Power projection (or force projection or strength projection), in
international relations International relations (IR), sometimes referred to as international studies and international affairs, is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such a ...
, is the capacity of a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, United States * '' Our ...
to deploy and sustain forces outside its territory. The ability of a state to project its power into an area may serve as an effective diplomatic lever, influencing the decision-making process and acting as a potential deterrent on other states' behavior.
Pravda ''Pravda'' ( rus, Правда, p=ˈpravdə, a=Ru-правда.ogg, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, and was the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the c ...
(17 Mar 2022) Zelenskyy explained the essence of the new military alliance
  U24 from Zelenskyy's night address verbatim: "I addressed the United States and all responsible states with a proposition to create a new U24 union: a new union that will ensure that each aggressor receives a coordinated world response quickly, effectively, and immediately - not in weeks, months, years, but for the first 24 hours after the attack."   "We can no longer trust existing institutions. We cannot expect bureaucrats in international organisations to change fast enough, so we must look for new guarantees, create new tools, and to build alliances with those who have the courage to do what justice demands."
This ability is a crucial element of a state's power in international relations. Any state able to direct its military forces outside its territory might be said to have ''some'' level of power projection capability, but the term itself is used most frequently in reference to militaries with a worldwide reach (or at least significantly broader than a state's immediate area). Even states with sizable hard power assets (such as a large standing army) may only be able to exert limited regional influence so long as they lack the means of effectively projecting their power on a global scale. Generally, only a select few states are able to overcome the logistical difficulties inherent in the deployment and direction of a modern, mechanized military force. Allies and partners can take up or share some of the burden of power projection. A state might § compete in the gray zone just short of conflict, exercising its soft power, or hard power, in a bid for potential superpower.Russia Insigh
(February 1, 2022) BREAKING! Putin: USA Is Using Ukraine As ‘Tool’ To Contain Russia
8:01 Video clip, English closed captions
While traditional measures of power projection typically focus on hard power assets (tanks, soldiers,
aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. ...
, naval vessels, etc.), the use of
soft power In politics (and particularly in international politics), soft power is the ability to co-opt rather than coerce (contrast hard power). In other words, soft power involves shaping the preferences of others through appeal and attraction. A def ...
shows that power projection does not necessarily have to actively put military forces in
combat Combat (French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapons) or unarmed ( not using weapons). Combat is sometimes resorted to as a method of self-defense, or ...
, but only potentially. Assets for power projection can often serve dual uses, as the deployment of various countries' militaries during the
humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake of a magnitude of 9.1 was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times. On 26 December 2004, the earthquake, which struck off the northwest coast of the Indonesia ...


Early examples of power projection includes
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter ...
dominance of Europe: the ability to project power is tied to the ability to innovate and field such innovations. Roman engineering innovations such as machines ( pile driver), concrete, aqueducts and modern roads provided the footing for an economic engine that powered a military that was unmatched in its day. Examples of Roman power projection include
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in a civil war, a ...
constructing the Rhine bridge in 10 days to demonstrate the ability to march his 40,000 troops as he saw fit: the local inhabitants enjoyed the natural protection of the river and fled when this natural protection was overcome. Although Rome is far from the center of modern power, its influence can be seen in the architecture of modern capitols around the world (domes, arches, columns). The demonstration of an extraordinary innovative military capability will signal power and, when properly applied, terminate conflicts summarily. During the Ming treasure voyages in the 15th century, the Chinese treasure fleet was heavily militarized to exercise power projection around the Indian Ocean and thereby promote its interests. The modern ability to project power and exert influence on a global scale can be tied to innovations stemming from the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, that occurred during the period from around 1760 to about 1820–1840. This transition included going f ...
and the associated modernizations in technology, communications,
finance Finance is the study and discipline of money, currency and capital assets. It is related to, but not synonymous with economics, the study of production, distribution, and consumption of money, assets, goods and services (the discipline of ...
bureaucracy The term bureaucracy () refers to a body of non-elected governing officials as well as to an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected offi ...
; this finally allowed the state to create unprecedented amounts of wealth and to effectively marshal these resources to exert power over long distances. The first such industrial-technological power was the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It began with the overseas possessions and trading posts es ...
in the 19th century. As a maritime power, its strength and ability to project power to further its interests lay in the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of England, English and Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were foug ...
. A worldwide system of
naval base A naval base, navy base, or military port is a military base, where warships and naval ships are docked when they have no mission at sea or need to restock. Ships may also undergo repairs. Some naval bases are temporary homes to aircraft that ...
s and coaling stations, a large logistical bureaucracy to oversee shipbuilding, the supply of coal, food, water, and sailors, and an industrial base for the manufacture and technological enhancement of the fleet were among the essential ingredients for this capability. During the First Opium War (1839–1842), it was this capacity that enabled a British expeditionary force of 15
barracks ship A barracks ship or barracks barge or berthing barge, or in civilian use accommodation vessel or accommodation ship, is a ship or a non-self-propelled barge containing a superstructure of a type suitable for use as a temporary barracks for sa ...
s, 4 steam-powered gunboats and 25 smaller boats with 4,000 marines to successfully defend its interests 6,000 miles from the fleet's home port. The
Anglo Anglo is a prefix indicating a relation to, or descent from, the Angles, England, English culture, the English people or the English language, such as in the term ''Anglosphere''. It is often used alone, somewhat loosely, to refer to people ...
- French expeditionary force sent to shore up the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire, * ; is an archaic version. The definite article forms and were synonymous * and el, Оθωμανική Αυτοκρατορία, Othōmanikē Avtokratoria, label=none * info page on book at Martin Luther University) ...
against Russian aggression during the
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was fought from October 1853 to February 1856 between Russia and an ultimately victorious alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, the United Kingdom and Piedmont-Sardinia. Geopolitical causes of the war included the d ...
(1853–1856) was one of the first examples of a planned expeditionary power-projection campaign. It was the first campaign to use modern technology, including steam-powered warships and
telegraph Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of messages where the sender uses symbolic codes, known to the recipient, rather than a physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus flag semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas p ...
communications. Another illustrative example of industrial power projection, was the British Expedition to Abyssinia in 1868 as a retaliation against Emperor
Tewodros II of Ethiopia , spoken = ; ''djānhoi'', lit. ''"O steemedroyal"'' , alternative = ; ''getochu'', lit. ''"Our master"'' (pl.) Tewodros II ( gez, ዳግማዊ ቴዎድሮስ, baptized as Gebre Kidan; 1818 – 13 April 1868) was Emperor of Ethiopi ...
's imprisonment of several missionaries and
British government ga, Rialtas a Shoilse gd, Riaghaltas a Mhòrachd , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size = 220px , image2 = Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg , image_size2 = 180px , caption = Royal Arms , date_es ...
representatives. The expeditionary force sent was a tremendous logistical and technological challenge at the time. Commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Napier of the Bombay Army,
military intelligence Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from ...
was used to estimate the required size of the army and the difficulties of traversing the inhospitable terrain. A force of over 30,000 was shipped from
British India The provinces of India, earlier presidencies of British India and still earlier, presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance on the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...
Zula Zula ግእዝ ዙላ saba ሰብኣ 𐩸𐩡 is a small town in central Eritrea. It is situated near the head of Annesley Bay (also known as the Gulf of Zula), on the Red Sea coast. Four kilometers away is the archeological site of Adulis, whi ...
on the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر - بحر القلزم, translit=Modern: al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar, Medieval: Baḥr al-Qulzum; or ; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϩⲁϩ ''Phiom Enhah'' or ⲫⲓⲟⲙ ⲛ̀ϣⲁⲣⲓ ''Phiom ǹšari''; T ...
on a fleet of more than 280 steam ships, while an advance detachment of
engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are professionals who invent, design, analyze, build and test machines, complex systems, structures, gadgets and materials to fulfill functional objectives and requirements while considering the li ...
s built a large port with two piers, warehouses and a lighthouse, and constructed a 20-mile-long railway towards the interior. A road was also built for the artillery to be moved along with the help of
elephant Elephants are the largest existing land animals. Three living species are currently recognised: the African bush elephant, the African forest elephant, and the Asian elephant. They are the only surviving members of the family Elephantidae ...
s. After three months of trekking, the British force repelled an Ethiopian attack and launched an artillery bombardment against the fortress of Magdala which led to its capitulation; Tewodros committed suicide. In the
Russo-Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War ( ja, 日露戦争, Nichiro sensō, Japanese-Russian War; russian: Ру́сско-япóнская войнá, Rússko-yapónskaya voyná) was fought between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire during 1904 and ...
of 1904–1905, the Japanese destruction of the Imperial Russian Navy's Pacific Fleet demonstrated
Imperial Russia The Russian Empire was an empire and the final period of the List of Russian monarchs, Russian monarchy from 1721 to 1917, ruling across large parts of Eurasia. It succeeded the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad, which ended th ...
's inability to project force in the East. This immediately diminished Russia's diplomatic sway in that region. At the same time, Russia's western armies became less credible, as mobilization exposed organizational flaws and threw the western armies into chaos. This led analysts in Europe, such as German
chief of staff The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization such as the armed forces, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporti ...
Count Alfred von Schlieffen, to conclude that Russia would prove inept at projecting force in Europe, thus demoting Russia in European diplomatic relations. Many other actions can be considered projections of force. The 19th century is full of incidents such as the 1864
Shimonoseki campaign The refers to a series of military engagements in 1863 and 1864, fought to control the Shimonoseki Straits of Japan by joint naval forces from Great Britain, France, the Netherlands and the United States, against the Japanese feudal domain of ...
and the
Boxer Rebellion The Boxer Rebellion, also known as the Boxer Uprising, the Boxer Insurrection, or the Yihetuan Movement, was an anti-foreign, anti-colonial, and anti-Christian uprising in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty, ...
. More recently, the
Falklands War The Falklands War ( es, link=no, Guerra de las Malvinas) was a ten-week undeclared war between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 over two British Overseas Territories, British dependent territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland I ...
provided an example of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotland, Wales and ...
's ability to project force far from home. Other recent examples of power projection include the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq and the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. The ability of the
U.S. Navy The United States Navy (USN) is the maritime service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most powerful navy in the world, with the estimated tonnage o ...
, the British
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by Kingdom of England, English and Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were foug ...
, and the
French Navy The French Navy (french: Marine nationale, lit=National Navy), informally , is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces and one of the five military service branches of France. It is among the largest and most powerful naval forces in th ...
to deploy large numbers of ships for long periods of time away from home are notable projection abilities. ''See § Power projection capabilities, Putinism.''


