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Population geography relates spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations to the terrain. Population geography involves
demography Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period ...

demography
in a geographical perspective. It focuses on the characteristics of population distributions that change in a spatial context. This often involves factors such as where population is found and how the size and composition of these population is regulated by the demographic processes of
fertility Fertility is the capability to produce offspring through reproduction following the onset of sexual maturity. The fertility rate is the average number of children born by a female during her lifetime and is quantified Demography, demographicall ...
,
mortality Mortality is the state of being mortal, or susceptible to death (1906) Death is the permanent, Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of all biological process, biological functions that sustain a living organism. Brain death is some ...
, and
migration Migration, migratory, or migrate may refer to: Human migration * Human migration, physical movement by humans from one region to another ** International migration, when peoples cross state boundaries and stay in the host state for some minimum len ...

migration
. Contributions to population geography are cross-disciplinary because geographical epistemologies related to environment, place and space have been developed at various times. Related disciplines include geography, demography,
sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the scie ...
, and
economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...

economics
.


History

Since its inception, population geography has taken at least three distinct but related forms, the most recent of which appears increasingly integrated with human geography in general. The earliest and most enduring form of population geography emerged in the 1950s, as part of spatial science. Pioneered by Glenn Trewartha, Wilbur Zelinsky, William A. V. Clark, and others in the United States, as well as Jacqueline Beujeau-Garnier and Pierre George in France, it focused on the systematic study of the distribution of population as a whole and the spatial variation in population characteristics such as fertility and mortality. Population geography defined itself as the systematic study of: # the simple description of the location of population numbers and characteristics # the explanation of the spatial configuration of these numbers and characteristics # the geographic analysis of population phenomena (the inter-relations among real differences in population with those in all or certain other elements within the geographic study area). Accordingly, it categorized populations as groups synonymous with political jurisdictions representing gender, religion, age, disability, generation, sexuality, and race, variables which go beyond the vital statistics of births, deaths, and marriages. Given the rapidly growing global population as well as the baby boom in affluent countries such as the United States, these geographers studied the relation between demographic growth, displacement, and access to resources at an international scale.


Topics in population geography

* Demographic phenomena (
natality The crude birth rate (CBR) in a period is the total number of live births per 1,000 population divided by the length of the period in years. The number of live births is normally taken from a universal registration system for births; population ...
,
mortality Mortality is the state of being mortal, or susceptible to death (1906) Death is the permanent, Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of all biological process, biological functions that sustain a living organism. Brain death is some ...
, growth rates, etc.) through both space and time * Increases or decreases in population numbers * The movements and mobility of populations * Occupational structure * The way in which places in turn react to population phenomena, e.g.
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigration
Research topics of other geographic sub-disciplines, such as
settlement geography Settlement geography is a branch of human geography Image:Snow-cholera-map-1.jpg, upright=1.2, Original map by John Snow showing the Cluster (epidemiology), clusters of cholera cases in the London epidemic of 1854, which is a classical case of usi ...
, also have a population geography dimension: * The grouping of people within settlements * The way from the geographical of places, e.g. settlement patterns All of the above are looked at over space and time. Population geography also studies human-environment interactions, including problems from those relationships, such as
overpopulation Overpopulation or overabundance occurs when a species' population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classifica ...

overpopulation
, pollution, and others. A few types of maps that show the spatial layout of population are
choropleth A choropleth map () is a type of thematic map in which a set of pre-defined areas is colored or patterned in proportion to a statistical variable that represents an aggregate summary of a geographic characteristic within each area, such as popu ...
, isoline, and dot maps.


See also

*
GeodemographyGeodemography includes the application of geodemographic classifications for business, social research and public policy but has a parallel history in academic research seeking to understand the processes by which settlements (notably, cities) evolve ...
*
Geodemographic segmentation In marketing, geodemographic segmentation is a Multivariate statistics, multivariate statistical classification technique for discovering whether the individuals of a population fall into different groups by making quantitative property, quantitativ ...


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Clarke, John I. ''Population Geography''. London: Pergamon Press, 1965. {{DEFAULTSORT:Population Geography Population geography