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Plagiarism is the representation of another
author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or item ...

author
's language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions as one's own
original work Originality is the aspect of created or invented works as being new or novel, and thus replica, reproductions, clones, forgery, forgeries, or derivative works. An original work is one not received from others nor one copied from or based upon th ...
.From the 1995 '' Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary'':
use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work
qtd. in
From the
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
:
The action or practice of taking someone else's work, idea, etc., and passing it off as one's own; literary theft.
In educational contexts, there are differing definitions of plagiarism depending on the institution. Plagiarism is considered a violation of
academic integrity Academic integrity is the moral code Morality (from ) is the differentiation of intention Intention is a mind, mental state that represents a commitment to carrying out an action or actions in the future. Intention involves mental activities s ...
and a breach of journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions such as penalties, suspension, expulsion from school or work, substantial fines and even
imprisonment Imprisonment (from , via French language, French , originally from atin, arrest, from , , "to seize") in law is the specific state of being physically incarcerated or confined in an institutional setting such as a prison. When it comes to iss ...
. Generally, plagiarism is not in itself a
crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...

crime
, but like counterfeiting fraud can be punished in a
court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Sta ...

court
for
prejudices Prejudice can be an affective feeling towards a person based on their perceived group membership. The word is often used to refer to a preconceived (usually unfavourable) evaluation or classification of another person based on that person's p ...
caused by
copyright infringement Copyright infringement (at times referred to as piracy) is the use of works Works may refer to: People * Caddy Works Pierce "Caddy" Works (January 2, 1896 – July 19, 1982) was an American basketball and baseball coach. He was the head ba ...
, violation of
moral rights Moral rights are rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise defin ...
, or
tort A tort, in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or ) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ' is the most-used legal dict ...

tort
s. In academia and industry, it is a serious
ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ethics, al ...

ethical
offense. Plagiarism and copyright infringement overlap to a considerable extent, but they are not equivalent concepts, and many types of plagiarism do not constitute copyright infringement, which is defined by copyright law and may be adjudicated by courts. Plagiarism might not be the same in all countries. Some countries, such as India and Poland, consider plagiarism to be a crime, and there have been cases of people being imprisoned for plagiarizing. In other instances, plagiarism might be the complete opposite of "academic dishonesty"; in fact, in some countries the act of plagiarizing a professional's work is seen as flattering. Students who move to the United States and other Western countries from countries where plagiarism is not frowned upon often find the transition difficult.


Etymology and ancient history

In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word "''plagiarius"'' (literally "kidnapper") to denote stealing someone else's
creative work A creative work is a manifestation of creativity, creative effort including Work of art, fine artwork (sculpture, paintings, drawing, Sketch (drawing), sketching, performance art), dance, writing (literature), filmmaking, and music, composition. Le ...

creative work
was pioneered by the Roman poet
Martial Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ...

Martial
, who complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses". ''Plagiary'', a derivative of ''plagiarus'', was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist
Ben Jonson Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – c. 16 August 1637) was an English playwright and poet. Jonson's artistry exerted a lasting influence upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours The comedy of humours is a ge ...
during the
Jacobean Era The Jacobean Era was the period in English and Scotland, Scottish history that coincides with the reign of James VI and I, James VI of Scotland who also inherited the crown of England in 1603 as James I. The Jacobean era succeeds the Elizabetha ...
to describe someone guilty of literary theft. Republished as: The derived form ''plagiarism'' was introduced into English around 1620. The
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''plagiārius'', "kidnapper", and ''plagium'', "kidnapping", have the root ''plaga'' ("snare", "net"), based on the
Indo-European root The roots A root In vascular plants, the roots are the plant organ, organs of a plant that are modified to provide anchorage for the plant and take in water and nutrients into the plant body, which allows plants to grow taller and faster. Th ...
''*-plak'', "to weave" (seen for instance in
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
''plekein'', Bulgarian "плета" ''pleta'', and Latin ''plectere'', all meaning "to weave"). It is frequently claimed that people in antiquity had no concept of plagiarism, or at least did not condemn it, and it only came to be seen as immoral much later, anywhere from the
Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment); ger, Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminismo, "Enlightenment"; pl, Oświecenie , "Enlightenment"; pt, Iluminismo, "Enlightenment"; es, link= ...
in the 17th century to the
Romantic movement Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1 ...
in the 18th century. While people in antiquity found detecting plagiarism difficult due to the paucity of literate persons as well as long travel times, there are a considerable number of pre-Enlightenment authors who accuse others of plagiarism and consider it distasteful and scandalous, including the respected historians
Polybius Polybius (; grc-gre, Πολύβιος, ; ) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the ...

