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Pollution is the introduction of
contaminant Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc. Nuances of contamination ...
s into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of any substance (solid, liquid, or gas) or energy (such as radioactivity, heat, sound, or light).
Pollutant A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource. A pollutant may cause long- or short-term damage by changing the growth rate of plant or animal spec ...
s, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Although environmental pollution can be caused by natural events, the word pollution generally implies that the contaminants have an anthropogenic source—that is, a source created by human activities. Pollution is often classed as
point source A point source is a single identifiable ''localised'' source of something. A point source has negligible extent, distinguishing it from other source geometries. Sources are called point sources because in mathematical modeling, these sources can us ...
or
nonpoint source pollution Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution refers to diffuse contamination Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body ...

nonpoint source pollution
. In 2015, pollution killed 9 million people worldwide. Major forms of pollution include
air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other Outline of life forms, living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, ...

air pollution
,
light pollution Light pollution is the presence of unwanted, inappropriate, or excessive artificial lighting Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the elect ...

light pollution
,
litter Litter consists of waste products that have been discarded incorrectly, without consent, at an unsuitable location. Litter can also be used as a verb; to litter means to drop and leave objects, often man-made, such as aluminum can upAluminum f ...

litter
,
noise pollution Noise pollution, also known as or sound , is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them harmful to a degree. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport, ...
,
plastic pollution Plastic pollution is the accumulation of plastic Plastics are a wide range of syntheticA synthetic is an artificial material produced by organic chemistry, organic chemical synthesis. Synthetic may also refer to: In the sense of both ...
,
soil contamination 280px, Excavation showing soil contamination at a disused gasworks in England. Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotics (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil ...
,
radioactive contamination represents two-thirds of the United States' high-level radioactive waste by volume. Nuclear reactors line the riverbank at the Hanford Site along the Columbia River in January 1960. Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contaminatio ...
,
thermal pollution Thermal pollution, sometimes called "thermal enrichment," is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of ...
,
visual pollution Visual pollution is the visible deterioration and negative aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area o ...

visual pollution
, and
water pollution Water pollution (or aquatic pollution) is the contamination of , usually as a result of human activities, in such a manner that negatively affects its legitimate uses. Water pollution reduces the ability of the body of water to provide the tha ...

water pollution
.


Forms of pollution

The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular
contaminant Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity, or some other undesirable element that spoils, corrupts, infects, makes unfit, or makes inferior a material, physical body, natural environment, workplace, etc. Nuances of contamination ...
relevant to each of them: *
Air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other Outline of life forms, living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, ...

Air pollution
: the release of chemicals and
particulates Particulates – also known as atmospheric aerosol particles, atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), or suspended particulate matter (SPM) – are microscopic The microscopic scale (from , ''mikrós'', "small" and σκοπ ...
into the atmosphere. Common gaseous pollutants include
carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (chemical formula CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom. It is the simplest molecule of the oxocarbon family. In ...

carbon monoxide
,
sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide (-recommended spelling) or sulphur dioxide (traditional ) is the with the formula . It is a responsible for the smell of burnt es. It is released naturally by and is produced as a by-product of extraction and the burning of ...
,
chlorofluorocarbon Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are fully or partly halogenated Alkane, paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (C), hydrogen (H), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatility (chemistry), volati ...
s (CFCs) and
nitrogen oxide Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound In materials chemistry, a binary phase or binary compound is a chemical compound containing two different elements. Some binary phase compounds are molecular, e.g. carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). More t ...
s produced by
industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one might refer to the wood industry ...
and motor vehicles. Photochemical
ozone Ozone (), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula . It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic allotrope , breaking down in the lower ...

ozone
and
smog Smog, or smoke fog, is a type of intense air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', mea ...

smog
are created as nitrogen oxides and
hydrocarbon In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, prop ...
s react to sunlight.
Particulate matter upright=1.7, Movie map of distribution of aerosol particles, based on data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite: * Green areas show aerosol plumes dominated by larger particles. * Red area ...
, or fine dust is characterized by their
micrometre The micrometre ( international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (french: Bureau international des poids et mesures, BIPM) is an intergovernmental organ ...
size PM10 to PM2.5. * Electromagnetic pollution: the overabundance of
electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. ...

electromagnetic radiation
in their
non-ionizing Non-ionizing (or non-ionising) radiation refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , i ...
form, like radio waves, etc, that people are constantly exposed at, especially in large cities. It's still unknown whether or not those types of radiation have any effects on human health, though. *
Light pollution Light pollution is the presence of unwanted, inappropriate, or excessive artificial lighting Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the elect ...

