidate has received an Supermajority, absolute majority of electoral votes for president (currently 270 of 538), that person is declared the winner. Otherwise, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top ''three'' electoral vote-getters for president. For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states (currently 26 of 50). There have been two contingent presidential elections in the nation's history. A 73–73 electoral vote tie between and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the 1800 United States presidential election, election of 1800 necessitated the first. Conducted under the original procedure established by Article Two of the United States Constitution#Clause 3: Electors, Article II, Section 1, Clause3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the would become vice president. On February 17, 1801, Jefferson was elected president on the 36th ballot, and Burr elected vice president. Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the 1804 United States presidential election, 1804 election. A quarter-century later, the choice for president again devolved to the House when no candidate won an absolute majority of electoral votes (131 of 261) in the 1824 United States presidential election, election of 1824. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: , , and William H. Crawford. Held February 9, 1825, this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.
InaugurationPursuant to the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twentieth Amendment, the four-year term of office for both the president and the vice president begins at noon on January 20. The first presidential and vice presidential terms to begin on this date, known as United States presidential inauguration, Inauguration Day, were the Second inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt, second terms of President and Vice President John Nance Garner in 1937. Previously, Inauguration Day was on March 4. As a result of the date change, the first term (1933–37) of both men had been shortened by days. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to Recitation, recite the Oath of office of the president of the United States, presidential Oath of Office, found in Article Two of the United States Constitution#Clause 8: Oath or affirmation, Article II, Section 1, Clause8 of the Constitution. This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution: Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath. Although the oath may be administered by any person authorized by law to administer oaths, presidents are traditionally sworn in by the Chief Justice of the United States, chief justice of the United States.
Term limitWhen the first president, George Washington, announced in his ''George Washington's Farewell Address, Farewell Address'' that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two terms then out" precedent. Precedent became tradition after publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, and . In spite of the strong two-term tradition, unsuccessfully sought a non-consecutive third term in 1880. In 1940, after leading the nation through the , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the long-standing precedent. Four years later, with the U.S. engaged in , he was re-elected again despite his declining physical health; he died 82 days into his fourth term on April 12, 1945. In response to the unprecedented length of Roosevelt's presidency, the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-second Amendment was ratification, adopted in 1951. The amendment bars anyone from being elected president more than twice, or once if that person served more than two years (24 months) of another president's four-year term. Harry S. Truman, president when this term limit came into force, was exempted from its limitations, and briefly sought a second full term—to which he would have otherwise been ineligible for election, as he had been president for more than two years of Roosevelt's fourth term—before he withdrew from the 1952 United States presidential election, 1952 election. Since the amendment's adoption, five presidents have served two full terms: , , , , and . , , and each sought a second term but were defeated. was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of 's unexpired term, was eligible for a second full term in 1968, but he 1968 Democratic Party presidential primaries#Johnson withdraws, withdrew from the Democratic primary. Additionally, , who served out the last two years and five months of Nixon's second term, sought a full term but was defeated by Jimmy Carter in the 1976 United States presidential election, 1976 election.
Vacancies and successionUnder Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution#Section 1: Presidential succession, Section1 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, the vice president becomes president upon the Impeachment in the United States#Senate trial, removal from office, death, or resignation of the president. Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred. The original Constitution, in Article Two of the United States Constitution#Clause 6: Vacancy and disability, Article II, Section 1, Clause 6, stated only that the vice president assumes the "powers and duties" of the presidency in the event of a president's removal, death, resignation, or inability. Under this clause, there was ambiguity about whether the vice president would actually become president in the event of a vacancy, or simply Acting (law), act as president, potentially resulting in a special election. Upon the death of in 1841, Vice President declared that he had succeeded to the office itself, refusing to accept any papers addressed to the "Acting President," and Congress ultimately accepted it. This established a precedent for future successions, although it was not formally clarified until the Twenty-fifth Amendment was ratified. In the event of a double vacancy, Article II, Section 1, Clause 6 also authorizes Congress to declare who shall become acting president in the "Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the president and vice president". The Presidential Succession Act of 1947 (codified as ) provides that if both the president and vice president have left office or are both otherwise unavailable to serve during their terms of office, the United States presidential line of succession, presidential line of succession follows the order of: speaker of the House, then, if necessary, the president pro tempore of the Senate, and then if necessary, the eligible heads of United States federal executive departments, federal executive departments who form the president's Cabinet of the United States, cabinet. The cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the secretary of state is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department (or the department of which their department is the successor) was created. Those individuals who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession. No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president.