Polybius
and
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
. The 3rd century Greek work '' Lives of the Eminent Philosophers'' mentions that
Heraclides Ponticus Heraclides Ponticus ( grc-gre, Ἡρακλείδης ὁ Ποντικός ''Herakleides''; c. 390 BC – c. 310 BC) was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the ...
was accused of plagiarizing () a treatise on Heliod and Homer. In
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') i ...

Vitruvius
's 7th book, he acknowledges his debt to earlier writers and attributes them; he also passes a strong condemnation of plagiarism: "So, while arlier writersdeserve our thanks, those, on the contrary, deserve our reproaches, who steal the writings of such men and publish them as their own; and those also, who depend in their writings, not on their own ideas, but who enviously do wrong to the works of others and boast of it, deserve not merely to be blamed, but to be sentenced to actual punishment for their wicked course of life." Vitruvius goes on to claim that "such things did not pass without strict chastisement" and recounts a story where the well-read
Aristophanes of Byzantium __NOTOC__ Aristophanes of Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divide ...
judged a poetry competition. Aristophanes caught most of the contestants in plagiarizing other's poems as their own; the king ordered the plagiarizers to confess they were thieves, and they were condemned in disgrace. While the story may be apocryphal, it shows that Vitruvius personally considered plagiarism reprehensible.


Legal aspects

Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense, although the use of someone else's work in order to gain academic credit may meet some legal definitions of
fraud In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by ...

fraud
. "Plagiarism" specifically is not mentioned in any current statute, either
criminal In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper ...
or
civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism *Civilian, someone not a member ...
.Lands, Robert (1999
''Plagiarism is no Crime''
published by The Association of Illustrators (AOI), December 1999. Quotation: "Plagiarism may be a taboo in academia, but in art is almost essential."
Some cases may be treated as
unfair competition Unfair may refer to: * The negative form of the adjective ''fair A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary wit ...
or a violation of the doctrine of
moral rights Moral rights are rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise defin ...
. In short, people are asked to use the guideline, "if you did not write it yourself, you must give credit". Plagiarism is not the same as
copyright infringement Copyright infringement (at times referred to as piracy) is the use of works Works may refer to: People * Caddy Works Pierce "Caddy" Works (January 2, 1896 – July 19, 1982) was an American basketball and baseball coach. He was the head ba ...
. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship generally constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent. Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation, or the obtaining of academic credit, that is achieved through false claims of authorship. Thus, plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist's audience (for example, a reader, listener, or teacher). Plagiarism is also considered a moral offense against anyone who has provided the plagiarist with a benefit in exchange for what is specifically supposed to be original content (for example, the plagiarist's publisher, employer, or teacher). In such cases, acts of plagiarism may sometimes also form part of a claim for
breach BREACH (a backronym A backronym, or bacronym, is an acronym An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase, usually using individual initial letters, as in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) ...
of the plagiarist's contract, or, if done knowingly, for a
civil wrong A civil wrong or wrong is a cause of action A cause of action or right of action, in law, is a set of facts sufficient to justify suing to obtain money, property, or the enforcement of a legal right against another party. The term also refers to ...
.


In academia and journalism

Within
academia An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociol ...

academia
, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered
academic dishonesty Academic dishonesty, academic misconduct, academic fraud and academic integrityAcademic integrity is the moral code or ethical policy of academia An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution o ...

academic dishonesty
or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion. Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. However, plagiarism detection software does not always yield accurate results and there are loopholes in these systems. Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with thorough orientations, required writing courses, and clearly articulated honor codes. Indeed, there is a virtually uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is wrong. Nevertheless, each year students are brought before their institutions' disciplinary boards on charges that they have misused sources in their schoolwork. However, the practice of plagiarizing by use of sufficient word substitutions to elude detection software, known as
rogeting Rogeting is an informal neologism created to describe the act of modifying a published source by substituting synonyms for sufficient words to fool plagiarism detection software, often resulting in the creation of new meaningless phrases through ex ...
, has rapidly evolved as students and unethical academics seek to stay ahead of detection software. An extreme form of plagiarism, known as "
contract cheatingContract cheating is a form of academic dishonesty in which students pay others to complete their coursework. The term was coined in a 2006 study by Thomas Lancaster and the late Robert Clarke (UK),Glendinning, I., Foltýnek, T., Dlabolová, D., Link ...
", involves students paying someone else, such as an
essay mill An essay mill (also term paper mill) is a business that allows customers to commission an original piece of writing on a particular topic so that they may commit academic fraud An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek di ...
, to do their work for them. In
journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of report Image:Hurt Report cover page.png, 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. ...

