HOME

TheInfoList




A port is a
maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince ...
facility comprising one or more
wharves A wharf, quay (, also ), or staith(e) is a structure on the shore of a harbour A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of var ...

wharves
or loading areas, where ships load and discharge
cargo In economics, the word cargo refers in particular to goods or produce being conveyed—generally for Commerce, commercial gain—by water, air or land. "Freight" is the money paid to carry cargo. ''Cargo'' was originally a shipload. Cargo ...
and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can also be found far inland, such as
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...
,
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...
and
Duluth Duluth ( ) is a Port, port city in the U.S. state of Minnesota and the county seat of St. Louis County, Minnesota, St. Louis County. Duluth is about 65 miles south of the Superior National Forest and the Sawtooth Mountains (Minnesota), Sawtooth ...
; these access the sea via
river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of wate ...

river
s or
canal Canals are waterways channels Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path of a narrow body of water. Australia * ...

canal
s. Because of their roles as
ports of entry In general, a port of entry (POE) is a place where one may lawfully enter a country. It typically has border control, border security staff and facilities to check passports and visas and to inspect luggage to assure that contraband is not impo ...
for immigrants as well as soldiers in wartime, many port cities have experienced dramatic multi-ethnic and multicultural changes throughout their respective histories. Ports are extremely important to the global economy; 70% of global merchandise trade by value passes through a port. For this reason, ports are also often densely populated settlements that provide the labor for processing and handling goods and related services for the ports. Today by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...
and the
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
ports of
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...
and Ningbo-Zhoushan. As of 2020, the busiest passenger port in the world is the
Port of Helsinki The Port of Helsinki ( fi, Helsingin Satama, sv, Helsingfors Hamn) is the busiest passenger port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge A ...

Port of Helsinki
in
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
. Nevertheless, countless smaller ports do exist that may only serve their local tourism or fishing industries. Ports can have a wide environmental impact on local ecologies and waterways, most importantly water quality, which can be caused by dredging, spills and other pollution. Ports are heavily affected by changing environmental factors caused by
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
as most port infrastructure is extremely vulnerable to
sea level rise Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloqu ...

sea level rise
and
coastal flooding Coastal flooding normally occurs when dry and low-lying land is submerged by seawater. The range of a coastal flooding is a result of the elevation of floodwater that penetrates the inland which is controlled by the topography Topography is ...
. Internationally, global ports are beginning to identify ways to improve
coastal management Coastal management is defence against flooding A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide Tides are the rise an ...
practices and integrate
climate change adaptation Climate change adaptation is the process of adjusting to current or expected climate change Climate change includes both global warming driven by human emissions of greenhouse gases and the resulting large-scale shifts in weather patte ...
practices into their construction.


Historical ports

Wherever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at
Wadi al-Jarf Wadi al-Jarf ( ar, وادي الجرف) is the present name for an area on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, south of Suez, that is the site of the oldest known artificial harbour in the world, developed about 4500 years ago. It is located at the mouth ...
on the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
. Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have also been found. Other ancient ports include
Guangzhou Guangzhou (, ; ; or ; ), also known as Canton and alternatively romanized as Kwongchow or Kwangchow, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the ...
during
Qin Dynasty The Qin dynasty, or Ch'in dynasty in Wade–Giles Wade–Giles () is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of ever ...

Qin Dynasty
China and
Canopus Canopus () is the brightest star in the southern constellation A constellation is an area on the celestial sphere in which a group of visible stars forms a perceived outline or pattern, typically representing an animal, mythological ...
, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of
Piraeus Piraeus ( ; el, Πειραιάς ; grc, Πειραιεύς ) is a port city The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Tr ...

Piraeus
was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the
Battle of Salamis The Battle of Salamis ( ; grc, Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachía tês Salamînos) was a naval battle Naval warfare is human combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving a major body of wate ...

Battle of Salamis
against the Persians in 480 BCE. In ancient India from 3700 BCE,
Lothal Lothal () was one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization , c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta Terracotta, terra cotta, or terra-cotta (; Italian language, Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin ''terra cocta''), ...

Lothal
was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt.
Ostia Antica Ostia Antica is a large archaeological site, close to the modern town of Ostia (Rome), Ostia, that is the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, 15 miles (25 kilometres) southwest of Rome. "Ostia" (plur. of "ostium") is a derivation of "os" ...

Ostia Antica
was the port of ancient Rome with
Portus Portus was a large artificial harbour of Ancient Rome. Sited on the north bank of the north mouth of the Tiber, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, Tyrrhenian coast, it was established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia A ...