Light pollution
: includes light trespass,
over-illumination Overillumination is the presence of lighting intensity higher than that which is appropriate for a specific activity. Overillumination was commonly ignored between 1950 and 1995, especially in office and retail environments.M.D. Simpson, '' ...
and
astronomical Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It uses mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Gr ...
interference. * : the criminal throwing of inappropriate man-made objects, unremoved, onto public and private properties. *
Noise pollution Noise pollution, also known as or sound , is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them harmful to a degree. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport, ...
: which encompasses
roadway noise Roadway noise is the collective sound In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and ...
,
aircraft noise Aircraft noise pollution refers to noise produced by aircraft in flight that has been associated with several negative stress-mediated health effects, from sleep disorders to cardiovascular ones. Governments have enacted extensive controls that a ...
,
industrial noiseOccupational noise is the amount of acoustic energy received by an employee's auditory system when they are working in the industry. Occupational noise, or industrial noise, is often a term used in occupational safety and health Occupational safet ...
as well as high-intensity
sonar Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) is a technique that uses sound In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid. In human physiology and psychology, ...

sonar
. *
Plastic pollution Plastic pollution is the accumulation of plastic Plastics are a wide range of syntheticA synthetic is an artificial material produced by organic chemistry, organic chemical synthesis. Synthetic may also refer to: In the sense of both ...
: involves the accumulation of plastic products and
microplastics Microplastics are fragments of any type of plastic less than in length, according to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the European Chemicals Agency. They cause pollution by entering natural ecosystems from a va ...

microplastics
in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans. *
Soil contamination 280px, Excavation showing soil contamination at a disused gasworks in England. Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotics (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil ...
occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are
hydrocarbon In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, prop ...
s,
heavy metals upright=1.2, Crystals of osmium, a heavy metal nearly twice as dense as lead">lead.html" ;"title="osmium, a heavy metal nearly twice as dense as lead">osmium, a heavy metal nearly twice as dense as lead Heavy metals are generally defined as m ...
,
MTBE Methyl ''tertiary''-butyl ether (MTBE), also known as methyl tert-butyl ether and ''tert''-butyl methyl ether, is an organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the th ...
,
herbicides Herbicides (, ), also commonly known as weedkillers, are substances used to control unwanted plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, conv ...
,
pesticides Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pest (organism), pests. The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides (which may include insect growth regulators, termiticides, etc.) nematicide, molluscicide, pi ...
and
chlorinated hydrocarbons An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-h ...
. *
Radioactive contamination represents two-thirds of the United States' high-level radioactive waste by volume. Nuclear reactors line the riverbank at the Hanford Site along the Columbia River in January 1960. Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contaminatio ...
, resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. (See
alpha emitter Alpha particles, also called alpha rays or alpha radiation, consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 atomic nucleus, nucleus. They are generally produced in the process of alpha decay, but may ...
s and
actinides in the environmentActinides in the environment refer to the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in Earth's environment. Environmental radioactivity is not limited solely to actinides; non-actinides such as radon and radium are of note. While a ...
.) *
Thermal pollution Thermal pollution, sometimes called "thermal enrichment," is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature Temperature is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of ...
, is a
temperature Temperature ( ) is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can be seen on this hot metalwork. Thermal energy refers to several distinct physical concept ...

temperature
change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant. *
Visual pollution Visual pollution is the visible deterioration and negative aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area o ...

Visual pollution
, which can refer to the presence of overhead , motorway
billboards A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large advertisem ...
, scarred
landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws ...

landform
s (as from
strip mining Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lod ...

strip mining
), open storage of trash,
municipal solid waste Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , ...
or
space debris Space debris (also known as space junk, space pollution, space waste, space trash, or space garbage) is defunct artificial objects in space—principally in Earth orbit A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth, ...
. *
Water pollution Water pollution (or aquatic pollution) is the contamination of water bodies ( Lysefjord) in Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic c ...