journalism
, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination of employment. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include
quotation A quotation is the repetition of a sentence, phrase, or passage from speech or text that someone has said or written. In oral speech, it is the representation of an utterance (i.e. of something that a speaker actually said) that is introduced by a ...

quotation
s or give the appropriate
citation A citation is a reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object. The first object in this relation is said to ''refer to'' the second o ...

citation
. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier. Predicated upon an expected level of learning and comprehension having been achieved, all associated academic accreditation becomes seriously undermined if plagiarism is allowed to become the norm within academic submissions. For professors and researchers, plagiarism is punished by sanctions ranging from suspension to termination, along with the loss of credibility and perceived integrity. Charges of plagiarism against students and professors are typically heard by internal disciplinary committees, by which students and professors have agreed to be bound. Plagiarism is a common reason for academic research papers to be retracted. Scholars of plagiarism include Rebecca Moore Howard, Susan Blum, Tracey Bretag, and Sarah Elaine Eaton.


Academia

No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists. However, this section provides several definitions to exemplify the most common characteristics of academic plagiarism. It has been called, "The use of ideas, concepts, words, or structures without appropriately acknowledging the source to benefit in a setting where originality is expected." This is an abridged version of Teddi Fishman's definition of plagiarism, which proposed five elements characteristic of plagiarism. According to Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone: * Uses words, ideas, or work products * Attributable to another identifiable person or source * Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained * In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship * In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of higher learning and universities: *
Stanford Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a Private university, private research university in Stanford, California. The campus occupies , among the largest in the United States, and enrolls over 17,000 students. Sta ...

Stanford
defines plagiarism as the "use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person's original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form". *
Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
views plagiarism as the "... use of another's work, words, or ideas without attribution", which includes "... using a source's language without quoting, using information from a source without attribution, and paraphrasing a source in a form that stays too close to the original". *
Princeton Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...

Princeton
describes plagiarism as the "deliberate" use of "someone else's language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source". *
Oxford College of Emory University Oxford College of Emory University, also called Oxford College and founded in 1836 as Emory College, is an American two-year residential collegeA residential college is a division of a university that places academic activity in a community sett ...
characterizes plagiarism as the use of "a writer's ideas or phraseology without giving due credit". *
Brown Brown is a composite color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United State ...

Brown
defines plagiarism as "... appropriating another person's ideas or words (spoken or written) without attributing those word or ideas to their true source". * defines plagiarism as "the use of the words, information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that person through proper citation".


Forms of academic plagiarism

Different classifications of academic plagiarism forms have been proposed. Many classifications follow a behavioral approach, i.e., they seek to classify the actions undertaken by plagiarists. For example, a 2015 survey of teachers and professors by Turnitin, identified 10 main forms of plagiarism that students commit: * Submitting someone's work as their own. * Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations (self-plagiarism). * Re-writing someone's work without properly citing sources. * Using quotations but not citing the source. * Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing. * Citing some, but not all, passages that should be cited. * Melding together cited and uncited sections of the piece. * Providing proper citations, but failing to change the structure and wording of the borrowed ideas enough (close paraphrasing). * Inaccurately citing a source. * Relying too heavily on other people's work, failing to bring original thought into the text. A 2019
systematic literature review Systematic reviews are a type of Literature review, review that uses repeatable analytical methods to collect secondary data and analyse it. Systematic reviews are a type of evidence synthesis which formulate research questions that are broad or n ...
on academic plagiarism detection deductively derived a technically oriented typology of academic plagiarism from the linguistic model of language consisting of lexis,
syntax In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...