Portus
established by
Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was the fourth Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial p ...

Claudius
and enlarged by
Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Trajan
to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
, the island of
Dejima was a Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Por ...

Dejima
was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region The or the , lies in the southern-central region of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , ...

Osaka
was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Post-classical Swahili kingdoms are known to have had trade port islands and trade routes with the Islamic world and Asia. They were described by Greek historians as "metropolises". Famous African trade ports such as
Mombasa Mombasa ( , also ) is a coastal city in southeastern Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally writ ...

Mombasa
,
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
,
Mogadishu Mogadishu (, also ; so, Muqdisho or Xamar ; ar, مقديشو, Muqadīshū ; it, Mogadiscio ), locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital city and most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city ...

Mogadishu
and
Kilwa Kilwa Kisiwani (English: ''Kilwa Island'') is an island, national historic site, and hamlet community located in the township of Kilwa Masoko, the district seat of Kilwa District in the Tanzanian region of Lindi Region in southern Tanzania. Kilw ...
were known to Chinese sailors such as
Zheng He Zheng He (; 1371 – 1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, and may work in any one of a number of different fields that are related to ...

Zheng He
and medieval Islamic historians such as the Berber Islamic voyager Abu Abdullah ibn Battuta. Many of these ancient sites no longer exist or function as modern ports. Even in more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use.
Rye, East Sussex Rye is a small town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest ...
, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now from the sea, while the ports of
Ravenspurn Ravenspurn was a town in the East Riding of Yorkshire East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions ...
and
Dunwich Dunwich is a village and Civil parishes in England, civil parish in Suffolk, England. It is in the Suffolk Coast and Heaths AONB around north-east of London, south of Southwold and north of Leiston, on the North Sea coast. In the Anglo-S ...

Dunwich
have been lost to
coastal erosion Coastal erosion is the loss or displacement of land, or the long-term removal of sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering Weathering is the deterioration of rocks A roc ...
.


Modern ports

Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, river, canal, road, rail and air routes. Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active
hinterland Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclope ...

hinterland
, such as the
London Gateway DP World London Gateway is a port within the wider Port of London, United Kingdom. Opened in November 2013, the site is a fully integrated logistics facility, comprising a semi-automated, deep-sea container terminal on the same site as the UK ...
. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, and will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are often on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular
dredging Dredging is the excavation of material from a water environment. Possible reasons for dredging include improving existing water features; reshaping land and water features to alter drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial remova ...
. Deep water ports such as
Milford Haven Milford Haven ( cy, Aberdaugleddau, meaning "mouth of the two Rivers Cleddau") is a town and community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), ...
are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large
container ship A container ship (also called boxship or spelled containership) is a cargo ship A cargo ship or freighter is a merchant ship that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas an ...

container ship
s. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres, warehouses and freight-forwarders,
canneries File:TAG Andy Warhol Soup Can 01.jpg, Special-edition steel soup cans commemorating Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans#altered colors, paintings Canning is a method of food preservation, preserving food in which the food contents are proc ...

canneries
and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised
cargo In economics, the word cargo refers in particular to goods or produce being conveyed—generally for Commerce, commercial gain—by water, air or land. "Freight" is the money paid to carry cargo. ''Cargo'' was originally a shipload. Cargo ...

cargo
-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes,
reach stacker A reach stacker is a vehicle used for handling intermodal cargo containers in small terminals or medium-sized ports. Reach stackers are able to transport a container short distances very quickly and pile them in various rows depending on its access ...
s and . Ports usually have specialised functions: some tend to cater mainly for passenger ferries and
cruise ship Cruise ships are large passenger ship A passenger ship is a merchant ship whose primary function is to carry passengers on the sea. The category does not include cargo ship, cargo vessels which have accommodations for limited numbers of pas ...

cruise ship
s; some specialise in
container A container is any receptacle or enclosure for holding a product used in storage, packaging, and transportation, including shipping. Things kept inside of a container are protected by being inside of its structure. The term is most frequently ...
traffic or general cargo; and some ports play an important military role for their nation's navy. Some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and
St Helena Saint Helena () is a British possession in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is a remote volcanic tropical island west of the coast of south-western Africa, and east of Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro (; ;), or simply Rio, is the List of larges ...
still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by
barge A barge is a shoal A tidal sandbar connecting the islands of Waya and Wayasewa of the Yasawa Islands, Fiji In oceanography Oceanography (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in a ...

