es have toxic
properties, which are often assessed using the LC50
(median lethal dose) measure. In the United States, many of these gases have been assigned an NFPA 704
health rating of 4 (may be fatal) or 3 (may cause serious or permanent injury), and/or exposure limits (TLV
) determined by the ACGIH
professional association. Some, but by no means all, toxic gases are detectable by odor
, which can serve as a warning. Among the best known toxic gases are carbon monoxide
, nitrogen dioxide
*Toxic: it is a chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50
) in air of more than 200 parts per million
(ppm) but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
*Highly Toxic: a gas that has a LC50
in air of 200 ppm or less.
: Materials that, under emergency conditions, can cause serious or permanent injury are given a Health Hazard rating of 3. Their acute inhalation toxicity corresponds to those vapors or gases having LC50
values greater than 1,000 ppm but less than or equal to 3,000 ppm. Materials that, under emergency conditions, can be lethal are given a Health Hazard rating of 4. Their acute inhalation toxicity corresponds to those vapors or gases having LC50
values less than or equal to 1,000 ppm.
* List of Schedule 1 substances (CWC)
* List of extremely hazardous substances
* List of gases
OSHA Limits for Air ContaminantsOSHA Permissible Exposure Limits
SourcesPrinciples for the Safe Handling and Distribution of Highly Toxic Gases and Mixtures
Asia Industrial Gases Association, 2006
Highly toxic gases