syntax
, and
semantics Semantics (from grc, σημαντικός ''sēmantikós'', "significant") is the study of reference Reference is a relationship between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another ...
extended by a fourth layer to capture the plagiarism of ideas and structures. The typology categorizes plagiarism forms according to the layer of the model they affect: * Characters-preserving plagiarism **Verbatim copying without proper citation * Syntax-preserving plagiarism **Synonym substitution **Technical disguise (e.g. using identically looking
glyph The term glyph is used in typography Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system o ...
s from another
alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semanti ...

alphabet
) * Semantics-preserving plagiarism **Translation **
Paraphrase A paraphrase is a restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words. The term itself is derived via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages ...
* Idea-preserving plagiarism **Appropriation of ideas or concepts **Reusing text structure * Ghostwriting **
Collusion Collusion is a deceitful agreement or secret cooperation between two or more parties to limit open competition Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Riva ...
(typically among students) **
Contract cheatingContract cheating is a form of academic dishonesty in which students pay others to complete their coursework. The term was coined in a 2006 study by Thomas Lancaster and the late Robert Clarke (UK),Glendinning, I., Foltýnek, T., Dlabolová, D., Link ...


Sanctions for student plagiarism

In the academic world, plagiarism by students is usually considered a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment, the entire course, or even being expelled from the institution. The seriousness with which academic institutions address student plagiarism may be tempered by a recognition that students may not fully understand what plagiarism is. A 2015 study showed that students who were new to university study did not have a good understanding of even the basic requirements of how to attribute sources in written academic work, yet students were very confident that they understood what referencing and plagiarism are. The same students also had a lenient view of how plagiarism should be penalised. For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism (e.g., purchasing an assignment), suspension or expulsion may occur. There has been historic concern about inconsistencies in penalties administered for university student plagiarism, and a plagiarism tariff was devised in 2008 for UK higher education institutions in an attempt to encourage some standardization of approaches. However, to impose sanctions, plagiarism needs to be detected. Strategies faculty members use to detect plagiarism include carefully reading students work and making note of inconsistencies in student writing, citation errors and providing plagiarism prevention education to students. It has been found that a significant share of (university) teachers do not use detection methods such as using text-matching software. A few more try to detect plagiarism by reading term-papers specifically for plagiarism, while the latter method might be not very effective in detecting plagiarism – especially when plagiarism from unfamiliar sources needs to be detected. There are checklists of tactics to prevent student plagiarism.


Plagiarism education

Given the serious consequences that plagiarism has for students, there has been a call for a greater emphasis on learning in order to help students avoid committing plagiarism. This is especially important when students move to a new institution that may have a different view of the concept when compared with the view previously developed by the student. Indeed, given the seriousness of plagiarism accusations for a student's future, the pedagogy of plagiarism education may need to be considered ahead of the pedagogy of the discipline being studied. The need for plagiarism education extends to academic staff, who may not completely understand what is expected of their students or the consequences of misconduct. Actions to reduce plagiarism include coordinating teaching activities to decrease student load; reducing memorization, increasing individual practical activities; and promoting positive reinforcement over punishment.


Factors influencing students' decisions to plagiarize

Several studies investigated factors that influence the decision to plagiarize. For example, a panel study with students from German universities found that academic procrastination predicts the frequency plagiarism conducted within six months followed the measurement of academic procrastination. It has been argued that by plagiarizing, students cope with the negative consequences that result from academic procrastination such as poor grades. Another study found that plagiarism is more frequent if students perceive plagiarism as beneficial and if they have the opportunity to plagiarize. When students had expected higher sanctions and when they had internalized social norms that define plagiarism as very objectionable, plagiarism was less likely to occur. Another study found that students resorted to plagiarism in order to cope with heavy workloads imposed by teachers. On the other hand, in that study, some teachers also thought that plagiarism is a consequence of their own failure to propose creative tasks and activities.


Journalism

Since journalism relies on the public trust, a reporter's failure to honestly acknowledge their sources undercuts a newspaper or television news show's integrity and undermines its credibility. Journalists accused of plagiarism are often suspended from their reporting tasks while the charges are being investigated by the news organization.