Water pollution
, by the discharge of
industrial wastewater Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product. After treatment, the treated industrial wastewater (or effluent) may be reused or released to a sa ...
from commercial and
industrial waste Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial ...
(intentionally or through spills) into
surface water An example of surface water is Lake Kinney. Surface water is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which ...
s; discharges of untreated
sewage Sewage (or domestic sewage, domestic wastewater, municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater Wastewater is generated after the use of fresh water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and n ...
, and chemical contaminants, such as
chlorine Chlorine is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemica ...

chlorine
, from treated sewage; release of
waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use. A by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a produ ...

waste
and contaminants into
surface runoff Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydros ...
flowing to surface waters (including
urban runoff Urban runoff is surface runoff of rainwater, landscape irrigation, and car washing created by urbanization. Impervious surfaces (roads, parking lots and sidewalks) are constructed during land development. During rain storms and other Precipitation ...
and agricultural runoff, which may contain chemical
fertilizers A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (-isation, -ization), see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil ...
and
pesticides Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pest (organism), pests. The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides (which may include insect growth regulators, termiticides, etc.) nematicide, molluscicide, pi ...
; also including
human feces Human feces (or faeces in ) is the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the of humans, but has been further broken down by bacteria in the . It also contains bacteria and a relatively small amount of prod ...

human feces
from
open defecation Open defecation is the human practice of defecating frame, Anatomy of the anus and rectum Defecation is the final act of digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutri ...
– still a major problem in many
developing countries 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the IMF and the United Nations, UN from 2008 A developing country is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, ...
);
groundwater pollution Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way into groundwater. This type of water pollution can also occur naturally due to the presence of a minor and unwanted ...
from
waste disposal Waste management (or waste disposal) includes the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitori ...

waste disposal
and leaching into the ground, including from
pit latrine A pit latrine, also known as pit toilet, is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground. Urine Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many other animals. Urine flows from the kidneys through the u ...
s and
septic tanks A septic tank is an underground chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, or plastic through which domestic wastewater () flows for . Settling and processes reduce solids and organics, but the treatment efficiency is only moderate (referred to as ...
;
eutrophication Eutrophication (from Greek ''eutrophos'', "well-nourished") is the process by which an entire body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmå ...

eutrophication
and littering. The major forms of pollution are also listed below in the pollution navigation box:


Pollutants

A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water, or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature, the concentration, the area affected and the persistence.


Sources and causes

Air pollution comes from both natural and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. However, globally human-made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation.
Motor vehicle emissions Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidize ...
are one of the leading causes of air pollution.
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...
, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal stationary pollution sources include
chemical plant A chemical plant is an industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemica ...

chemical plant
s, coal-fired
power plantsPower Station or The Power Station may refer to: * Power station, a facility for the generation of electricity Music * The Power Station (band), a 1980s supergroup ** The Power Station (album), ''The Power Station'' (album), a 1985 album by The Pow ...
,
oil refineries An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some referenc ...
,
petrochemical Petrochemicals (sometimes abbreviated as petchems) are the chemical products obtained from petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a #Latent heat of vaporization, naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geolo ...
plants,
nuclear waste Radioactive waste is a type of that contains . Radioactive waste is a result of many activities, including , , generation, , and s reprocessing. The storage and disposal of radioactive waste is regulated by government agencies in order to protec ...
disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry, etc.),
PVC Polyvinyl chloride (colloquial Colloquialism or colloquial language is the style (sociolinguistics), linguistic style used for casual communication. It is the most common functional style of speech, the idiom normally employed in conversatio ...
factories, metals production factories, plastics factories, and other
heavy industry Heavy industry is an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one ...
. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides About 400 million metric tons of
hazardous waste Hazardous waste is waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use. A by-product by contrast is a joint product of relative ...
s are generated each year. The United States alone produces about 250 million metric tons. Americans constitute less than 5% of the world's population, but produce roughly 25% of the world's

, and generate approximately 30% of . In 2007,
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
overtook the United States as the world's biggest producer of , while still far behind based on per capita pollution (ranked 78th among the world's nations). Some of the more common
soil Soil is a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, comp ...

soil
contaminants are
chlorinated hydrocarbon An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalent bond, covalently bonded atom of chlorine. The chloroalkane class (alkanes with one or more hydrogens subst ...
s (CFH),
heavy metals upright=1.2, Crystals of osmium, a heavy metal nearly twice as dense as lead">lead.html" ;"title="osmium, a heavy metal nearly twice as dense as lead">osmium, a heavy metal nearly twice as dense as lead Heavy metals are generally defined as m ...
(such as
chromium Chromium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science tha ...

