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Many gases have toxic properties, which are often assessed using the LC50 (median lethal dose) measure. In the United States, many of these gases have been assigned an NFPA 704 health rating of 4 (may be fatal) or 3 (may cause serious or permanent injury), and/or exposure limits (TLV, TWA or STEL) determined by the ACGIH professional association. Some, but by no means all, toxic gases are detectable by odor, which can serve as a warning. Among the best known toxic gases are carbon monoxide, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide and phosgene.

Definition

*Toxic: it is a chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million (ppm) but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. *Highly Toxic: a gas that has a LC50 in air of 200 ppm or less. *NFPA 704: Materials that, under emergency conditions, can cause serious or permanent injury are given a Health Hazard rating of 3. Their acute inhalation toxicity corresponds to those vapors or gases having LC50 values greater than 1,000 ppm but less than or equal to 3,000 ppm. Materials that, under emergency conditions, can be lethal are given a Health Hazard rating of 4. Their acute inhalation toxicity corresponds to those vapors or gases having LC50 values less than or equal to 1,000 ppm.

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Notes




See also

* List of Schedule 1 substances (CWC) * List of extremely hazardous substances * List of gases
OSHA Limits for Air Contaminants

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits




References

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Sources


Principles for the Safe Handling and Distribution of Highly Toxic Gases and Mixtures
Asia Industrial Gases Association, 2006 Category:Chemical safety Highly toxic gases