The U.S. Department of Defense defines power projection as the "ability of a nation to apply all or some of its elements of national power—political, economic, informational, or military—to rapidly and effectively deploy and sustain forces in and from multiple dispersed locations to respond to crises, to contribute to deterrence, and to enhance regional stability".United States Department of Defense. ''J1-02: Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms.'

Jeremy Herb, Jennifer Hansler and Ellie Kaufman, CNN (28 January 2022
Top US general warns of 'horrific' outcome if Russian forces 'unleashed' on Ukraine
Secretary of Defense Austin puts 8,500 US troops on alert for EUCOM engagement
As distance between a fighting force and its headquarters increases,
command and control Command and control (abbr. C2) is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ... hatemploys human, physical, and information resources to solve problems and accomplish missions" to achieve the goals of an organization or e ...
inevitably becomes more difficult. Modern-day power projection often employs high-tech communications and
information technology Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to create, process, store, retrieve, and exchange all kinds of data . and information. IT forms part of information and communications technology (ICT). An information technology system ( ...
to overcome these difficulties, a process sometimes described as the " Revolution in Military Affairs". While a few long-range
weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used to deter, threaten, inflict physical damage, harm, or kill. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, crime, law enforcement ...
s such as the
intercontinental ballistic missile An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a ballistic missile with a range greater than , primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads). Conventional, chemical, and biological weapons c ...
s (ICBMs) and some
unmanned combat aerial vehicle An unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV), also known as a combat drone, colloquially shortened as drone or battlefield UAV, is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is used for intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance ...
s ( drones) are capable of projecting deadly force in their own right, it is military logistics that is at the heart of power projection. The ability to integrate
naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions. It in ...
air force An air force – in the broadest sense – is the national military branch that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nation's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an a ...
s with land armies as part of joint warfare is a key aspect of effective power projection;
airlift An airlift is the organized delivery of supplies or personnel primarily via military transport aircraft. Airlifting consists of two distinct types: strategic and tactical. Typically, strategic airlifting involves moving material long distance ...
and sealift capabilities facilitate the deployment of
soldier A soldier is a person who is a member of an army. A soldier can be a conscripted or volunteer enlisted person, a non-commissioned officer, or an officer. Etymology The word ''soldier'' derives from the Middle English word , from Old Frenc ...
s and
weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used to deter, threaten, inflict physical damage, harm, or kill. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, crime, law enforcement ...
s to a distant theater of war. The aircraft carrier strike group,
strategic bomber A strategic bomber is a medium- to long-range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war. Unlike tactical bombers, ...
ballistic missile submarine A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads. The United States Navy's hull classification symbols for ballistic missile submarines are SSB and SSBN – ...
, and strategic airlifter are all examples of power projection platforms. Military units designed to be
light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), corresponding to frequencies of 750–420 te ...
and mobile, such as
airborne forces Airborne forces, airborne troops, or airborne infantry are ground combat units carried by aircraft and airdropped into battle zones, typically by parachute drop or air assault. Parachute-qualified infantry and support personnel serving in a ...
paratrooper A paratrooper is a military parachutist—someone trained to parachute into a military operation, and usually functioning as part of an airborne force. Military parachutists (troops) and parachutes were first used on a large scale during World ...
s and
air assault Air assault is the movement of ground-based military forces by vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft—such as the helicopter—to seize and hold key terrain which has not been fully secured, and to directly engage enemy forces behind ...
forces) and amphibious assault forces, are utilized in power projection. Forward basing is another method of power projection, which, by pre-positioning military units or stockpiles of arms at strategically located
military base A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, and facilitates training and operations. A military base always provides accommodations for ...
s outside a country's territory, reduces the time and distance needed to mobilize them.


Scholars have disaggregated military power projection into nine different categories based on political goals and level of force. Four of these employ "soft" military power (securing
sea lane A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used navigable route for large water vessels (ships) on wide waterways such as oceans and large lakes, and is preferably safe, direct and economic. During the Age of Sail, they were determined b ...
s of communication, non-combatant evacuation,
humanitarian Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans to reduce suffering and improve the conditions of humanity for moral, altruistic, and emotional ...
response, and
peacekeeping Peacekeeping comprises activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace. Research generally finds that peacekeeping reduces civilian and battlefield deaths, as well as reduces the risk of renewed warfare. Within the United ...
) and the rest are primarily concerned with "hard" military power ( show the flag, compellence/deterrence, punishment, armed intervention, and conquest). There is a § continuum in these capabilities.