Self-plagiarism

The reuse of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of one's own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or citing the original work is sometimes described as "self-plagiarism"; the term "recycling fraud" has also been used to describe this practice. Articles of this nature are often referred to as duplicate or
multiple publication Duplicate publication, multiple publication, or redundant publication refers to publishing the same intellectual material more than once, by the author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is al ...
. In addition there can be a copyright issue if copyright of the prior work has been transferred to another entity. Self-plagiarism is considered a serious ethical issue in settings where someone asserts that a publication consists of new material, such as in publishing or factual documentation. It does not apply to public-interest texts, such as social, professional, and cultural opinions usually published in newspapers and magazines. In academic fields, self-plagiarism occurs when an author reuses portions of their own published and copyrighted work in subsequent publications, but without attributing the previous publication.Roig, M. (2010). Plagiarism and self-plagiarism: What every author should know. ''Biochemia Medica, 20''(3), 295-300. Retrieved from http://www.biochemia-medica.com/content/plagiarism-and-self-plagiarism-what-every-author-should-know Identifying self-plagiarism is often difficult because limited reuse of material is accepted both legally (as
fair use Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder. Fair use is one of the limitations to copyright intended to balance the ...
) and ethically. Many people mostly, but not limited to critics of copyright and "intellectual property" do not believe it is possible to plagiarize oneself. Critics of the concepts of plagiarism and copyright may use the idea of self-plagiarism as a
reductio ad absurdum In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents sta ...
argument.


Contested definition

Miguel Roig has written at length about the topic of self-plagiarism and his definition of self-plagiarism as using previously disseminated work is widely accepted among scholars of the topic. However, the term "self-plagiarism" has been challenged as being self-contradictory, an
oxymoron An oxymoron (usual plural oxymorons, more rarely oxymora) is a rhetorical device In rhetoric, a rhetorical device, persuasive device, or stylistic device is a ''technique'' that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a Mean ...
, and on other grounds. For example, Stephanie J. Bird argues that self-plagiarism is a misnomer, since by definition plagiarism concerns the use of others' material. Bird identifies the ethical issues of "self-plagiarism" as those of "dual or redundant publication". She also notes that in an educational context, "self-plagiarism" refers to the case of a student who resubmits "the same essay for credit in two different courses." As David B. Resnik clarifies, "Self-plagiarism involves dishonesty but not intellectual theft." According to Patrick M. Scanlon, "self-plagiarism" is a term with some specialized currency. Most prominently, it is used in discussions of research and publishing integrity in biomedicine, where heavy publish-or-perish demands have led to a rash of duplicate and "salami-slicing" publication, the reporting of a single study's results in " least publishable units" within multiple articles (Blancett, Flanagin, & Young, 1995; Jefferson, 1998; Kassirer & Angell, 1995; Lowe, 2003; McCarthy, 1993; Schein & Paladugu, 2001; Wheeler, 1989). Roig (2002) offers a useful classification system including four types of self-plagiarism: duplicate publication of an article in more than one journal; partitioning of one study into multiple publications, often called salami-slicing; text recycling; and copyright infringement.


Codes of ethics

Some academic journals have codes of ethics that specifically refer to self-plagiarism. For example, the ''Journal of International Business Studies''. Some professional organizations like the
Association for Computing Machinery The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US-based international learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discipl ...
(ACM) have created policies that deal specifically with self-plagiarism. Other organizations do not make specific reference to self-plagiarism such as the American Political Science Association (APSA). The organization published a code of ethics that describes plagiarism as "...deliberate appropriation of the works of others represented as one's own." It does not make any reference to self-plagiarism. It does say that when a thesis or dissertation is published "in whole or in part", the author is "not ordinarily under an ethical obligation to acknowledge its origins." The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) also published a code of ethics that says its members are committed to: "Ensure that others receive credit for their work and contributions," but it makes no reference to self-plagiarism.


Factors that justify reuse

Pamela Samuelson Pamela Samuelson is the Richard M. Sherman '74 Distinguished Professor of Law and Information Management at the University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public ...
, in 1994, identified several factors she says excuse reuse of one's previously published work, that make it not self-plagiarism. She relates each of these factors specifically to the ethical issue of self-plagiarism, as distinct from the legal issue of fair use of copyright, which she deals with separately. Among other factors that may excuse reuse of previously published material Samuelson lists the following: * The previous work must be restated to lay the groundwork for a new contribution in the second work. * Portions of the previous work must be repeated to deal with new evidence or arguments. * The audience for each work is so different that publishing the same work in different places is necessary to get the message out. * The author thinks they said it so well the first time that it makes no sense to say it differently a second time. Samuelson states she has relied on the "different audience" rationale when attempting to bridge interdisciplinary communities. She refers to writing for different legal and technical communities, saying: "there are often paragraphs or sequences of paragraphs that can be bodily lifted from one article to the other. And, in truth, I lift them." She refers to her own practice of converting "a technical article into a law review article with relatively few changes—adding footnotes and one substantive section" for a different audience. Samuelson describes misrepresentation as the basis of self-plagiarism. She also states "Although it seems not to have been raised in any of the self-plagiarism cases, copyrights law's fair use defense would likely provide a shield against many potential publisher claims of copyright infringement against authors who reused portions of their previous works."


