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A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about their self, others, nature, or a higher good, through the experience. It can lead to a personal transformation, after which the
pilgrim A pilgrim (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

pilgrim
returns to their daily life.


Background

Pilgrimages frequently involve a
journey
journey
or search of
moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...

moral
or
spiritual
spiritual
significance. Typically, it is a journey to a
shrine A shrine ( la, scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as ...

shrine
or other location of importance to a person's
belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconsci ...

belief
s and
faith Faith, derived from ''fides'' and ''feid'', is confidence or trust in a , thing, or In the context of , one can define faith as " in or in the doctrines or teachings of religion". Religious people often think of faith as confidence based on ...

faith
, although sometimes it can be a metaphorical journey into someone's own beliefs. Many religions attach spiritual importance to particular places: the place of birth or death of founders or saints, or to the place of their "calling" or spiritual awakening, or of their connection (visual or verbal) with the divine, to locations where miracles were performed or witnessed, or locations where a deity is said to live or be "housed", or any site that is seen to have special spiritual powers. Such sites may be commemorated with shrines or temples that devotees are encouraged to visit for their own spiritual benefit: to be healed or have questions answered or to achieve some other spiritual benefit. A person who makes such a journey is called a
pilgrim A pilgrim (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

pilgrim
. As a common human experience, pilgrimage has been proposed as a Jungian archetype by
Wallace Clift Wallace Bruce Clift, Jr. (March 27, 1926 – February 5, 2018) was an American priest and academic. He was the author of several books and articles in the field of the psychology of religion and a professor emeritus at the University of Denver ...
and
Jean Dalby Clift Jean Dalby Clift was an American priest of the Episcopal Church and a pastoral counselorPastoral counseling is a branch of counseling in which psychology, psychologically trained Minister (Christianity), ministers, rabbis, priests, imams, and oth ...
. The
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
acts as a focal point for the pilgrimages of the
Abrahamic religion The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, be ...
s of
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots as an organized religion ...
,
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's ...

Christianity
, and
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
. According to a
Stockholm University Stockholm University ( sv, Stockholms universitet) is a public university, public research university in Stockholm, Sweden, founded as a college in 1878, with university status since 1960. With over 33,000 students at four different faculties: la ...
study in 2011, these
pilgrim A pilgrim (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

pilgrim
s visit the Holy Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their
faith Faith, derived from ''fides'' and ''feid'', is confidence or trust in a , thing, or In the context of , one can define faith as " in or in the doctrines or teachings of religion". Religious people often think of faith as confidence based on ...

faith
, confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, and connect personally to the Holy Land. The Christian priest Frank Fahey writes that a pilgrim is "always in danger of becoming a tourist", and vice versa since travel always in his view upsets the fixed order of life at home, and identifies eight differences between the two:


Bahá'í Faith

Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
decreed pilgrimage to two places in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas: the House of Bahá'u'lláh in
Baghdad, Iraq Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq and one of the list of largest cities in the Arab world, largest cities in the Arab world, and compared to its large population it has a small area at just 673 square kilometers (260 sq ...
, and the House of the
Báb The Báb, born Sayyed `Alí Muḥammad Shírází (; fa, سيد علی ‌محمد شیرازی; October 20, 1819 – July 9, 1850) was the founder of Bábism, and one of the central figures of the Baháʼí Faith. The Báb was a merchant fro ...
in
Shiraz, Iran Shiraz (; fa, شیراز, Šîrâz ) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in West ...
. Later,
ʻAbdu'l-Bahá ʻAbdu'l-Bahá (; Persian language, Persian: ‎, 23 May 1844 – 28 November 1921), born ʻAbbás ( fa, عباس), was the eldest son of Baháʼu'lláh and served as head of the Baháʼí Faith from 1892 until 1921. ʻAbdu'l-Bahá was later Ca ...
designated the
Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh A shrine ( la, scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified Dialect#D ...

Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh
at Bahji, Israel as a site of pilgrimage. The designated sites for pilgrimage are currently not accessible to the majority of Bahá'ís, as they are in Iraq and Iran respectively, and thus when Bahá'ís currently refer to pilgrimage, it refers to a nine-day pilgrimage which consists of visiting the holy places at the
Bahá'í World Centre
Bahá'í World Centre
in northwest Israel in
Haifa Haifa ( he, חֵיפָה ' ; ar, حيفا ') is the List of cities in Israel, third-largest city in Israel—after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv—with a population of in . The city of Haifa forms part of the Haifa metropolitan area, the third-most ...

Haifa
,
Acre The acre is a of land area used in the and systems. It is traditionally defined as the area of one by one (66 by 660 feet), which is exactly equal to 10 square chains, of a square mile, or 43,560 square feet, and approximately 4,047 m ...
, and Bahjí.


Buddhism

There are four places that Buddhists pilgrimage to: *
Lumbini Lumbinī ( ne, लुम्बिनी, IPA=ˈlumbini , "the lovely") is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Rupandehi District of Lumbini Province in Nepal. It is the place where, according to Buddhism, Buddhist tradition, Maya Devi, Queen Maham ...

Lumbini
: Buddha's birthplace (in
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
) *
Bodh Gaya Bodh Gaya is a religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Bihar. It is famous as it is the place where Gautama Buddha is said t ...

Bodh Gaya
: place of
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
(in the current
Mahabodhi Temple The Mahabodhi Temple (literally: "Great Awakening Temple") or the Mahabodhi Mahavihar, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is an ancient, but much rebuilt and restored, Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religi ...

Mahabodhi Temple
, Bihar,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
) *
Sarnath Sarnath (Hindustani pronunciation: aːɾnaːtʰ is a place located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi Varanasi (; ), officially so revived after 1947, but still widely known as Banaras or Benares (; ), and in ancient times as ...

Sarnath
: (formally Isipathana, Uttar pradesh,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
) where he delivered his first sermon (
Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta The ''Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta'' (Pali; Sanskrit: ''Dharmacakrapravartana Sūtra''; Hindi: ''The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of the Dharma Sutta'' or ''Promulgation of the Law Sutta'') is a Buddhist text that is considered by Buddhists to ...
), and the Buddha taught about the
Middle Way#REDIRECT Middle Way The Middle Way ( pi, ; sa, ) as well as "teaching the Dhamma by the middle" (''majjhena dhammaṃ deseti'') are common Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social system ...
, the
Four Noble Truths In Buddhism Buddhism (, ) is the Major religious groups#Largest religions, world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditi ...
and
Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path ( Pali: ; Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It ...
. *
Kusinara Kushinagar is a town in the Kushinagar district of the India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous cou ...

Kusinara
: (now Kusinagar,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
) where he attained ''
mahaparinirvana , or Mahaparinirvana, Gandhara 2–3rd century. In Buddhism, ''parinirvana'' (Sanskrit: '; Pali language, Pali: ') is commonly used to refer to nirvana-after-death, which occurs upon the death of someone who has attained ''Nirvana (Buddhism), nirv ...

mahaparinirvana
'' (died). Other pilgrimage places in India and Nepal connected to the life of
Gautama Buddha Gautama Buddha, popularly known as the Buddha (also known as Siddhattha Gotama or Siddhārtha Gautama or Buddha Shakyamuni), was an , a religious leader and teacher who lived in (c. 6th to 5th century BCE or c. 5th to 4th century BCE). He ...

Gautama Buddha
are: Savatthi, ,
Nalanda Nalanda (Sanskrit: नालंदा ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm o ...

Nalanda
, Gaya,
Vesali Vaishali, Vesali or Vaiśālī was a city in present-day Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by pop ...
, Sankasia, Kapilavastu,
Kosambi Kosambi (Pali Pali () is a Middle Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also *Aryan invasio ...
, Rajagaha. Other famous places for Buddhist pilgrimage include: *
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
:
Sanchi Sanchi is a Buddhist complex, famous for its Great Stupa, on a hilltop at Sanchi Town in Raisen District of the States and territories of India, State of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is located in north-east of Bhopal, capital of Madhya Pradesh. ...

Sanchi
,
Ellora Caves Ellora (\e-ˈlȯr-ə\, IAST: ) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Aurangabad District, Maharashtra, Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India. It is one of the largest rock-cut Hindu temple cave complexes in the world, featuring B ...