Soft power

Examples of soft power projection include: * Securing sea lanes of communication: the protection of shipping lanes from attack by hostile states or irregular threats. * Non-combatant evacuation operations: the evacuation of citizens or friendly third-country civilians from a foreign country when they are endangered by war or civil unrest. * Humanitarian response: the use of military forces abroad to assist in the aftermath of a natural disaster. * Peacekeeping: military operations designed to support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement to an ongoing dispute.Zachary B. Wolf, Curt Merrill and Ji Min Lee, CN
(16 Mar 2022) Zelensky’s address to Congress, annotated
Volodymyr Zelensky
(16 Mar 2022) Address by President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy to the US Congress
* Establishing trust, as the basis of cooperation among allies and partnersE. John Teicher
(24 Mar 2022) The Hard Power of Security Cooperation
Jim Garamone, DOD New
(22 Nov 2022) Austin: Nations Support Rules-Based Order
ASEAN conference

Gray zone competition

:''This section has bee
split from
US Army Futures Command § Other armies'' The gray zone between cooperation and conflictShashank Josh
(29 Jan 2022) The technology of seeing and shooting your enemies
/ref> has expanded due to the
competition Competition is a rivalry where two or more parties strive for a common goal which cannot be shared: where one's gain is the other's loss (an example of which is a zero-sum game). Competition can arise between entities such as organisms, indivi ...
between the power projection capabilities of the world's armies, as well as the economic power of its nations. James Graha
Military Power vs Economic Power in History
Compares nations
James Graha
Military Power vs Economic Power in History (Part 2)
" is economic power that allows military power to be built up in the first place".
(7 Apr 2022) Russia facing most difficult situation in three decades, PM says
after 6 weeks of economic sanctions, Mikhail Mishustin: "the current situation could be called the most difficult in three decades for Russia".
The US, Russia, China, Britain, and France have renounced the use of nuclear weapons in 2022, and going forward.NBC New
(4 Jan 2022) Russia, China, Britain, U.S. and France say no one can win nuclear war
/ref> However, in the face of threats of nuclear war (say from Russia, as threatened during the
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine On 24 February 2022, in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War, which began in 2014. The invasion has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths on both sides. It has caused Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II. An ...
(25 Apr 2022) Russia's Lavrov: Do not underestimate threat of nuclear war
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two Nor ...
keeps about 100 B61 nuclear bombs in storage in Europe.Dan Za
(25 March 2022) Meet the nuke the U.S. keeps in Europe, just waiting to not be used
/ref>Robbin Lair
(11 Apr 2022) Time to relearn nuclear escalation management for the 21st century

Gen. (USA Ret.) Barry R. McCaffreybr>(26 Apr 2022) "Putin's threat of nuclear weapons is horrendously unsettling"
Hyung-Jin Kim and Kim Tong-Hyung, Associated Pres
(28 Oct 2022) North Korea fires missiles toward sea as US warns over nukes
"The Pentagon's National Defense Strategy report issued on Thursday stated that any nuclear attack by North Korea against the United States or its allies and partners will result in the end of he DPRK (Kim)regime".
PBS NewsHou
(28 Oct 2022) WATCH LIVE: Defense Secretary Austin holds news briefing to announce 2022 National Defense Strategy
Unclassified. Integrated deterrence— Strategy Across all domains
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of the British Armed Forces along with the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force. , the British Army comprises 79,380 regular full-time personnel, 4,090 Gurkh ...
is investigating innovations, such as robots and drones,Jaspreet Gill
(14 Nov 2022) How Project Convergence is informing British, Australian military modernization
§ Project Convergence 2022
including 70 technologies funded by the £800 million (US$1 billion) Defence Innovation Fund launched in 2016. Two hundred troops will engage in "surveillance, long-range, and precision targeting, enhanced mobility and the re-supply of forces, urban warfare and enhanced situational awareness". The British Army is reducing size by about 10,000 troops as well, by 2025. The British Army will have Integrated Operating Concept (MDI—like MDO) for "gray zone" operations across domains, using a synthetic operating environment, with repeatable hard and soft strike capability. The UK, Germany, and France respectively have established a joint command for space United Kingdom Space Command, a Space Situational Awareness Centre (Germany), and ''Commandement de l’espace'' (France).Vivienne Mach
(13 Jul 2021) Germany establishes new military space command
/ref>Rameesh Cheem
(17 Dec 2022) 15 Most Advanced Countries in Military Technology
Israel; Hellenic Republic; Brazil; Taiwan; Saudi Arabia; India; Italy; Republic of Türkiye; Japan; France *Rameesh Cheema
(17 Dec 2022) 5 Most Advanced Countries in Military Technology
UK; RoK (So. Korea); PRC (China); Russia; US
"By 2020 the Army's programs for modernization were now framed as a decades-long process of cooperation with allies and partners,Defender-Europe 20
videos, images and stories
Lt. Col. Travis Dettme
(9 February 2020) U.S. Army Futures and Concepts Center teaches Multi-Domain Operations to NATO Allied Land Command
/ref> for
competition Competition is a rivalry where two or more parties strive for a common goal which cannot be shared: where one's gain is the other's loss (an example of which is a zero-sum game). Competition can arise between entities such as organisms, indivi ...
with potential adversaries who historically have blurred the distinction between peace and war"Sydney J. Freedberg Jr
(January 13, 2020) Infinite Games & War By Other Means: Ryan McCarthy
"We must be engaged in constant competition, versus an episodic engagement strategy" —Secretary Ryan McCarthy
—from: § Reorganization plan of the United States Army #In 2020, one measure of § military power projection ranks the competition between the armies of the world (after the US Army, which is ranked atop this list).Greg Norma
(22 Feb 2020) The 5 most powerful armies in the world
/ref>The Hon. David Norquist, Deputy Secretary of Defense, Do
(10 Sep 2020) Closing Keynote: Day 2
''Defense News Conference 2020 : Sept 9 - 10'' 22:00 minutes
Zamone Pere
(18 Oct 2022) US military in decline, threats from China 'formidable', report says
Heritage Foundation report for the case of 2 major wars (as opposed to 1.5 wars, rated as Favorable)
C. Todd Lopez, DOD New
(18 Oct 2022) U.S. Can Support Ukraine While Meeting Its Own Security Commitments
The list of armies, a mixture of allies, partners, and competitors is estimated to be: #Russia jammed the GPS signal during NATO exercises in November 2018.(4 November 2018) Russia Jammed GPS During Major NATO Military Exercise With US Troops
/ref>Sydney J. Freedberg Jr
(6 June 2019) Army Fields Anti-Jam GPS In Germany This Fall
/ref>Russia has figured out how to jam U.S. drones in Syria, officials say
/ref> In 2014 the DoD's research and engineering chief Alan Shaffer warned that the 'US lost dominance of the electromagnetic spectrum' (EMS), in part due to the US government selloff of EMS radio frequencies, and also due in part to the proliferation of digital technologies which allow for low-cost jammers.Sydney Freedberg, Jr
(3 September 2014) US Has Lost ‘Dominance In Electromagnetic Spectrum’: Shaffer
/ref> (''See: meaconing'')Stephen Clar
(25 November 2019) Russia launches space surveillance satellite
Kosmos 2542, in a polar orbit—" omonitor the condition of other Russian satellites in orbit."
Joseph Trevithic
(30 January 2020) A Russian "Inspector" Spacecraft Now Appears To Be Shadowing An American Spy Satellite
USA 245 is a KH-11 series satellite; Cosmos 2542 is now tailing the USA 245's movements with a precision of 150 to 300 kilometers. ''See Hall thruster''
General Valery Gerasimov advocates hybrid warfare, a "blend of political, economic and military power to bear against adversaries".Andrew E. Krame
(2 March 2019) Russian General Pitches ‘Information’ Operations as a Form of War
/ref>Paul McClear
(30 May 2019) Dunford: Leaders Mull First NATO Strategy In Decades
/ref> Neil Haue
(26 February 2020) Russia may have met its match in Libya
Is unable to tip the balance, as it has in Syria. So Russia is escalating its involvement.
Russia took Crimea without firing a shot.Andrew Goodma
(26 Apr 2022) Putin the Planner
Worked alongside Putin when he was Deputy Mayor of St. Petersberg. "Whatever happens on the ground now, there is good reason to think that Putin will continue to pursue a solution on his terms as long as he remains in power".
Clare Sebastian and Chris Liakos, CN

/ref>Sydney J. Freedberg Jr
(21 April 2020) COVID-19: Army Futures Command Takes Wargames Online
/ref> In April 2020 Russia tested an anti-satellite system for low earth orbit (LEO) satellites.Aaron Batema
(22 May 2020) As Russia stalks US satellites, a space arms race may be heating up
/ref> On 15 November 2021, a Russian anti-satellite test destroyed its Kosmos 1408, endangering its own cosmonauts on the
International Space Station The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest modular space station currently in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA ...
, and other satellites in
low earth orbit A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with a period of 128 minutes or less (making at least 11.25 orbits per day) and an eccentricity less than 0.25. Most of the artificial objects in outer space are in LEO, with an altitude never m ...
.Theresa Hitchen
(15 November 2021) Russian suspected ground-launched ASAT test scatters dangerous debris through LEO(16 November 2021) Surprise Russian ASAT test shows need to ‘scale’ space tracking, LeoLabs says
/ref>Specialist website Russian Space We