Organizational publications

Plagiarism is presumably not an issue when organizations issue collective unsigned works since they do not assign credit for originality to particular people. For example, the
American Historical Association The American Historical Association (AHA) is the oldest professional association of historians in the United States and the largest such organization in the world. Founded in 1884, the AHA provides leadership for the discipline by protecting academ ...
's "Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct" (2005) regarding textbooks and reference books states that, since textbooks and encyclopedias are summaries of other scholars' work, they are not bound by the same exacting standards of attribution as original research and may be allowed a greater "extent of dependence" on other works. However, even such a book does not make use of words, phrases, or paragraphs from another text or follow too closely the other text's arrangement and organization, and the authors of such texts are also expected to "acknowledge the sources of recent or distinctive findings and interpretations, those not yet a part of the common understanding of the profession."


In the arts


The history of the arts

Through all of the
history of literature The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose Prose is a form of written (or spoken) language that usually exhibits a natural speech, natural flow of speech and Syntax, grammatical structure—an exception is ...
and of the arts in general, works of art are to a large extent repetitions of the
tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of conscious ...
; to the entire history of artistic creativity belong plagiarism, literary theft, appropriation, incorporation, retelling, rewriting, recapitulation, revision, reprise, thematic variation, ironic retake,
parody A parody, also called a spoof, a send-up, a take-off, a lampoon, a play on (something), or a caricature, is a creative work designed to imitate, comment on, and/or make fun of its subject by means of satire, satiric or irony, ironic imitation. Ofte ...
, imitation, stylistic theft,
pastiche A pastiche is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support"). The medium is common ...

pastiche
s,
collage Collage (, from the french: coller, "to glue" or "to stick together";) is a technique of art creation, primarily used in the visual arts, but in music too, by which art results from an Assemblage (art), assemblage of different forms, thus creat ...

collage
s, and deliberate assemblages.Derrida
959 Year 959 ( CMLIX) was a common year starting on SaturdayA common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the ...
quotation: (p.40): "The boundaries between permissible and impermissible, imitation, stylistic plagiarism, copy, replica and forgery remain nebulous."
Eco (1990) p. 95 quotation: There is no rigorous and precise distinction between practices like imitation, stylistic plagiarism,
copy Copy may refer to: * Copying or the product of copying (including the plural "copies"); the duplication of information or an artifact ** Cut, copy and paste, a method of reproducing text or other data in computing ** File copying ** Photocopying, a ...
,
replica A replica is an exact copy, such as of a painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts t ...

replica
and
forgery Forgery is a white-collar crime The term "white-collar crime" refers to financially motivated, nonviolent or non directly violent crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. Th ...
.Haywood (1987) p.109, quoting ArnauEco (1987) p.202, quoting ArnauArnau
959 Year 959 ( CMLIX) was a common year starting on SaturdayA common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the ...
quotation: (p. 40) "The boundaries between permissible and impermissible, imitation, stylistic plagiarism, copy, replica and forgery remain nebulous."
These appropriation procedures are the main axis of a literate culture, in which the tradition of the canonic past is being constantly rewritten.Steiner (1998) pp. 437, 459 quotation: Ruth Graham quotes
T. S. Eliot Thomas Stearns Eliot (26 September 18884 January 1965) was a poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or may perform the ...
—"Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal. Bad poets deface what they take."—she notes that despite the "taboo" of plagiarism, the ill-will and embarrassment it causes in the modern context, readers seem to often forgive the past excesses of historic literary offenders.


Praisings of artistic plagiarism

A passage of
Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (24 November 171318 March 1768) was an Anglo-Irish novelist and an Anglican cleric. He wrote the novels ''The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman'' and ''A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy'', and also publi ...