chromium
,
cadmium Cadmium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical eleme ...

cadmium
– found in rechargeable
batteries Battery may refer to: Energy source * Electric battery, an electrochemical device to provide electrical power ** Automotive battery, a device to provide power to certain functions of an automobile ** List of battery types * Energy storage, inclu ...
, and
lead Lead is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Pb (from the Latin ) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metals, heavy metal that is density, denser than most common materials. Lead is Mohs scale of mineral hardness#Intermediate h ...

lead
– found in lead
paint Paint is any pigmented liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned wi ...

paint
,
aviation fuel Aviation fuels are -based s, or petroleum and synthetic fuel blends, used to power . They have more stringent requirements than fuels used for ground use, such as and , and contain additives to enhance or maintain properties important to fuel pe ...
and still in some countries,
gasoline Gasoline () or petrol () (see the #Etymology, etymology for naming differences and the use of the term ''gas'') is a transparent, petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignition engine, spark-ignite ...

gasoline
),
MTBE Methyl ''tertiary''-butyl ether (MTBE), also known as methyl tert-butyl ether and ''tert''-butyl methyl ether, is an organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the th ...

MTBE
,
zinc Zinc is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical element ...

zinc
, arsenic and benzene. In 2001 a series of press reports culminating in a book called ''Fateful Harvest'' unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertilizer, resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater), emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted, especially substances illegally discarded there, or from pre-1970 landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U.S. or EU. There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, commonly called ''dioxins'' for simplicity, such as 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, TCDD. Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. For example, hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage, and
petrochemical Petrochemicals (sometimes abbreviated as petchems) are the chemical products obtained from petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a #Latent heat of vaporization, naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geolo ...
spills from ruptured boats or automobiles. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal Oil platform, oil rigs or Oil refinery, refineries are involved. Some sources of pollution, such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers, can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur. In the case of
noise pollution Noise pollution, also known as or sound , is the propagation of noise with ranging impacts on the activity of human or animal life, most of them harmful to a degree. The source of outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines, transport, ...
the dominant source class is the motor vehicle, producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide.


Greenhouse gases emissions

Carbon dioxide, while vital for photosynthesis, is sometimes referred to as pollution, because raised levels of the gas in the atmosphere are affecting the Earth's climate. Disruption of the environment can also highlight the connection between areas of pollution that would normally be classified separately, such as those of water and air. Recent studies have investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight but critical ocean acidification, increases in the acidity of ocean waters, and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems. In February 2007, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), representing the work of 2,500 scientists, economists, and policymakers from more than 120 countries, confirmed that humans have been the primary cause of global warming since 1950. Humans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the consequences of global warming, a major climate report concluded. But to change the climate, the transition from fossil fuels like coal and oil needs to occur within decades, according to the final report this year from the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).


Effects


Human health

Adverse air quality can kill many organisms, including humans. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, throat inflammation, chest pain, and Nasal congestion, congestion.
Water pollution Water pollution (or aquatic pollution) is the contamination of water bodies ( Lysefjord) in Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic c ...

Water pollution
causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to Water pollution, contamination of drinking water by untreated
sewage Sewage (or domestic sewage, domestic wastewater, municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater Wastewater is generated after the use of fresh water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and n ...
in developing countries. An estimated 500 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, Over ten million people in India fell ill with waterborne illnesses in 2013, and 1,535 people died, most of them children. Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water. A 2010 analysis estimated that 1.2 million people died prematurely each year in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
because of air pollution. The high smog levels China has been facing for a long time can do damage to civilians' bodies and cause different diseases. The WHO estimated in 2007 that air pollution causes half a million deaths per year in India. Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the United States could be over 50,000. Oil spills can cause human skin, skin irritations and rashes. Noise pollution induces hearing loss, high blood pressure, stress (medicine), stress, and sleep disturbance. Mercury poisoning, Mercury has been linked to developmental disorder, developmental deficits in children and neurology, neurologic symptoms. Older people are majorly exposed to Health effects of air pollution, diseases induced by air pollution. Those with heart or lung disorders are at additional risk. Children and infants are also at serious risk. Lead poisoning, Lead and other Toxic metal, heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Chemical and radioactive substances can Carcinogen, cause cancer and Mutagen, as well as birth defects. An October 2017 study by the Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health found that global pollution, specifically toxic air, water, soils and workplaces, kills nine million people annually, which is triple the number of deaths caused by AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined, and 15 times higher than deaths caused by wars and other forms of human violence. The study concluded that "pollution is one of the great existential challenges of the Anthropocene era. Pollution endangers the stability of the Earth’s support systems and threatens the continuing survival of human societies."