/ref>Vladimir Isachenkov, The Associated Pres
(9 Aug 2020) Russia warns it will see any incoming missile as nuclear
/ref>Mark B. Schneide

/ref> Cyber attacks on the whole of the US government via Supply_chain_attack § Whole of government began in March 2020, but only reached the attention of the news media on 14 December 2020.Eric Geller https://www.politico.com/news/2020/12/14/massively-disruptive-cyber-crisis-engulfs-multiple-agencies-445376 (14 Dec 2020) 'Massively disruptive' cyber crisis engulfs multiple agencies]Ellen Nakashima & Craig Timber
(14 Dec 2020) Russian government hackers are behind a broad espionage campaign that has compromised U.S. agencies, including Treasury and Commerce
Identified as SVR /APT29 /Cozy Bear, according to FireEye. Breached using the update server of SolarWinds, its Orion Platform, versions released in Mar & Jun 2020. *Catalin Cimpanu
(14 Dec 2020) SolarWinds Says 18,000 Customers Were Impacted by Recent Hack
*Dan Goodi
(14 Dec 2020) ~18,000 organizations downloaded backdoor planted by Cozy Bear hackers
/ref> Russia is mapping the undersea cables which bear the majority of the communications traffic between the US and Europe.Lorne Coo
(30 May 2021) As Russia tensions simmer, NATO conducts massive war games
*Thomas Newdic
(11 Nov 2021) Norwegian Undersea Surveillance Network Had Its Cables Mysteriously Cut
/ref>Jacob Gronholt-Pedersen and Gwladys Fouche, Reuter

/ref>John Christianson
#*On 25 December 2021 President Putin disclosed that Russia would be unable to defend itself against missiles launched against Moscow from Ukraine; their flight times would be four to five minutes, according to him.Vladimir Isachenkov, The Associated Pres
(26 Dec 2021) Putin to mull options if West refuses guarantees on Ukraine
/ref> However, Putin did not acknowledge that the West's Aegis_Ballistic_Missile_Defense_System#Aegis_Ashore, Aegis Ashore sites in Poland and Romania are for defense against ballistic missiles, and not the Tomahawk missiles which he named in his statement. ''See: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system, A-235 anti-ballistic missile system,
S-400 missile system The S-400 Triumf (russian: link=no, C-400 Триумф – Triumf; translation: Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300 PMU-3, is a mobile, surface-to-air missile (SAM) system developed in the 1990s by Russ ...
S-500 missile system The S-500 Prometey (russian: C-500 Прометей, lit=Prometheus), also known as 55R6M "Triumfator-M", is a Russian hypersonic surface-to-air missile/anti-ballistic missile system replacing the A-135 missile system currently in use, and sup ...
'' To prove that Aegis Ashore is defensive only, inspection of the sites in Poland and Romania have been offered to Russia.Heather Mongili
(2 Feb 2022) U.S. Offered Russians Aegis Ashore Inspections to Ease Ukraine Tensions; More American Troops Headed to Europe
/ref> #*
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest European country after Russia, which it borders to the east and northeast. Ukraine covers approximately . Prior to the ongoing Russian inva ...
had a trench network on its border with Russia, in a standoff as of April 2021.Matthew Chanc
(12 Apr 2021) Ukraine's President heads to the trenches as Russia masses its troops
Troops and armor are massing by rail, within Russia's border.
(10 Apr 2021) The leaders of Ukraine, Turkey stress territorial integrity
Donbass and Crimea are disputed.
The Associated Pres
(12 Apr 2021) Blinken heads to Brussels for talks on Afghanistan, Ukraine
SecDef Lloyd Austin will attend.
Lara Seligman and Natasha Bertan
(04/12/2021) Can Ukraine deploy U.S.-made weapons against the Russians?
FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missiles barely overmatch Uran-9s
Lara Seligma
(03/31/2021) Pentagon ‘watching’ as Russia steps up aggression in Eastern Europe
A ceasefire between the Ukraine Army and Donetsk separatists ended Jun 2020. EUCOM's V Corps has been on pre-planned maneuvers, but in a NATO partner's territory as of April 2021.
Vivian Salama in Kyiv and William Mauldin in Washingto
(18 Jan 2022) U.S. Aims Sanctions at Pro-Russian Agents as Blinken Plans Ukraine, Russia Meetings
/ref>Robert Burn

/ref> A border exercise involving 110,000 Russian troops on the Ukraine borderOlivia Gazi
(22 Apr 2021)) After Putin's warning to West, Russia begins large-scale military exercises in and around Ukraine
/ref> has pulled back; however hundreds of armored vehicles, including tanks are remaining one hundred miles from Donbas (colloquial for Donets basin)Nils Adler, Laura King ''Los Angeles Times'

*Greg Ganske ttps://www.yahoo.com/news/opinion-why-war-ukraine-matter-155933627.html (22 Jan 2022) Opinion: Why would war in Ukraine matter to the United States?/ref> in spite of a partial armor pullback.Jim Garamone, DOD New
(14 Jan 2022) Russia Trying to Develop Pretext for Ukraine Invasion, DOD Official Says
/ref> Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OCSE) drones which are monitoring the line between Ukrainian troops and the Donbas separatists are seeing jamming of their drone's dual GPS receivers, with tens of thousands of infantry troops remaining on the Ukrainian border.Paul McLear
(7 May 2021) Jamming Strikes OSCE Drones Tracking Russian Forces
/ref> The OSCE has provided a map of the line dividing the Ukrainian forces and the Russian-backed forces.Michael Schwirtz ''New York Times'

Map of "Approximate line separating Ukrainian and Russian-backed forces"
''New York Times'

/ref> As of 18 February 2022 there were up to 190,000 troops along Ukraine's borders;Jeff Schogol, Paul Szoldr
(21 Feb 2022) Moscow orders Russian troops into Ukraine
/ref> after recognizing the separatist states of the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics, Moscow is moving troops over the border of Russia into the Donetsk and Luhansk areas, and establishing military bases there.Reuter

/ref> This troop movement triggered sanctions on five Russian banks and three individuals, on 22 February 2022.Charles Rile

/ref>Charles Riley

/ref> (''See
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine On 24 February 2022, in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War, which began in 2014. The invasion has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths on both sides. It has caused Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II. An ...
'' which began 24 February 2022) #**Andrei Illarionov cites Pavel Felgengauer, who projects a scenario by which Russia can create a ' Novorossia' (see § CSIS figures 2a-2c)Ryan Pickrel
(25 Jan 2022) Russian forces are massing on Ukraine's border. Here's what Russia watchers think could be Putin's next big move.
Figures 2a-2c CSIS scenarios
stretching across Southern Ukraine to Transnistria (Moldova) after a gas pipeline to the EU is completed (September 2021).Andrei Illariono
(30 April 2021) Putin was not ready to launch a war in the Spring
/ref> If the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline were to be weaponized by holding the
liquefied natural gas Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane, C2H6) that has been cooled down to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport. It takes up about 1/600th the volu ...
(LNG) supply to Western Europe hostage, the US is countering this threat with contingency plans to redirect LNG supplies from the rest of the world.natasha Bertran
(23 Jan 2022) US putting together 'global' strategy to increase gas production if Russia invades Ukraine, officials say
/ref>Charles Rile

/ref> Germany has agreed to safeguard Ukraine, as well.
Deutsche Welle Deutsche Welle (; "German Wave" in English), abbreviated to DW, is a German public, state-owned international broadcaster funded by the German federal tax budget. The service is available in 32 languages. DW's satellite television service co ...
br>(27 Feb 2022) Germany commits €100 billion to defense spending
Scholz: Germany has now agreed to a one-time $113 billion increase in its defense budget.
Christian Dato