barge
or
launch Launch or launched may refer to: Involving vehicles * Launch (boat) A launch is an open motorboat A motorboat, speedboat or powerboat is a boat that is powered by an engine. Some motorboats are fitted with inboard engines, others ...
(respectively). In modern times, ports survive or decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of
Liverpool Liverpool is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. With a population of in 2019, it is the List of English districts by population, tenth largest English district by population, and its ...
and
Southampton Southampton () is a port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea ...
were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the
Port of London The Port of London is that part of the River Thames in England lying between Teddington Lock and the defined boundary (since 1968, a line drawn from Foulness Point in Essex via Gunfleet Old Lighthouse to Warden Point in Kent) with the North Sea ...
was a major international port on the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest river entirely in England and the Longest rivers of the United Kingdom, se ...
, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, a small semi-automated container port (with links to the
Port of Felixstowe The Port of Felixstowe, in Felixstowe Felixstowe ( ) is a seaside town in Suffolk, England. At the 2011 Census, it had a population of 23,689. The Port of Felixstowe is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. History The tow ...
, the UK's largest container port) thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of
Rotterdam Rotterdam ( , , ) is the second largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2n ...

Rotterdam
and
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
are owned partly by the state and partly by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as
Peel Ports The Peel Group (commonly known by its former name Peel Holdings) is an infrastructure, transport and real estate investment group. It owns holdings in land and property, transport, logistics, retail, energy and media. Peel's direct and indirect i ...
who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the
Manchester Ship Canal The Manchester Ship Canal is a inland waterway in the North West England, North West of England linking Manchester to the Irish Sea. Starting at the River Mersey, Mersey Estuary near Liverpool, it generally follows the original routes of the ...
. Even though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use
pilot An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly Flies are insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical lan ...
s and
tugboat A tugboat or tug is a marine vessel Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional ...

tugboat
s for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters. For instance, ships approaching the Belgian
port of Antwerp The Port of Antwerp is the port of the City of Antwerp. It is located in Flanders Flanders (, ; Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spo ...

port of Antwerp
, an inland port on the
River Scheldt (m), wa, Escô, nl, Schelde , name_native_lang = fr, wa, nl , image = Schelde_Antwerpen.jpg , image_caption = The Scheldt in Antwerp , pushpin_map = France#Belgium#Netherlands , source1_location = France , mouth_l ...

River Scheldt
, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have
customs Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that u ...

customs
facilities.


Types

The terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as
barge A barge is a shoal A tidal sandbar connecting the islands of Waya and Wayasewa of the Yasawa Islands, Fiji In oceanography Oceanography (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in a ...

barge
s and other shallow-draft vessels.


Seaport

A seaport is a port located on the shore of a sea or ocean. It is further categorized as a "cruise port" or a "cargo port". Additionally, "cruise ports" are also known as a "home port" or a "port of call". The "cargo port" is also further categorized into a "bulk" or "break bulk port" or as a "container port".


Cargo port

Cargo ports, on the other hand, are quite different from cruise ports, because each handles very different cargo, which has to be loaded and unloaded by a variety of mechanical means. Bulk cargo ports may handle one particular type of cargo or it may handle numerous cargoes, such as grains, liquid fuels, liquid chemicals, wood, automobiles, etc. Such ports are known as the "bulk" or "break bulk ports". Ports that handle
containerized near Nuneaton, England File:NYK Virgo (8154929586).jpg, An ocean containership close to Cuxhaven, Germany Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport using intermodal containers (also called shipping containers and Internatio ...

containerized
cargo are known as
container port in Singapore A container port or container terminal is a facility where Intermodal container, cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. The transshipment may be between container ship ...

container port
s. Most cargo ports handle all sorts of cargo, but some ports are very specific as to what cargo they handle. Additionally, the individual cargo ports may be divided into different operating terminals which handle the different types of cargoes, and could be operated by different companies, also known as terminal operators, or
stevedore . Photograph by Lewis Hine,  1912 Port Sudan 1960 A stevedore (), also called a longshoreman, a docker or a dockworker, is a Dock (maritime), waterfront manual laborer who is involved in loading and unloading ship A ship is a large wat ...
s.