Environment

Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment (biophysical), environment. There are a number of effects of this: * Biomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as
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) may pass through trophic levels, becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process. * Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification, the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans as becomes dissolved. * The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways. * Invasive species can outcompete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment, often reducing native species competition (biology), competitiveness. * Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertiliser, fertilise land which can change the species composition of ecosystems. * Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric ozone which damages plants. * Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. This will affect other organisms in the food web. * Sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen oxide Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound In materials chemistry, a binary phase or binary compound is a chemical compound containing two different elements. Some binary phase compounds are molecular, e.g. carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). More t ...
s can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil. * Organic pollution of watercourses can deplete oxygen levels and reduce species diversity.


Environmental health information

The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP) at the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to resources produced by TEHIP and by other government agencies and organizations. This web site includes links to databases, bibliographies, tutorials, and other scientific and consumer-oriented resources. TEHIP also is responsible for the Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) an integrated system of toxicology and environmental health databases that are available free of charge on the web. TOXMAP is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that is part of TOXNET. TOXMAP uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs.


Crime

A 2021 study found that exposure to pollution causes an increase in violent crime.


School outcomes

A 2019 paper linked pollution to adverse school outcomes for children.


Worker productivity

A number of studies show that pollution has an adverse effect on the productivity of both indoor and outdoor workers.


Regulation and monitoring

To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution, many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution.


Pollution control

Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. It means the control of emission standard, emissions and effluents into air, water or soil. Without pollution control, the
waste Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use. A by-product A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a produ ...

waste
products from overconsumption, heating, agriculture, mining, manufacturing, transportation and other human activities, whether they accumulate or disperse, will degrade the environment (biophysical), environment. In the hierarchy of controls, pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. In the field of land development, Low-impact development (Canada/US), low impact development is a similar technique for the prevention of
urban runoff Urban runoff is surface runoff of rainwater, landscape irrigation, and car washing created by urbanization. Impervious surfaces (roads, parking lots and sidewalks) are constructed during land development. During rain storms and other Precipitation ...
.


Practices

* Recycling * Reuse, Reusing * Waste minimisation * Environmental mitigation, Mitigating * Pollution prevention, Preventing * Compost


Pollution control devices

* Air pollution, Air pollution control ** Thermal oxidiser, Thermal oxidizer * Dust collector, Dust collection systems ** Dust collector#Types of baghouses, Baghouses ** Cyclonic separation, Cyclones ** Electrostatic precipitators * Scrubbers ** Baffle spray scrubber ** Cyclonic spray scrubber ** Ejector venturi scrubber ** Mechanically aided scrubber ** Spray tower ** Wet scrubber * Sewage treatment ** Sedimentation (water treatment), Sedimentation (Primary treatment) ** Activated sludge, Activated sludge biotreaters (Secondary treatment; also used for industrial wastewater) ** Aerated lagoons ** Constructed wetlands (also used for urban runoff) * Industrial wastewater treatment ** API oil-water separators ** Biofilters ** Dissolved air flotation (DAF) ** Powdered activated carbon treatment ** Ultrafiltration * Vapor recovery, Vapor recovery systems * Phytoremediation


Cost of pollution

Pollution has a cost. Manufacturing activities that cause
air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other Outline of life forms, living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, ...

air pollution
impose health and clean-up costs on the whole of society. A manufacturing activity that causes air pollution is an example of a negative externality in production. A negative externality in production occurs “when a firm’s production reduces the well-being of others who are not compensated by the firm." For example, if a laundry firm exists near a polluting steel manufacturing firm, there will be increased costs for the laundry firm because of the dirt and smoke produced by the steel manufacturing firm. If external costs exist, such as those created by pollution, the manufacturer will choose to produce more of the product than would be produced if the manufacturer were required to pay all associated environmental costs. Because responsibility or consequence for self-directed action lies partly outside the self, an element of externalization is involved. If there are external benefits, such as in public safety, less of the good may be produced than would be the case if the producer were to receive payment for the external benefits to others. However, goods and services that involve negative externalities in production, such as those that produce pollution, tend to be over-produced and underpriced since the externality is not being priced into the market. Pollution can also create costs for the firms producing the pollution. Sometimes firms choose, or are forced by regulation, to reduce the amount of pollution that they are producing. The associated costs of doing this are called abatement costs, or marginal abatement costs if measured by each additional unit. In 2005 pollution abatement capital expenditures and operating costs in the US amounted to nearly $27 billion.