/ref>Alexander Ratz and Pavel Polityu

(26 Jan 2022) What might happen if Russia does attack Ukraine?
Ukraine is outgunned. Russia would likely stop when resistance stiffens, in Spring 2022. Europe would be divided over heating supplies for impending winter. Ties between Russia and China would strengthen as Europe sanctions its trade with Russia due to war.
Rick Rouan, Courtney Subramanian, Joey Garrison and David Jackson, USA Toda

/ref>Jessie Yeung, Adam Renton, Rob Picheta, Ed Upright, Aditi Sangal, Adrienne Vogt and Melissa Macaya, CN
(23 Feb 2022) The latest on the Ukraine-Russia crisis
''See 2022 Nord Stream pipeline sabotage —26 September 2022 '' #**Cyber attacks on Ukrainian government websites are occurring in January 2022.Roman Olearchyk and Henry Foy, Financial Time
(14 Jan 2022) Ukraine says government websites hit by "massive cyber attack"
/ref>Howard Altma
(19 Jan 2022) Russian attack could happen 'any minute' Ukraine official says
/ref> Frida Ghitis and Richard Galant point out that the muddy season that ends winter would bog down an armored invasion.Frida Ghiti
(13 Jan 2022) Putin's big miscalculation
/ref> US Army Lieutenant Colonel Alex Vershinen points out that if the Russian Army were to attempt a quick ''
fait accompli Many words in the English vocabulary are of French origin, most coming from the Anglo-Norman spoken by the upper classes in England for several hundred years after the Norman Conquest, before the language settled into what became Modern Engl ...
'' and then dig in, its logistical capability would be insufficient to complete a large land grab, as its logistic capabilities are largely based on railroads, but not trucks.US Army Lieutenant Colonel Alex Vershine
(23 Nov 2021) Feeding the Bear: A Closer Look at Russian Army Logistics and the Fait Accompli
/ref>Matthew Chance, Kylie Atwood, Emmet Lyons and Ami Kaufman, CNN

*[https://seemorerocks.is/russia-sets-up-army-field-hospital-near-ukraine-moves-iskander-missiles-and-amphibious-landing-craft-from-caspian-sea-to-ukraine-coast/ (10 Apr 2021) Russia Sets Up Army Field Hospital Near Ukraine; Moves Iskander Missiles and Amphibious Landing Craft From Caspian Sea to Ukraine Coast!]
Russia's logistic capability without railroads is 90 miles, without replenishment; thus Sebastien Roblin suggests that a "short, victorious war" by Russia (as in the 12-day war with Georgia in 2008), with stipulations largely resembling its current diplomatic demands, namely installation of pro-Russian leadership, Ukraine's withdrawal from the path of joining NATO etc., coupled with the expedient of bypassing Russian control of Kyiv's population, might avoid Russia's getting bogged down in Ukraine.Eric Schmitt, Julian E. Barnes and Helene Coope
(7 Apr 2022) Russia Is Recruiting Mercenaries and Syrians to Ukraine, Western Officials Say
/ref> This calculation could get up-ended by a longer war, with determined resistance in Ukraine,Julie Colema

Training in Kharkiv and Kyiv
via guerilla warfare,Helene Coope

/ref>Michael Kofman and Rob Le
(2 Jun 2022) Not Built For Purpose: The Russian Military's Ill-Fated Force Decision
Platoons on paper were half-sized in reality, leading to no dismounted infantry in motorized units.
as in Afghanistan (1979-1989), which indirectly ended the Soviet Union.Sebastien Robli
(21 Jan 2022) The ‘Georgia Model’: Russia’s Plan For Invading Ukraine?
/ref> Within two months of the beginning of the
First Chechen War The First Chechen War, also known as the First Chechen Campaign,, rmed conflict in the Chechen Republic and on bordering territories of the Russian FederationФедеральный закон № 5-ФЗ от 12 января 1995 (в реда ...
, an antiwar movement arose in Russia. #***On 22 February 2022 historian Sergey Radchenko recalled a vignette from September 1945, during the post World War II Potsdam Conference negotiations on the division of world power at the London Conference of Foreign Ministers, when Soviet Foreign Commissar Vyacheslav Molotov asked U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes whether he carried the atomic bomb in his side pocket, to which Byrnes threatened Molotov to stop stalling, or else Byrnes would pull the atomic bomb out of his pocket and use it on Molotov (''laughter''). Molotov was guided by Stalin's directive "It is clear that you must display complete obduracy".Sergey Radchenk
(22 February 2022) Moscow Musings on Brinksmanship From Stalin to Putin
/ref> (''See Proxy war'') #* Russia and Belarus began Zapad 2021, a 200,000-troop exercise held every four years. The Pripyat marshes would bog down an armored invasion through Belarus.Richard Galan
(23 Jan 2022) Putin confronts the mud of Ukraine
/ref> #*In the opinion of James Stavridis, the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine is showing that Special Forces, unmanned systems, and Cyber will become far more important in the future.James Stavridi
(11 Apr 2022) What the U.S. Military Needs to Learn from the Ukraine War
#*In 2021 Russia spent 2.7 percent of its GDP on defense, a level which is expected to drop to 2.3 percent by 2023, as part of a mandate to boost domestic production.Alexander Bratersk
(3 Sep 2021) Private companies at ‘Army 2021’ forum strive for survival as Russian military orders shrink
/ref> #**Unmanned ground combat vehicles (UGCVs), among them Uran-6, Uran-9 (Уран-9), and Uran-14 are entering service in the Russian Army as of 2021. Uran-6 is a mine flail; Uran-14 is an unmanned firefighting vehicle. Uran-9s are semi-autonomous robotic combat vehicles; specialists can operate them using mobile control stations. Their first attempted service was in Syria. Analysts from
BAE Systems BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British multinational arms, security, and aerospace company based in London, England. It is the largest defence contractor in Europe, and ranked the seventh-largest in the world based on applicable 2021 revenues. ...
(UK) assessed the Uran-9s in Syria as unreliable, with their radio-controls sometimes blocked by buildings; their sensors and guidance were unstabilized. An armed Uran-9 weighs 12 tons,Isabella Beltra
(10 Apr 2021) Uran-9, Russian Robotic Tanks Slated to be Deployed "Soon" Despite Flaws During Syrian Tests, The Sc''i''encetimes
(Mixed-font ''I'' in 'science' appears deliberate.)
and measures 5 meters long, which is a fifth of the weight and half the length of a T-90 tank. Each Uran-9 control system operates at ranges up to 1.8 miles from the UGVs; Ax
(14 Sep 2021) Russia one step ahead, Why Russia's strike robots is scary enough
/ref> Zvezda (TV channel)br>Воины будущего. Какими возможностями обладают поступившие на вооружение ВС РФ боевые роботы «Уран-9»
Uran-9 Control system
each control system currently (2021) guides 4 UGVs, in a leader-follower configuration.Sebastien Robli
(21 October 2019) This Is the Robot Tank Russia Used in Syria
/ref>Combat Approve
(13 Feb 2021) Episode 44. The Uran-9 Russia’s First Combat Robot
/ref> Uran-9 was used in the Vostok 2018 exercises in 2018. At least 20 Uran-9 UGCVs exist.Army Technology.co
(2016) Uran-9 Unmanned Ground Combat Vehicle
/ref> #**Russia's defense ministry has signed a contract to field the Tsirkon hypersonic missiles to its troops in 2025.James Crump
(24 Aug 2021) Russia Orders Hypersonic Missiles As Putin Vows to Put Weapons on 'Combat Alert'
/ref> #**During the 2021 negotiations for defusing the Ukraine-Russia confrontation, Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov has warned that its 9M729 nuclear-capable cruise missile, which is already deployed in the European part of Russia, might be further employed there.Alexander Marrow and Mark Trevelyan (Reuters
(13 Dec 2021) Russia says it may be forced to deploy mid-range nuclear missiles in Europe
/ref> #** The hypersonic Kh-47M2 Kinzhal, and 3M22 Zircon (Tsirkon) are standoff strike weapons, for keeping adversaries at bay; they are land-based, and sea-based respectively.Roger McDermot
(7 Feb 2022) The Role of Hypersonic Weapons in Russian Military Strategy
Giperzvukovogo Oruzhiya—(GZO); or Giperzvukovyye letatel’nyye apparaty—(GZLA) Kinzhal, Tsirkon, Kalibr, Poseidon, Avangard, Burevestnik, Sarmat,
#* On 1 September 2022 Russia, China, India, and 11 other nations began a scaled-down Vostok 2022 (East 2022).The Moscow Time
(1 September 2022) Russia Stages Scaled-down War Games With China, India
/ref> Vostok will exercise 50,000 troops, down from 300,000 in 2018. India is contributing 75 troops. #* By 19 October 2022 NATO nations were providing winter equipment to Ukraine.Paul McLear
(19 October 2022) NATO is rushing equipment to Ukraine as troops hunker down for the winter
"The war begins a new phase as Russia launches missiles and temperatures fall"
By Spring 2023 the US industrial base can be providing 20,000 rounds of 155mm howitzer munitions per month to Ukraine.Brian Bender and Laura Seligman
(4 Dec 2022) "We haven't got this figured out just yet": Pentagon, industry struggle to arm Ukraine
"The Russia problem takes center stage at this year's Reagan National Defense Forum".
#China—RAND simulations show Blue losses.Sydney J. Freedberg Jr
(7 March 2019) US ‘Gets Its Ass Handed To It’ In Wargames: Here’s A $24 Billion Fix
Army prepositioned stocks (APS) vulnerability
Six of the top 15 defense companies in the world are now Chinese, in 2019 for the first time. The
competition Competition is a rivalry where two or more parties strive for a common goal which cannot be shared: where one's gain is the other's loss (an example of which is a zero-sum game). Competition can arise between entities such as organisms, indivi ...
with China was shaped in the decade 2010–2020, according to David Kriete.Theresa Hitchens
(31 July 2019) Competition (With China) IS The New Deterrence, US Military Leaders Say
Vice Adm. David Kriete of US Strategic Command
aj.com (1 Oct 2019) China Confirms New Hypersonic Nuclear Missile On 70th Anniversary
DF-17 *Kristin Huang
(23 Aug 2019) China’s hypersonic DF-17 missile threatens regional stability, analyst warns(1 Oct 2019) China unveils Dongfeng-17 conventional missiles in military parade
See minute 0:05 to 0:49 for 16 Hypersonic Glide Vehicles (white-tipped contrast atop their DF-17 fuselages mounted on booster rockets) *Kathrin Hille in Taipei and Qianer Liu in Beijin
(1 Oct 2019) China displays military advances in show of strength to rivals
Lists missile armaments
FT video
FT estimates 1/3rd of China's missile arsenal is on display in 1 Oct parade *BILL POWELL
(10/3/19) China's Hypersonic Missile, AKA 'Carrier Killers,' Are a 'Holy S**t Moment' for US Military
/ref>Bill Gert
(24 December 2019) China's test of sub-launched missile a threat to peace, retired captain warns
JL-3 is an SLBM
#*Secretary Mark Esper said that China is aiming to be the dominant military power in Asia by 2049.Robert Burn
(27 Aug 2020) Esper visit to tiny Palau highlights US-China competition
(Nov 2019) Chapter 4: China's Global Ambitions
/ref>David Kirto