Laurence Sterne
's 1767 ''
Tristram ShandyTristram may refer to: Literature * the title character of ''The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman'', a novel by Laurence Sterne * the title character of ''Tristram of Lyonesse'', an epic poem by Algernon Charles Swinburne *"Tristram ...
'' condemns plagiarism by resorting to plagiarism.
Oliver Goldsmith Oliver Goldsmith (10 November 1728 – 4 April 1774) was an Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of p ...

Oliver Goldsmith
commented:
Sterne's Writings, in which it is clearly shewn, that he, whose manner and style were so long thought original, was, in fact, the most unhesitating plagiarist who ever cribbed from his predecessors in order to garnish his own pages. It must be owned, at the same time, that Sterne selects the materials of his mosaic work with so much art, places them so well, and polishes them so highly, that in most cases we are disposed to pardon the want of originality, in consideration of the exquisite talent with which the borrowed materials are wrought up into the new form.


In other contexts


On the Internet

Free online tools are becoming available to help identify plagiarism, and there are a range of approaches that attempt to limit online copying, such as
disabling A disability is a societal imposition on people who have impairments, making it more difficult for people to do certain activities or interact with the world around them. Due to Cognitive disability, cognitive, Developmental disability, devel ...
right clicking and placing warning banners regarding copyrights on web pages. Instances of plagiarism that involve copyright violation may be addressed by the rightful content owners sending a
DMCA The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a 1998 United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North Americ ...

DMCA
removal notice to the offending site-owner, or to the
ISP An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides a myriad of services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers can be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, ...

ISP
that is hosting the offending site. The term "content scraping" has arisen to describe the copying and pasting of information from websites and blogs.


Reverse plagiarism

''Reverse plagiarism'', or ''attribution without copying'', refers to falsely giving authorship credit over a work to a person who did not author it, or falsely claiming a source supports an assertion that the source does not make. While both the term and activity are relatively rare, incidents of reverse plagiarism do occur typically in similar contexts as traditional plagiarism.


See also

*
Academic dishonesty Academic dishonesty, academic misconduct, academic fraud and academic integrityAcademic integrity is the moral code or ethical policy of academia An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution o ...

Academic dishonesty
*
Appropriation (art) Appropriation in art is the use of pre-existing objects or images with little or no transformation applied to them. The use of appropriation has played a significant role in the history of the arts (literary Literature broadly is any collectio ...
* Article spinning *
Contract cheatingContract cheating is a form of academic dishonesty in which students pay others to complete their coursework. The term was coined in a 2006 study by Thomas Lancaster and the late Robert Clarke (UK),Glendinning, I., Foltýnek, T., Dlabolová, D., Link ...
*
Copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