Society and culture


Most polluting industries

The Blacksmith Institute, Pure Earth, an international non-for-profit organization dedicated to eliminating life-threatening pollution in the developing world, issues an annual list of some of the world's most polluting industries. Below is the list for 2016: * Lead–acid battery, Lead-Acid Battery Recycling * Mining, Industrial Mining and Ore Processing * Lead smelting, Lead Smelting * Tanning (leather), Tannery Operations * Artisanal mining, Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining * Landfill, Industrial/Municipal Dumpsites * Industrial park, Industrial Estates * Chemical industry, Chemical Manufacturing * Manufacturing, Product Manufacturing * Dyeing, Dye Industry A 2018 report by the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy and GRAIN says that the meat and dairy industries are poised to surpass the oil industry as the world's worst polluters.


World’s worst polluted places

Pure Earth issues an annual list of some of the world's worst polluted places. Below is the list for 2007: * Agbogbloshie, Agbogbloshie, Ghana * Chernobyl, Chernobyl, Ukraine * Citarum River, Citarum River, Indonesia * Dzerzhinsk, Russia, Dzershinsk, Russia * Hazaribagh Thana, Hazaribagh, Bangladesh * Kabwe, Kabwe, Zambia * Kalimantan, Kalimantan, Indonesia * Matanza River, Matanza Riachuelo, Argentina * Niger Delta, Niger River Delta, Nigeria * Norilsk, Norilsk, Russia


Socially optimal level of pollution

Society derives some indirect utility from pollution, otherwise there would be no incentive to pollute. This utility comes from the consumption of goods and services that create pollution. Therefore, it is important that policymakers attempt to balance these indirect benefits with the costs of pollution in order to achieve an efficient outcome. It is possible to use environmental economics to determine which level of pollution is deemed the social optimum. For economists, pollution is an “external cost and occurs only when one or more individuals suffer a loss of welfare,” however, there exists a socially optimal level of pollution at which welfare is maximized. This is because consumers derive utility from the good or service manufactured, which will outweigh the social cost of pollution until a certain point. At this point the damage of one extra unit of pollution to society, the marginal cost of pollution, is exactly equal to the marginal benefit of consuming one more unit of the good or service. In markets with pollution, or other negative externalities in production, the free market equilibrium will not account for the costs of pollution on society. If the social costs of pollution are higher than the private costs incurred by the firm, then the true supply curve will be higher. The point at which the social marginal cost and market demand intersect gives the socially optimal level of pollution. At this point, the quantity will be lower and the price will be higher in comparison to the free market equilibrium. Therefore, the free market outcome could be considered a market failure because it “does not maximize efficiency”. This model can be used as a basis to evaluate different methods of internalizing the externality. Some examples include tariffs, a carbon tax and Emissions trading, cap and trade systems.