Airshow China in Zhuhai
The 14th five-year plan (2021-2025) of China's ruling party, aims to accelerate the army's modernization and informationization, in order to improve national security for 2027 (100th anniversary of its ruling party), according to Dean Cheng.Dean Chen
(23 Nov 2020) Chinese Party Sets Bold Military Goal: ‘Mechanized & Informationized’ By 2027
/ref>Dean Chen
(19 May 2021) How China’s Thinking About The Next War
Proposed doctrine: brigade-based, joint MDO
By 2023 China's working-age demographic (a shrinking labor force/ capital savings rate) will start to work against the Party's aspiration for 2027,Deutsche Well
(21 May 2021) China releases population census with enormous implications for the country's future
/ref>Tanner Brow
(17 Jan 2022) China’s Population Crisis Is Complicated. What It Means for the Country’s Economy.
/ref>Michael C Horowit
(19 Nov 2021) War by Timeframe: Responding to China's Pacing Challenge
/ref> which, according to Xi Jinping's plan, is for China's military to reach parity with the US military in 2027.Paul McLeary and Alexander War
(20 Nov 2021) U.S. ‘not as advanced’ as China and Russia on hypersonic tech, Space Force general warns
/ref> #* The International Federation of Robotics reports that China has been the world leader in implementing industrial robots for the past eight years; in 2020 China used almost half the world's industrial robots.Roopinder Tar
(22 Sep 2022) Almost Half of Industrial Robots Are in China
/ref> #** The takeover of a UK semiconductor fab by a Chinese-owned firm has been blocked on national security grounds.Ryan Browne

as reported in [https://hardware.slashdot.org/story/22/11/20/0221224/chinese-takeover-of-uks-largest-chip-plant-blocked-on-national-security-grounds (20 Nov 2022) Chinese Takeover of UK's Largest Chip Plant Blocked on National Security Grounds]
#*In 2017 China adopted the National Intelligence Law which obligates Chinese companies to subordinate themselves to intelligence-gathering measures for the state.Reuters World New
(27 June 2017) China passes tough new intelligence law
National Intelligence Law
China is militarizing the South China Sea. In 2020 a match-up of the Chinese aircraft carrier ''Liaoning'' (a rebuilt aircraft cruiser) versus the supercarrier is assessed to give the ''Ronald Reagan'' air superiority within one hour.Defense update
(30 Apr 2020) 3 Reasons Chinese Liaoning Will Not Last an Hour Against USS Ronald Reagan Protecting Japan!
/ref> #*The 3rd generation GPS network of BeiDou satellites (BDS-3) was completed in July 2020 with the launch of the 30th BDS-3 satellite.Sutirtho Patranobi
(31 Jul 2020) China says its Beidou system now fully operational, to challenge US’s GPS
/ref> The 30th BDS-3 satellite, meant to complete China's own global navigation satellite system,P.W. Singer and Taylor A. Le
(31 March 2020) China’s version of GPS is almost complete. Here's what that means.
/ref> had been previously postponed.Elizabeth Howel

/ref> ''See Restrictions on geographic data in China'' #*
Satellite image Satellite images (also Earth observation imagery, spaceborne photography, or simply satellite photo) are images of Earth collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world. Satellite imaging companies sell im ...
s of 4 June 2021 reveal an estimated 250 additional
missile silo A missile launch facility, also known as an underground missile silo, launch facility (LF), or nuclear silo, is a vertical cylindrical structure constructed underground, for the storage and launching of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs ...
s under construction near Yumen, China, warn specialists at the
James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies The Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (MIIS), formerly known as the Monterey Institute of International Studies, is an American graduate school of Middlebury College, a private college in Middlebury, Vermont. Established ...
.Huizhong Wu and Jon Gambrell, The Associated Pres
(30 July 2021) US military warns China is building more nuclear missile silos
/ref> #*The Defense Intelligence Agency projects that China will at least double its nuclear arsenal and that its production capability will be far expanded in the 2020s.James Anderson (31 July 2020) China's troubling nuclear buildup ''The New York Times'' Op-Ed p. A25. —James Anderson is Acting undersecretary of defense for policyDean Cheng
(28 Oct 2022) China calls for new ‘strategic guidance’ at 20th Party Congress
in a call for strategic deterrence tandoffby 2027
Colin Clar
(18 Jun 2021) Chinese Nuke Modernization Prompts Shift In DoD Strategy
cites SIPRI as authority
(5 Oct 2022) The Balance of Power Is Shifting Among Nuclear-Energy Titans
RosAtom vs CNNC, CGN
#*China controls 80% of world rare earth mineral production, and routinely floods this market when other nations attempt to ramp up their own rare earth production.Sun Yu and Demetri Sevastopulo, Financial Time
(16 Feb 2021) China targets rare earth export curbs to hobble US defense industry
*Gabriel Crossley and Min Zhan