Cruise home port

A cruise home port is the port where cruise ship passengers board (or embark) to start their cruise and disembark the cruise ship at the end of their cruise. It is also where the cruise ship's supplies are loaded for the cruise, which includes everything from fresh water and fuel to fruits, vegetables, champagne, and any other supplies needed for the cruise. "Cruise home ports" are very busy places during the day the cruise ship is in port, because off-going passengers debark their baggage and on-coming passengers board the ship in addition to all the supplies being loaded. Cruise home ports tend to have large passenger terminals to handle the large number of passengers passing through the port. The busiest cruise home port in the world is the
Port of Miami The Port of Miami, styled as "PortMiami" but formally the Dante B. Fascell Port of Miami, is a major seaport located in Biscayne Bay at the mouth of the Miami River in Miami, Florida. It is the largest passenger port in the world, and one of the ...

Port of Miami
,
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
.


Smart port

A smart port uses technologies, including the
Internet of Things The Internet of things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—"things" or objects—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over ...

Internet of Things
(IoT),
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

artificial intelligence
(AI) and blockchain to be more efficient at handling goods. Smart ports usually deploy cloud-based software as part of the process of greater automation to help generate the operating flow that helps the port work smoothly. At present, most of the world's ports have somewhat embedded technology, if not for full leadership. However, thanks to global government initiatives and exponential growth in maritime trade, the amount of intelligent ports has gradually increased. This latest report by business intelligence provider Visiongain assesses that Smart Ports Market spending will reach $1.5 bn in 2019.


Port of call

A port of call is an intermediate stop for a ship on its sailing itinerary. At these ports, cargo ships may take on supplies or fuel, as well as unloading and loading cargo while cruise liners have passengers get on or off ship.


Fishing port

A fishing port is a port or
harbor A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American Engl ...

harbor
for landing and distributing fish. It may be a recreational facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, and depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical.


Inland port

An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river (fluvial port), or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo. An example of this is the
St. Lawrence Seaway The Saint Lawrence Seaway (french: la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canal Canals are waterways Channel (geography), channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicle ...
which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
,
Duluth-Superior The Twin Ports of Duluth, Minnesota, Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin, Superior, Wisconsin, are located at the western part of Lake Superior (the westernmost of North America's Great Lakes (North America), Great Lakes) and together are ...
, and
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
. The term "inland port" is also used for
dry port A dry port (sometimes referred to as an inland port) is an inland intermodal freight transport, intermodal terminal directly connected by road transport, road or Rail transport, rail to a Port#Seaport, seaport, operating as a centre for the transs ...
s.


Warm-water port

A warm-water port (also known as an ice-free port) is one where the water does not freeze in wintertime. Because they are available year-round, warm-water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. Such settlements as
Dalian Dalian is a major in , , and is Liaoning's second largest city (after the ) and the fourth-most populous city of . Located on the southern tip of , it is the southernmost city in both Liaoning and the entire Northeast. Dalian borders t ...

Dalian
in China,
Vostochny Port Vostochny Port (russian: Восто́чный порт) is an Intermodal freight transport, intermodal container port at the eastern end of the Trans-Siberian Railway. It is the largest port in the Russian Far East. It is located in Vrangel (an ...
,
Murmansk Murmansk ( rus, Му́рманск, p=ˈmurmənsk) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far Far North (Russia), northwest part of Russia. It sits on both slopes and banks of a modest ria or fjord, Kola Bay, an e ...

Murmansk
and
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy ( rus, Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский, a=Петропавловск-Камчатский.ogg, r=Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, p=pʲɪtrɐˈpavləfsk kɐmˈtɕatskʲɪj) is a types of inhabited localities i ...

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
in Russia,
Odessa Odessa (russian: Оде́сса ) or Odesa ( uk, Оде́са ) is the third most populous List of cities in Ukraine, city and List of hromadas of Ukraine, municipality in Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transport hub located in th ...

Odessa
in Ukraine,
Kushiro is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be de ...
in Japan and Valdez at the terminus of the
Alaska Pipeline The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) is an oil transportation system spanning Alaska, including the trans-Alaska crude-oil pipeline Pipeline may refer to: Electronics, computers and computing * Pipeline (computing), a chain of data-processin ...

Alaska Pipeline
owe their very existence to being ice-free ports. The Baltic Sea and similar areas have ports available year-round beginning in the 20th century thanks to
icebreaker An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, rese ...
s, but earlier access problems prompted Russia to expand its territory to the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
.