Perspectives

The earliest precursor of pollution generated by life forms would have been a natural function of their existence. The attendant consequences on viability and population levels fell within the sphere of natural selection. These would have included the demise of a population locally or ultimately, species extinction. Processes that were untenable would have resulted in a new balance brought about by changes and adaptations. At the extremes, for any form of life, consideration of pollution is superseded by that of survival. For humankind, the factor of technology is a distinguishing and critical consideration, both as an enabler and an additional source of byproducts. Short of survival, human concerns include the range from quality of life to health hazards. Since science holds experimental demonstration to be definitive, modern treatment of toxicity or environmental harm involves defining a level at which an effect is observable. Common examples of fields where practical measurement is crucial include automobile emissions control, industrial exposure (e.g. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible exposure limit, PELs), toxicology (e.g. ), and medicine (e.g. medication and absorbed dose, radiation doses). "The solution to pollution is dilution", is a dictum which summarizes a traditional approach to pollution management whereby sufficiently diluted pollution is not harmful. It is well-suited to some other modern, locally scoped applications such as laboratory safety procedure and hazardous material release emergency management. But it assumes that the diluent is in virtually unlimited supply for the application or that resulting dilutions are acceptable in all cases. Such simple treatment for environmental pollution on a wider scale might have had greater merit in earlier centuries when physical survival was often the highest imperative, human population and densities were lower, technologies were simpler and their byproducts more benign. But these are often no longer the case. Furthermore, advances have enabled measurement of concentrations not possible before. The use of statistical methods in evaluating outcomes has given currency to the principle of probable harm in cases where assessment is warranted but resorting to deterministic models is impractical or infeasible. In addition, consideration of the environment beyond direct impact on human beings has gained prominence. Yet in the absence of a superseding principle, this older approach predominates practices throughout the world. It is the basis by which to gauge concentrations of effluent for legal release, exceeding which penalties are assessed or restrictions applied. One such superseding principle is contained in modern hazardous waste laws in developed countries, as the process of diluting hazardous waste to make it non-hazardous is usually a regulated treatment process. Migration from pollution dilution to elimination in many cases can be confronted by challenging economical and technological barriers.


History


Prior to 19th century

Air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other Outline of life forms, living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, ...

Air pollution
has always accompanied civilizations. Pollution started from prehistoric times, when man created the first fires. According to a 1983 article in the journal ''Science,'' "soot" found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires." Metal forging appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. Core samples of List of glaciers in Greenland, glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek, Roman, and Chinese metal production. The burning of coal and wood, and the presence of many horses in concentrated areas made the cities the primary sources of pollution. Edward I of England, King Edward I of England banned the burning of wikt:seacoal, sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272, after its smoke became a problem; the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow.


19th century

It was the Industrial Revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. London also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the River Thames, Thames of 1858, which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward. Pollution issues escalated as population growth far exceeded viability of neighborhoods to handle their waste problem. Reformers began to demand sewer systems and clean water. In 1870, the sanitary conditions in Berlin were among the worst in Europe. August Bebel recalled conditions before a modern sewerage, sewer system was built in the late 1870s:


20th and 21st century

The primitive conditions were intolerable for a world national capital, and the Imperial Germany, Imperial German government brought in its scientists, engineers, and urban planners to not only solve the deficiencies, but to forge Berlin as the world's model city. A British expert in 1906 concluded that Berlin represented "the most complete application of science, order and method of public life," adding "it is a marvel of civic administration, the most modern and most perfectly organized city that there is." The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal gave rise to unprecedented
air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other Outline of life forms, living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, ...

air pollution
and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881. Pollution became a major issue in the United States in the early twentieth century, as Progressive Era, progressive reformers took issue with air pollution caused by coal burning, water pollution caused by bad sanitation, and street pollution caused by the 3 million horses who worked in American cities in 1900, generating large quantities of urine and manure. As historian Martin Melosi notes, the generation that first saw automobiles replacing the horses saw cars as "miracles of cleanliness". By the 1940s, however, automobile-caused
smog Smog, or smoke fog, is a type of intense air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', mea ...