/ref>Small Wars journa
(14 Aug 2021) Letter to the Editor: Critical Afghanistan Assessment
"Now the rare earth minerals in Afghanistan will fall into the hands of the CCP."
Daniel L. Davi
(6 Aug 2021): Defense Priorities fellow Daniel Davis BBC to discuss Afghanistan withdrawal
/ref> #**The tech leaders of China are being enlisted to aid ' Socialism with Chinese characteristics' by pledging part of their wealth to 'common prosperity'.Fergus Rya
(26 Aug 2021) China Takes on Its Tech Leaders
/ref> The Cyberspace Administration of China is regulating algorithms on its financial reporting websites which republish foreign financial journalists.Bloomber
(30 Aug 2021) China To Cleanse Online Content That 'Bad-Mouths' Its Economy
/ref> #*Chinese cyber groups are attacking Russia, reports Ben Watson.Ben Watson
(6 Aug 2021) China is hacking Russia
who cite
Sam Bendet's tweet
/ref>Brandi Vincen
(9 Feb 2022) New Operating System Aims to Speed AI to the Battlefield
China has goal of 2030 for Parity with US on AI —Lt. Gen. Michael Groen, for DoD's Artificial Intelligence and Data Accelerator (AIDA)
China is accelerating its timeline to take Taiwan.Mallory Shelbourn
(19 Oct 2022) China’s Accelerated Timeline to Take Taiwan Pushing Navy in the Pacific, Says CNO Gilday
/ref>Lee Hsi-min and Eric Le
(3 Nov 2020) Taiwan’s Overall Defense Concept, Explained
"The concept’s developer explains the asymmetric approach to Taiwan’s defense".
#*149 Chinese fighters and bombers swept over Taiwan's Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) 1–4 October 2021.Colin Clar
(4 Oct 2021) 149 Chinese Fighters, Bombers Sweep Across Taiwan ADIZ In 4 Days
/ref>Harry Halem and Eyck Freyman
(7 Apr 2022) Ukraine Shows Why Taiwan Needs More Air Defense
options: "transferring air-defense systems to Taiwan, funding Taiwan’s domestic air-defense programs, and deploying American-made integrated air-defense technology"
Sydney J. Freedberg Jr
(8 Apr 2022) Three reasons why defense is beating offense in Ukraine – and why it matters for Taiwan
1) precision-guided firepower 2) sprawling urbanization 3) mass mobilization
Taiwan has countered with Civil Air Patrol warnings.Covert Caba
(10 Oct 2021) Can Taiwan Stop a Chinese Invasion?
/ref>Military Aviation Histor
(4 Feb 2018) Air Superiority 2030 - How America Wants To Retain Dominance
Encapsulates the factors for 2030
Mike Ye
(20 Oct 2021) China shows off drones recycled from Soviet-era fighter jets
J-6=Mig-19 Drones
#* China is implementing its plan for 2027: Office of Secretary of Defense (3 Nov 2021) "Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China", Annual report to Congress Tara Cop
(3 Nov 2021) China Likely to Have ‘At Least’ 1,000 Nukes by 2030, Pentagon Estimates
CJCS views Taiwan invasion unlikely over next two years. *Office of Secretary of Defens
(3 Nov 2021) Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China
Annual report to Congress
#** By November 2022 a strict zero-Covid lockdown policy instituted in 2020 had led to 2022 COVID-19 protests in China; China then allowed use of a locally-developed mRNA vaccine (2 December 2022), in lieu of lockdowns.Brian Yan
(2 December 2022) China Set To Green-Light First mRNA Vaccine
/ref>Rebecca Cohen, Morgan McFall-Johnsen, and Paola Rosa-Aquino
(29 Nov 2022) China's refusal to use Western COVID-19 vaccines is making its protest problems even worse

#India: faces Pakistan;Deutsche Welle DW New
(16 Aug 2021) Taliban back in power: What does it mean for the Indo-Pacific region?
/ref> Pakistan can be supplied with Turkey's drones (such as the
Bayraktar TB2 The Bayraktar TB2 is a medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) capable of remotely controlled or autonomous flight operations. It is manufactured by the Turkish company Baykar Makina Sanayi ve Ticaret A ...
), which were used with great effect by Azerbaijan against Armenian tanks and Armenian air defenseThe Print Tea
(14 Nov 2020) How drones helped Azerbaijan defeat Armenia, and the implications for future modern warfare
/ref> during the
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war The Second Nagorno-Karabakh War was an armed conflict in 2020 that took place in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenian-occupied territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh, the surrounding territories. It was a major escalation of ...
. In 2010 China deployed 11,000 troops in Gilgit, near Kashmir.Indian Expres
(28 Aug 2010) China deploys 11,000 troops in Gilgit area in Occupied Kashmir
/ref> #*Japan and India have agreed to enhance their bilateral defense cooperation (9 September 2022).Press Trust of Indi

#Japan: faces North Korea;Daishi Abe and Rieko Miki
(14 Aug 2020) Japan wants de facto 'Six Eyes' intelligence status: defense chief
*Masay Kato
(13 Aug 2020) Japan's deeper ties with Five Eyes hinge on how it keeps secrets
/ref> Japan has expressed interest in developing its own F-X fighter program;Brian Burto
(28 Jun 2021) As Allies Design Fighter Aircraft, The United States Faces a Decision
/ref> Brian Burton notes that interoperable materiel is needed for allies and partners of the US, and that the US could constructively influence Japan's impending 20-year development effort with lessons learned from UAVs and air defense, for example. On 26 December 2019, at Putin's annual news conference with foreign media, Hirofumi Sugizaki, a Japanese journalist asked about the end of the
INF Treaty The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty, formally the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles; / ДРСМ ...
and the cooperation of Russia and China on an anti-missile system. Putin characterized the anti-missile system as defensive, and the relation of US and Russia as a 'draw' (ヒキワケ—''hikiwake'').Russia Insight (26 December 2019) Putin Stunned By Words Of Japanese Journalist: What Are You Talking About!?
Video clip: 6:51
Colin Clar
(15 Jul 2021) 'Sense Of Crisis' On China-Taiwan: Japan Defense White Paper
Japan draws closer to Taiwan
Mike Roger
(4 Mar 2022) China is watching Ukraine closely, the US should watch China
/ref>Allegra Goodwin CNN in Londo

UK Prime Minister "Sunak said it was 'telling' that Putin would not attend" G20 in Indonesia, in light of the
2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine On 24 February 2022, in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War, which began in 2014. The invasion has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths on both sides. It has caused Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II. An ...
. * Mark Galleot
(11 Nov 2022) Opinion: Putin can cling on to power, but his legend is dead
"Multiple security forces balance each other: in Moscow, for example, the military garrison, a special division of the National Guard and the Kremlin Regiment, all report to different chains of command. The Federal Security Service watches all three – and the Federal Protection Service in turn watch them". * Simone McCarthy, CN

"Putin ... is increasingly isolated".
(16 November 2022) Pentagon gives update after missile hits Poland
4 hour Ukraine Defense Contact Group meeting with 50 nations 47:21
Japan will compensate companies for not disclosing patents with military applications.Reuter

/ref> In a Joint test, Japan's Cooperative Engagement Capability allowed JS Maya to detect and track a ballistic missile; JS Haguro shot it down.Mike Ye
(22 Nov 2022) Japanese destroyers intercept ballistic missiles in tests with US Navy

Applications of power projection

The ''Texas National Security Review'' projects five scenarios for the global economy:Aaron L. Friedber
(Winter 2021/2022) The Growing Rivalry Between America and China and the Future of Globalization
/ref> # Reglobalization as in the 1980s # Deglobalization away from the trends of the 2000sThe Changing Orde
(9 Feb 2022) —Peter Zeihan: How Deglobalization Works, Full Webinar
video 58:24
# Globalization with Chinese characteristics # Regional blocs with partially closed tradingMichael Kofma
(Apr 2019) Drivers of Russian Grand Strategy
/ref>Akhil Rames
( Are we witnessing the beginning of de-dollarization?
Caspian Repor
(14 Jun 2022) How Russia could collapse (again)
Local republics could blockade other republics of the Federation to preserve local stability, which appears to be the choice of the people.
Clare Sebastian, CN

Russia now selling oil to Asia, six months after sanctions by West.
# Shared strategic interests and common political values, which Friedberg judges will be the choice of the Western bloc and its direction for power projection.