Declarations of inabilityUnder the Twenty-fifth Amendment, the president may temporarily transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes Acting president of the United States, acting president, by transmitting to the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the United States Senate, president ''pro tempore'' of the Senate a statement that he is unable to discharge his duties. The president resumes his or her powers upon transmitting a second declaration stating that he is again able. The mechanism has been used by (once), (twice), and (once), each in anticipation of surgery. The Twenty-fifth Amendment also provides that the vice president, together with a majority of certain members of the Cabinet of the United States, Cabinet, may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration, to the speaker of the House and the president ''pro tempore'' of the Senate, to the effect that the president is unable to discharge his or her powers and duties. If the president then declares that no such inability exist, he or she resumes the presidential powers unless the vice president and Cabinet make a second declaration of presidential inability, in which case Congress decides the question.
RemovalArticle Two of the United States Constitution#Section 4: Impeachment, Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors". Article One of the United States Constitution#Clause 5: Speaker and other officers; Impeachment, Article I, Section 2, Clause5 authorizes the House of Representatives to serve as a "grand jury" with the power to Impeachment, impeach said officials by a majority vote. Article One of the United States Constitution#Clause 6: Trial of Impeachments, Article I, Section 3, Clause6 authorizes the Senate to serve as a court with the power to remove impeached officials from office, by a two-thirds vote to convict. Three presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, 1868, Bill Clinton in Impeachment of Bill Clinton, 1998, and Donald Trump in First impeachment of Donald Trump, 2019 and Second impeachment of Donald Trump, 2021; none have been convicted by the Senate. Additionally, the United States House Committee on the Judiciary, House Judiciary Committee conducted an impeachment inquiry against Richard Nixon in Impeachment process against Richard Nixon, 1973–74 and reported three articles of impeachment to the House of Representatives for final action; however, he resigned from office before the House voted on them.
CompensationSince 2001, the president's annual salary has been $400,000, along with a: $50,000 expense allowance; $100,000 nontaxable travel account, and $19,000 entertainment account. The president's salary is set by Congress, and under Article Two of the United States Constitution#Clause 7: Salary, Article II, Section 1, Clause7 of the Constitution, any increase or reduction in presidential salary cannot take effect before the next presidential term of office.
ResidenceThe White House in Washington, D.C. is the official residence of the president. The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in 1792. Every president since John Adams (in 1800) has lived there. At various times in U.S. history, it has been known as the "President's Palace", the "President's House", and the "Executive Mansion". Theodore Roosevelt officially gave the White House its current name in 1901. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food. Camp David, officially titled Naval Support Facility Thurmont, a mountain-based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland, is the president's country residence. A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the 1940s. President's Guest House, located next to the Eisenhower Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Square, Washington, D.C., Lafayette Park, serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed. Four interconnected, 19th-century houses—Blair House, Lee House, and 700 and 704 Jackson Place—with a combined floor space exceeding comprise the property.
TravelThe primary means of long-distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC-25 aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing 747 airliners and are referred to as ''Air Force One'' while the president is on board (although any U.S. Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight). In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup. The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C-32, which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet. Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight.. White House Military Office. Retrieved June 17, 2007. For short-distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of United States Marine Corps, U.S. Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated ''Marine One'' when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet. Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats. For ground travel, the president uses the Presidential state car (United States), presidential state car, which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.New Presidential Limousine enters Secret Service Fleet
ProtectionThe United States Secret Service, U.S. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the First family of the United States, first family. As part of their protection, presidents, First Lady of the United States, first ladies, their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service code name, Secret Service codenames. The use of such names was originally for security purposes and dates to a time when sensitive electronic communications were not routinely Encryption, encrypted; today, the names simply serve for purposes of brevity, clarity, and tradition.
ActivitiesSome former presidents have had significant careers after leaving office. Prominent examples include 's tenure as chief justice of the United States and 's work on government reorganization after . , whose bid for reelection failed in 1888 POTUS election, 1888, was elected president again 4 years later in 1892 POTUS election, 1892. Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for 17 years, and returned to the Senate in 1875, though he died soon after. Some ex-presidents were very active, especially in international affairs, most notably Theodore Roosevelt; Herbert Hoover; Richard Nixon; and Jimmy Carter. Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events. made multiple foreign trips to countries including China and Russia and was lauded as an elder statesman. has become a global human rights campaigner, international arbiter, and election monitor, as well as a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists, Laura Ling and Euna Lee, from North Korea. During his presidency, called on former Presidents George H.W. Bush, Bush and Bill Clinton, Clinton to assist with humanitarian efforts after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. President Obama followed suit by asking Presidents Bill Clinton, Clinton and George W. Bush, Bush to lead efforts to aid Haiti after an 2010 Haiti earthquake, earthquake devastated that country in 2010. Clinton was active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary Clinton, Hillary on her Hillary Clinton 2008 presidential campaign, 2008 and Hillary Clinton 2016 presidential campaign, 2016 presidential bids and President Obama on his Barack Obama 2012 presidential campaign, 2012 reelection campaign. Obama was also active politically since his presidential term ended, having worked with his former vice president on his Joe Biden 2020 presidential campaign, 2020 election campaign. Trump has continued to make appearances in the media and at conventions and rallies since leaving office.