smog
was a major issue in Los Angeles. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century, when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the United States Department of the Interior, Department of the Interior. Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s, serving as another public reminder. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England, especially later during the industrial revolution, and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952. Awareness of atmospheric pollution spread widely after World War II, with fears triggered by reports of radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. Then a non-nuclear event – the Great Smog of 1952 in London – killed at least 4000 people. This prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation: the Clean Air Act 1956, Clean Air Act of 1956. Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act (United States), Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. Severe incidents of pollution helped increase consciousness. Polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB dumping in the Hudson River resulted in a ban by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPA on consumption of its fish in 1974. National news stories in the late 1970s – especially the long-term Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dioxin contamination at Love Canal starting in 1947 and uncontrolled Waste disposal, dumping in Valley of the Drums – led to the Superfund (environmental law), Superfund legislation of 1980. The pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield, a term now common in city planning. The development of nuclear science introduced
radioactive contamination represents two-thirds of the United States' high-level radioactive waste by volume. Nuclear reactors line the riverbank at the Hanford Site along the Columbia River in January 1960. Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contaminatio ...
, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. Lake Karachay – named by the Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted spot" on earth – served as a disposal site for the Soviet Union throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Chelyabinsk, Russia, is considered the "Most polluted place on the planet".Lenssen, "Nuclear Waste: The Problem that Won't Go Away", Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C., 1991: 15. Nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the Cold War, especially in the earlier stages of their development. The toll on the worst-affected populations and the growth since then in understanding about the critical threat to human health posed by radioactivity has also been a prohibitive complication associated with nuclear power. Though extreme care is practiced in that industry, the potential for disaster suggested by incidents such as those at Three Mile Island accident, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl disaster, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Fukushima pose a lingering specter of public mistrust. Worldwide publicity has been intense on those disasters. Widespread support for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, test ban treaties has ended almost all nuclear testing in the atmosphere. International catastrophes such as the wreck of the Amoco Cadiz oil tanker off the coast of Brittany in 1978 and the Bhopal disaster in 1984 have demonstrated the universality of such events and the scale on which efforts to address them needed to engage. The borderless nature of atmosphere and oceans inevitably resulted in the implication of pollution on a planetary level with the issue of global warming. Most recently the term persistent organic pollutant (POP) has come to describe a group of chemicals such as PBDEs and Fluorocarbon, PFCs among others. Though their effects remain somewhat less well understood owing to a lack of experimental data, they have been detected in various ecological habitats far removed from industrial activity such as the Arctic, demonstrating diffusion and bioaccumulation after only a relatively brief period of widespread use. A much more recently discovered problem is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, a huge concentration of plastics, chemical sludge and other debris which has been collected into a large area of the Pacific Ocean by the North Pacific Gyre. This is a less well known pollution problem than the others described above, but nonetheless has multiple and serious consequences such as increasing wildlife mortality, the spread of invasive species and human ingestion of toxic chemicals. Organizations such as 5 Gyres have researched the pollution and, along with artists like Marina DeBris, are working toward publicizing the issue. Pollution introduced by light at night is becoming a global problem, more severe in urban centres, but nonetheless contaminating also large territories, far away from towns. Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment.


See also

* Anthropocene * John Hick (politician)#Pollution trial, Aspinall V. Mitchell - landmark pollution trial, 1880 * Biological contamination * Chemical hazards, Chemical contamination * Environmental health * Environmental racism * Hazardous Substances Data Bank * Marine pollution * Human overpopulation, Overpopulation * Human overpopulation, Overpopulation * Pollutants * Pollutant release and transfer register * Polluter pays principle * Pollution haven hypothesis * Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act * Rossby wave *
Plastic pollution Plastic pollution is the accumulation of plastic Plastics are a wide range of syntheticA synthetic is an artificial material produced by organic chemistry, organic chemical synthesis. Synthetic may also refer to: In the sense of both ...
* ''Max Liboiron, Pollution is Colonialism'' * Sacrifice zone


Gallery

File:Plastic Pollution in Ghana.jpg, alt=Plastic Pollution in Ghana, 2018, Plastic Pollution in Ghana, 2018 File:Garbage Black sand beach Maui Hawaii Road to Hana (45690820912).jpg, alt=Plastic pollution on the remote island of Maui, Hawaii, Plastic pollution on the remote island of Maui, Hawaii


References


External links


OEHHA proposition 65 list

National Toxicology Program
– from US National Institutes of Health. Reports and studies on how pollutants affect people
TOXNET
– NIH databases and reports on toxicology
TOXMAP
– Geographic Information System (GIS) that uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs
EPA.gov
– manages Superfund sites and the pollutants in them (CERCLA). Ma
the EPA Superfund

Toxic Release Inventory
– tracks how much waste US companies release into the water and air. Gives permits for releasing specific quantities of these pollutants each year. Ma
EPA's Toxic Release Inventory


– Top 20 pollutants, how they affect people, what US industries use them and the products in which they are found

– resources to review human toxicology.
World's Worst Polluted Places 2007
according to the Blacksmith Institute
The World's Most Polluted Places
at Time.com (a division of Time Magazine)

Documentary Film by Slawomir Grünberg (1996)
Nieman Reports , Tracking Toxics When the Data Are Polluted
{{subject bar, portal1=Environment, , portal2=Ecology, wikt=yes, commons=yes, commons-search=Pollution, q=yes, s=yes, s-search=Portal:Pollution, b=yes, d=yes, d-search=Q58734 Pollution, Environmental toxicology Articles containing video clips