Copyright
*
Counterfeit To counterfeit means to imitate something authentic, with the intent to steal, destroy, or replace the original, for use in illegal transactions, or otherwise to deceive individuals into believing that the fake is of equal or greater value than ...
*
Credit (creative arts) In general, the term credit in the artistic or intellectual sense refers to an acknowledgment of those who contributed to a work, whether through ideas or in a more direct sense. Credit in the arts In the creative arts The arts refers ...
*
Cryptomnesia Cryptomnesia occurs when a forgotten memory returns without its being recognized as such by the subject, who believes it is something new and original. It is a memory bias whereby a person may falsely recall generating a thought, an idea, a tune, ...
*
Détournement A détournement (), meaning "rerouting, hijacking" in French language, French, is a technique developed in the 1950s by the Letterist International, and later adapted by the Situationist International (SI),''Report on the Construction of Situation ...
*
Document theftTheft from libraries of books, historical documents, maps and other materials from libraries is a significant problem. One study commissioned in the UK estimated the average loss rate of libraries to theft at 5.3%. In the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, ...
*
Essay mill An essay mill (also term paper mill) is a business that allows customers to commission an original piece of writing on a particular topic so that they may commit academic fraud An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek di ...
*
Fair use Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder. Fair use is one of the limitations to copyright intended to balance the ...
*
Ghostwriter A ghostwriter is hired to write literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama Drama is the s ...
*
Joke thievery Joke theft is the act of performing and taking credit for comic material written or performed by another person without their consent and without acknowledging the other person's authorship. This may be a form of plagiarism and can, in some cases, b ...
* Journalism scandals (plagiarism, fabrication, omission) *
Multiple publication Duplicate publication, multiple publication, or redundant publication refers to publishing the same intellectual material more than once, by the author An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is al ...
*
Musical plagiarism Music plagiarism is the use or close imitation of another author's music while representing it as one's own original work. Plagiarism in music now occurs in two contexts—with a ''musical idea'' (that is, a melody or Motif (music), motif) or ''sa ...
*
Rip-off ''Rip Off'' is a multidirectional shooter with black and white vector graphics written by Tim Skelly and released in arcades by Cinematronics in 1980 in video gaming, 1980. It was the first shooter with Cooperative video game, cooperative game ...
*
Knock-off Counterfeit consumer goods are goods, often of inferior quality, made or sold under another's brand name without the brand owner's authorization. Sellers of such goods may infringe on either the trademark, patent or copyright of the brand owne ...
*
Parody A parody, also called a spoof, a send-up, a take-off, a lampoon, a play on (something), or a caricature, is a creative work designed to imitate, comment on, and/or make fun of its subject by means of satire, satiric or irony, ironic imitation. Ofte ...
* * Plagiarism detection * Plagiarism from Wikipedia *
Rogeting Rogeting is an informal neologism created to describe the act of modifying a published source by substituting synonyms for sufficient words to fool plagiarism detection software, often resulting in the creation of new meaningless phrases through ex ...
*
Scientific misconduct Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in the publication of professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified profess ...
* Scientific plagiarism in India * Scientific plagiarism in the United States *
Source criticism Source criticism (or information evaluation) is the process of evaluating an information source, i.e. a document, a person, a speech, a fingerprint, a photo, an observation, or anything used in order to obtain knowledge. In relation to a given purp ...
* Swipe (comics)


References


Works cited

* Arnau, Frank Translation from the German by Brownjohn, J. Maxwell (1961). '' The Art of the Faker''. Little, Brown and Company. * Derrida, Jacques, Roudinesco, Élisabeth 001(2004) ''De Quoi Demain'', English translation 2004 by Jeff Fort as ''For what tomorrow—: a dialogue'', ch.4 ''Unforeseeable Freedom'' * Blum, Susan D. ''My Word!
Plagiarism and College Culture
' (2010) * Eco, Umberto (1987) ''Fakes and Forgeries'' in ''Versus, Issues 46–48'', republished in 1990 in ''The limits of interpretation'' pp. 174–202 * Eco, Umberto (1990) ''Interpreting Serials'' in ''The limits of interpretation'', pp. 83–100, excerpt; link unavailable *
Gérard Genette Gérard Genette (7 June 1930 – 11 May 2018) was a French people, French literary theory, literary theorist, associated in particular with the structuralism, structuralist movement and such figures as Roland Barthes and Claude Lévi-Strauss, from ...
(1982) '' Palimpsests: literature in the second degree'' *Haywood, Ian (1987) ''Faking it'' * *Joachimides, Christos M. and and Anfam, David and Adams, Brooks (1993) ''American art in the 20th century: painting and sculpture 1913–1993'' *Paull, Harry Major (1928) ''Literary ethics: a study in the growth of the literary conscience'' Part II, ch.X ''Parody and Burlesque'' pp. 133–40 (public domain work, author died in 1934) *
Royal Shakespeare Company The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a major British theatre Theatre of United Kingdom plays an important part in British culture, and the Countries of the United Kingdom, countries that constitute the UK have had a vibrant tradition of thea ...
(2007) ''The RSC Shakespeare – William Shakespeare Complete Works'', Introduction to the
Comedy of Errors ''The Comedy of Errors'' is one of William Shakespeare's early plays. It is his shortest and one of his most farcical comedies, with a major part of the humour coming from slapstick Slapstick is a style of humor involving exaggerated ph ...
*Ruthven, K. K. (2001) ''Faking Literature'' * Spearing, A. C. (1987) ''Introduction'' section to Chaucer's '' The Franklin's Prologue and Tale'' * Spearing, A. C. (1989) ''Readings in medieval poetry'' * Steiner, George (1998) ''
After Babel ''After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation'' (1975; second edition 1992; third edition 1998) is a linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as wel ...
'', ch.6 ''Topologies of culture'', 3rd revised edition


Further reading

* *


External links

{{Authority control Education issues Intellectual property law Intellectual works Misconduct Theft