Pension and other benefitsThe Former Presidents Act (FPA), enacted in 1958, grants lifetime benefits to former presidents and their widows, including a monthly pension, medical care in military facilities, health insurance, and Secret Service protection; also provided is funding for a certain number of staff and for office expenses. The act has been amended several times to provide increases in presidential pensions and in the allowances for office staff. The FPA excludes any president who was removed from office by Impeachment in the United States, impeachment. According to a 2008 report by the Congressional Research service:
Chief executives leaving office prior to 1958 often entered retirement pursuing various occupations and received no federal assistance. When industrialist Andrew Carnegie announced a plan in 1912 to offer $25,000 annual pensions to former Presidents, many Members of Congress deemed it inappropriate that such a pension would be provided by a private corporation executive. That same year, legislation was first introduced to create presidential pensions, but it was not enacted. In 1955, such legislation was considered by Congress because of former President Harry S. Truman’s financial limitations in hiring an office staffThe pension has increased numerous times with congressional approval. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the current administration's cabinet secretaries, which was $199,700 per year in 2012. Former presidents who served in Congress may also collect congressional pensions. The act also provides former presidents with travel funds and franking privileges. Prior to 1997, all former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death. In 1997, Congress passed legislation limiting Secret Service protection to no more than 10 years from the date a president leaves office. On January 10, 2013, President Obama signed legislation reinstating lifetime Secret Service protection for him, , and all subsequent presidents. A First Spouse of the United States, first spouse who remarries is no longer eligible for Secret Service protection.
Living former U.S. presidents, there were five living former U.S. presidents. The most recent death of a former president was that of (1989–1993), on November 30, 2018. The living former presidents, in order of service, are:
Presidential librariesEvery president since has created a Institutional repository, repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials. Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources. There are currently thirteen presidential libraries in the NARA system. There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, which is run by the State of Illinois; the George W. Bush Presidential Center, George W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum, which is run by Southern Methodist University; the George H.W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum, George H. W. Bush Presidential Library and Museum, which is run by Texas A&M University; and the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library and Museum, which is run by the University of Texas at Austin. A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries. Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, Museum and Boyhood Home in Abilene, Kansas, Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum in Yorba Linda, California, and the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California. These gravesites are open to the general public.
Timeline of presidents
Political affiliationPolitical parties in the United States, Political parties have dominated Politics of the United States, American politics for most of the nation's history. Though the generally spurned political parties as divisive and disruptive, and their rise had not been anticipated when the U.S. Constitution was drafted in 1787, organized political parties developed in the U.S. in the mid-1790s nonetheless. They evolved from political factions, which began to appear almost immediately after the Federal government came into existence. Those who supported the Presidency of George Washington, Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party, while those in opposition joined the emerging . Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained Independent politician, unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never to be affiliated with a political party. Since Washington, every U.S. president has been affiliated with a political party at the time of assuming office. The number of presidents per political party at the time they were sworn into office (arranged in alphabetical order by last name) and the cumulative number of years that each political party has been affiliated with the presidency are:
TimelineThe following Bar chart, timeline depicts the progression of the presidents and their political affiliation at the time of assuming office.
See also* Outline of American politics
Further reading* Ayton, Mel '' Plotting to Kill the President: Assassination Attempts from Washington to Hoover'' (Potomac Books, 2017), United States * Balogh, Brian and Bruce J. Schulman, eds. ''Recapturing the Oval Office: New Historical Approaches to the American Presidency'' (Cornell University Press, 2015), 311 pp. * * Lang, J. Stephen. ''The Complete Book of Presidential Trivia.'' Pelican Publishing. 2001. * Graff, Henry F., ed. ''The Presidents: A Reference History'' (3rd ed. 2002
Historiography and memory* Greenstein, Fred I. et al. ''Evolution of the Modern President: A Bibliographical Survey'' (1977) annotated bibliography of 2500 scholarly articles and books covering each president
Primary sources* Waldman, Michael—Stephanopoulos, George. ''My Fellow Americans: The Most Important Speeches of America's Presidents, from George Washington to George W. Bush.'' Sourcebooks Trade. 2003.