Dry port

A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by
road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. Roads consist of one or two roadway A carriageway (British English British English (BrE) is the ...

road
or
rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail transport) or railway lines, the running surface of a railway Film *Rails (film), ''Rails'' (film), a 1929 Italian film by Mario Camerini *Rail (1967 fil ...

rail
to a seaport and operating as a centre for the
transshipment Transshipment or transhipment is the shipment of Cargo, goods or Intermodal container, containers to an intermediate destination, then to another destination. One possible reason for transshipment is to change the means of transport during the ...
of sea cargo to inland destinations.


Environmental issues

Ports and their operation are often both the cause of environmental issues, such as sediment contamination and spills from ships and are susceptible to larger environmental issues, such as human caused climate change and its effects.


Dredging

Every year 100 million cubic metrics of
marine sediment Marine sediment, or ocean sediment, or seafloor sediment, are deposits of insoluble particles that have accumulated on the seafloor The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean, no matter how ...
are dredged to improve waterways around ports. Dredging, in its practice, disturbs local ecosystems, brings sediments into the water column, and can stir up pollutants captured in the sediments.


Invasive species

Invasive species An invasive species is an introduced organism that becomes overpopulated and negatively alters its new environment. Although their spread can have beneficial aspects, invasive species adversely affect the invaded habitat Ibex in an ...
are often spread by the
bilge water 200px, Bilge compartment in a steel hulled ship (looking down) The bilge of a ship or boat is the part of the hull that would rest on the ground if the vessel were unsupported by water. The "turn of the bilge" is the transition from the bottom of ...
and species attached to the hulls of ships. It is estimated that there are over 7000 invasive species transported in bilge water around the world on a daily basis Invasive species can have direct or in-direct interactions with native sea life. Direct interaction such as predation, is when a native species with no natural predator is all of a sudden prey of an invasive specie. In-direct interaction can be diseases or other health conditions brought by invasive species.


Air pollution

Ports are also a source of increased air pollution both because of the ships and land transportation at the port. Transportation corridors around ports have higher exhaust and emissions and this can have related health effects on the local communities.


Water quality

Water quality around ports is often lower because of both direct and indirect pollution from the shipping, and other challenges caused by the port's community, such as trash washing into the ocean.


Spills, pollution and contamination

Sewage from ships, and leaks of oil and chemicals from shipping vessels can contaminate local water, and cause other effects like nutrient pollution in the water.


Climate change and sea level rise

Ports and their infrastructure are very vulnerable to climate change and sea level rise, because many of them are in low-lying areas designed for status quo water levels. Variable weather, coastal erosion, and sea level rise all put pressure on existing infrastructure, resulting in
subsidence Subsidence is a general term for downward vertical movement of the Earth's surface, which can be caused by both natural processes and human activities. Subsidence involves little or no horizontal movement, which distinguishes it from slope move ...
,
coastal flooding Coastal flooding normally occurs when dry and low-lying land is submerged by seawater. The range of a coastal flooding is a result of the elevation of floodwater that penetrates the inland which is controlled by the topography Topography is ...
and other direct pressures on the port.


Reducing impact

There are several initiatives to decrease negative environmental impacts of ports. The World Port Sustainability Program points to all of the Sustainable Development Goals as potential ways of addressing port sustainability. These include SIMPYC, the World Ports Climate Initiative, the African Green Port Initiative, EcoPorts and Green Marine.


World's major ports


Africa

*The port of Tangier Med is the largest port on the Mediterranean and in Africa by capacity and went into service in July 2007. *The busiest port in Africa is
Port Said Port Said ( ar, بورسعيد, Būrsaʿīd, ) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal. With an approximate population of 603,787 (2010), it is the List of citie ...

Port Said
in Egypt.


Asia

The
port of Shanghai The Port of Shanghai (), located in the vicinity of Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of ...
is the largest port in the world in both cargo tonnage and activity. It regained its position as the world's busiest port by cargo tonnage and the world's busiest container port in 2009 and 2010, respectively. It is followed by the ports of
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
,
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...
and
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese: ; Wade–Giles: ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of . Kao ...
,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, all of which are in and
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Southeast Asia
.


Europe

Europe's busiest container port and biggest port by cargo tonnage by far is the
Port of Rotterdam The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port, seaport in Europe, and the world's largest seaport outside of East Asia, located in and near the city of Rotterdam, in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. From 1962 until 2004, it was the ...

Port of Rotterdam
, in the Netherlands. It is followed by the Belgian
Port of Antwerp The Port of Antwerp is the port of the City of Antwerp. It is located in Flanders Flanders (, ; Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spo ...