Hard power

Examples of hard power projection include: * Showing the flag: the symbolic deployment of military forces to a region for the purposes of demonstrating political interest, resolve, or willingness to take more forceful military action. * Compulsion/deterrence: the use of the threat of military force against another state to either induce it into or dissuade it from pursuing a given policy. In this form, power projection acts as a diplomatic tool, attempting to influence the decision-making process of foreign actors.(26 Jan 2022) Will There Be a War Over Ukraine? 13 Putin Watchers Weigh In
/ref>David M. Herszenhorn and Paul McLear

ala SoF
Sebastian Sprenge

/ref>Jaroslaw Adamowsk
(9 Jul 2021) Poland could purchase M1 Abrams tanks from US
250 M1A2 SEPv3s, + dozen tracked vehicles, purchase confirme
14 July 2021
*John Vandive

*Paul McLear

State Department approval, so the tanks are not yet available for shipment from Vendor
Douglas London, Foreign Affair
(11 Apr 2022) A Shadow War Against Putin
''See Power projection#Gray zone competition for context'' * Punishment: the punitive use of force against another state in response to their pursuit of a given policy. * Armed intervention: the movement of military forces into another nation's territory for the purposes of influencing the internal affairs of the target country short of outright conquest.Leaders
(29 Jan 2022) A war in Ukraine could have global consequences
"The likelihood of China invading Taiwan would surely rise."
Anna Nemtsov

/ref>Ivana Kottasová, Tamara Qiblawi and Helen Rega

/ref>Sergey Radchenk
/ref> * Conquest: the offensive use of military assets to forcibly occupy territory controlled or claimed by another state.CaspianRepor
(29 Jan 2022) What a Russian assault on Ukraine would look like
video clip 14:41
Sam LaGron
(8 Feb 2022) UPDATED: Russian Navy Amphibious Group Enters Black Sea as Warships Mass in the Mediterranean
/ref>Liudas Dapkus and Dasha Litvinov
(19 Feb 2022) Russia ‘uncoiling and poised to strike’ says US defense secretary
/ref>Jack Watling and Nick Reynold
(22 Apr 2022) Operation Z: The Death Throes of an Imperial Delusion
26 pages
Reuben Johnso
(19 May 2022) Russian attempts to restock its military may be doomed to failure
/ref>Kyle Mizokam
(27 Jan 2022) Russia Won't Start a War With Ukraine Out of the Blue. Look For These 8 Warning Signs.
#Fuel and Ammunition Stockpiles #Cyberwarfare #GPS Jamming, Spoofing #Attack submarine sorties #Electronic warfare #Social media blackout #Little green men Events #Drone reconnaissance
Jeremy Herb, Katie Bo Lillis, Barbara Starr and Sean Lyngaas, CNN

/ref>Phil Stewart and Humeyra Pamuk, Reuter

/ref> In 2022 Michael Kofman projected that a Russian invasion of Ukraine would be eastward via Donbas, northward from Crimea, and up the Dnieper river to encircle Ukraine's capital Kyiv,Michael Kofma
(24 Jan 2022) Putin's Wager in Russia's Standoff With the West
/ref>Karen DeYoung, Dan Lamothe, John Hudson and Shane Harris. The Washington Pos
(5 Feb 2022) Russia could invade Ukraine within days, causing up to 50,000 civilian deaths, U.S. intelligence assessments find
/ref> with a political takeover of Ukraine a likely objective of Russian leadership.''The New York Times'
(24 Feb 2022) Maps: Tracking the Russian Invasion of Ukraine
/ref> Daniel Treismanbr>(22 Feb 2022) Putin isn't likely to stop here
/ref>Paul Kirb
(23 Feb 2022) Why is Russia ordering troops into Ukraine and what does Putin want?
(23 Feb 2022) Ukraine starts drafting reservists aged 18-60 after president's order
/ref>Jake Harrington and Riley McCab
(1 Feb 2022) Keeping Pace in the Gray ZOne: Three Recommendations for the U.S. Intelligence Community
/ref>Michael Kofma
(23 Feb 2022) Michael Kofman, an expert on Russia’s armed forces, explains why the Kremlin will seek regime change in Ukraine
/ref> However, in lieu of a political takeover, a decapitation strike is a possible tactic.Valerie Insinn
(24 Feb 2022) Russia aiming to ‘decapitate’ Ukrainian government: US official
/ref>Valerie Insinn
(11 March 2022 at 12:35 PM) Top American generals on three key lessons learned from Ukraine
Marine Corps Commandant Gen. David Berger, Army Chief of Staff Gen. James McConville, and Air Combat Command head Gen. Mark Kelly: 1) Humble “Legacy” Technology Can Still Play a Role Against a Sophisticated Adversary, 2) The Human Element (Still) Matters, and 3) Logistics Are Not Optional
Sky New
(28 Apr 2022) Can Russia be pushed out of Ukraine entirely?
Retired Air Vice Marshal Sean Bell 2:25/4:08 use 155mm howitzers, coupled with counterfire radar (i.e. TPQ-53) against Russian artillery
Rob Pichet
(29 Jan 2022) How a Russian invasion of Ukraine would reverberate around the world
/ref>Frontline (Mar 15, 2022
Putin's Road to War (full documentary)

Power projection capabilities

See also

Blue-water navy A blue-water navy is a maritime force capable of operating globally, essentially across the deep waters of open oceans. While definitions of what actually constitutes such a force vary, there is a requirement for the ability to exercise sea con ...
Green-water navy A green-water navy is a maritime force that is capable of operating in its nation's littoral zones and has limited competency to operate in the surrounding marginal seas. It is a relatively new term, and has been created to better distinguis ...
Exercise RIMPAC RIMPAC, the Rim of the Pacific Exercise, is the world's largest international maritime warfare exercise. RIMPAC is held biennially during June and July of even-numbered years from Honolulu, Hawaii, with the exception of 2020 where it was held i ...
* Expeditionary maneuver warfare *
Expeditionary warfare Expeditionary warfare is a military invasion of a foreign territory, especially away from established bases. Expeditionary forces were in part the antecedent of the modern concept of rapid deployment forces. Traditionally, expeditionary forces w ...
* Force concentration * Force multiplication *
List of countries by military expenditures This is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year. Military expenditure figures are presented in United States dollars based on either constant or current exchange rates. Military expenditure, total ; Stockholm International ...
* List of countries with overseas military bases *
Loss of Strength Gradient The Loss of Strength Gradient (LSG) is a military concept devised by Kenneth E. Boulding in his 1962 book ''Conflict and Defense: A General Theory''. He argued that the amount of a nation's military power that could be brought to bear in any par ...
* Military budget of the United States * Military deployment * Military logistics *
Overmatch Overmatch is a concept in modern military thinking which prizes having overwhelming advantages over an adversary to a more significant margin than in traditional warfare. It is related to military superiority. Overmatch uses a military force's "ca ...
* Over-the-beach capability * Seabasing *
Sovereignty Sovereignty is the defining authority within individual consciousness, social construct, or territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the perso ...
* Unsinkable aircraft carrier



External links

US Army Field Manual 100-10 Chapter 1: Power Projection

{{DEFAULTSORT:Power Projection Power (international relations) Military logistics Military strategy Military doctrines Power (social and political) concepts