Port of Antwerp
or the German
Port of Hamburg The Port of Hamburg (German: ''Hamburger Hafen'') is a seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (whe ...
, depending on which metric is used. In turn, the Spanish
Port of Valencia The Port of Valencia is a seaport File:PorticcioloCedas.jpg, The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola near Trieste, a small local port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility which may comprise one or more Wharf, wharves where sh ...

Port of Valencia
is the busiest port in the Mediterranean basin.


North America

The largest ports include the
Port of New York and New Jersey The Port of New York and New Jersey is the port district In Canada and the United States, a port authority (less commonly a port district) is a governmental or quasi-governmental public authority for a special-purpose district usually formed b ...
,
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...

Los Angeles
and
South LouisianaImage:Usports tonnage.svg, 400 px, The Port of South Louisiana handles the largest amount of shipping, in tonnage, of all U.S. ports. The Port of South Louisiana (french: Port de la Louisiane du Sud) extends 54 miles (87 km) along the Mississip ...
in the U.S., Manzanillo in Mexico and
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth desc ...
in Canada.
Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several ...

Panama
also has the
Panama Canal The Panama Canal ( es, Canal de Panamá, link=no) is an artificial waterway in Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República de Panamá), is a List of transcontinental countries#Nor ...

Panama Canal
that connects the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, and is a key conduit for international trade.


Oceania

The largest port in Australia is the
Port of Melbourne The Port of Melbourne is the largest port for containerised and general cargo in Australia. It is located in Melbourne, Australia, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Victoria, and covers an area at the mouth of the Yarra River, downstream of Bolte B ...
.


South America

According to ECLAC's "Maritime and Logistics Profile of Latin America and the Caribbean", the largest ports in South America are the
Port of Santos The Port of Santos (in Portuguese: ''Porto de Santos'') is located in the city of Santos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. As of 2006, it is the busiest Port, container port in Latin America. In 2016, it was considered the 39th largest port in the w ...
in Brazil,
Cartagena Cartagena or Carthagena may refer to: Places Chile *Cartagena, Chile, a commune in Valparaíso Region Colombia *Cartagena, Colombia, a city in the Bolívar Department, the largest city with this name **Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cartagena, an ...

Cartagena
in Colombia,
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) ...

Callao
in Peru,
Guayaquil , motto = Por Guayaquil Independiente en, For Independent Guayaquil , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Ecuador#South America , pushpin_re ...

Guayaquil
in Ecuador, and the
Port of Buenos Aires The Port of Buenos Aires ( es, Puerto de Buenos Aires) is the principal maritime port in Argentina. Operated by the ''Administración General de Puertos'' (General Ports Administration), a state enterprise A state-owned enterprise (SOE) or g ...
in Argentina.


See also

*
Anchorage (shipping) An anchorage is a location at sea where ships can lower anchor '' in Portsall, north-west Brittany (administrative region), Brittany, France An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to secure a Watercraft, vessel to the Seabed, be ...
*
Megaproject A megaproject is an extremely large-scale investment Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In fin ...
*
Marina A marina (from Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambig ...

Marina
- port for recreational boating *
Port managementPort management involves the management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strate ...
* Port operator *
Ship transport Maritime transport (or ocean transport) and hydrolyc effluvial transport, or more generally waterborne transport, is the transport Transport (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard languag ...


Other logistics hubs

*
Airport An airport is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval En ...

Airport
*
Spaceport A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching (or receiving) spacecraft File:Space Shuttle Columbia launching.jpg, 275px, The US Space Shuttle flew 135 times from 1981 to 2011, supporting Spacelab, ''Mir'', the Hubble Space Telescope, ...
*
Port of entry In general, a port of entry (POE) is a place where one may lawfully enter a country. It typically has border security staff and facilities to check passport A passport is an official travel documentA travel document is an identity docume ...


Lists

*
Lists of ports Lists of ports cover port The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port">Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcol ...
*
List of busiest cruise ports by passengers This is a list of busiest cruise ports by passengers. Some Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemisphe ...


References


External links


Port Industry Statistics, American Association of Port AuthoritiesInformation on yachting facilities at ports around the world from Noonsite.comSocial & Economic Benefits of PORTS
from "NOAA Socioeconomics" website initiative * Antunes, Cátia
''Early Modern Ports, 1500-1750''
European History Online European History Online (''Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO'') is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access Open access (OA) is a set ...
, Mainz:
Institute of European HistoryThe Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western states of Germany, state of Germany. It covers and has a ...
, 2011, retrieved: November 2, 2011. {{Authority control Nautical terminology Infrastructure Industrial buildings