Ellora Caves
,
Ajanta Caves The Ajanta Caves are approximately 30 rock-cut Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; howeve ...

Ajanta Caves
, also see
Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India In religion and spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long quest, journey or wikt:search, search of great moral significance. Sometimes, it is a journey to a sacred place or to a shrine of importance to a person's beliefs and faith. Members of every maj ...

Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India
*
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
:
Wat Phra Kaew Wat Phra Kaew ( th, วัดพระแก้ว, , ), commonly known in English as the Temple of the Emerald Buddha and officially as Wat Phra Si Rattana Satsadaram, is regarded as the most sacred Wat, Buddhist temple in Thailand. The compl ...

Wat Phra Kaew
,
Wat Pho Wat Pho ( th, วัดโพธิ์, ), also spelled Wat Po, is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and pr ...

Wat Pho
, Wat Doi Suthep,
Phra Pathom Chedi Phra Pathommachedi or Phra Pathom Chedi ( th, พระปฐมเจดีย์) is a stupa in Thailand. The stupa is located in the Wat Phra Pathommachedi Ratcha Wora Maha Wihan ( th, วัดพระปฐมเจดีย์ราชว ...

Phra Pathom Chedi
, , *
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa people, Monpa, Tamang people, Tamang, Qia ...

Tibet
:
Lhasa Lhasa (; Lhasa dialect: ; bo, text=ལྷ་ས, translation=Place of Gods) is the urban center of the prefecture-level city, prefecture-level Lhasa (prefecture-level city), Lhasa City and the administrative capital of Tibet. The inner urban ...
(traditional home of the
Dalai Lama , coatofarms = , coatofarms_article = , coatofarms_link = , incumbent = Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama The 14th Dalai Lama (spiritual name Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso, known as Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Dhondup), ...

Dalai Lama
),
Mount Kailash Mount Kailash (also Kailasa; ''Kangrinboqê'' or ''Gang Rinpoche''; Tibetan: གངས་རིན་པོ་ཆེ; ; sa, कैलास, ), is a high peak in the Kailash Range (Gangdisê Mountains), which forms part of the Transhim ...

Mount Kailash
, Lake Nam-tso *
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
: Wat Botum,
Wat Ounalom Wat Ounalom ( km, វត្តឧណ្ណាលោម; ) (also ''Wat Unnalom'' and several other spellings) is a wat located on Sisowath Quay in Phnom Penh, Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially ...

Wat Ounalom
, Wat Botum, ,
Angkor Wat Angkor Wat (; km, អង្គរវត្ត "Temple city/city of temples") is the largest religious structure (temple complex) in the world by land area, measuring , located in Cambodia. Originally constructed as a personal mausoleum for ...

Angkor Wat
*
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
:
Temple of the Tooth Sri Dalada Maligawa or the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a Buddhism, Buddhist temple in the city of Kandy, Sri Lanka. It is located in the royal palace complex of the former Kingdom of Kandy, which houses the relic of the tooth of the Buddh ...
,
Polonnaruwa Poḷonnaruwa ( si, පොළොන්නරුව, translit=Poḷonnaruva; ta, பொலன்னறுவை, translit=Polaṉṉaṟuvai) is the main town of Polonnaruwa District in North Central Province, Sri Lanka. The modern town of Polonna ...

Polonnaruwa
, (
Kandy Kandy ( si, මහනුවර ''Mahanuwara'', ; ta, கண்டி Kandy, ) is a major city in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, ...

Kandy
),
Anuradhapura Anuradhapura ( si, අනුරාධපුරය, translit=Anurādhapuraya; ta, அனுராதபுரம், translit=Aṉurātapuram) is a major city in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, t ...

Anuradhapura
*
Laos , national_anthem = "Pheng Xat Lao "Pheng Sat Lāo" () is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often r ...

Laos
:
Luang Prabang Luang Phabang, (Lao language, Lao: wikt:ຫລວງພະບາງ, ຫລວງພະບາງ/wikt:ຫຼວງພະບາງ, ຫຼວງພະບາງ) or ''Louangphabang'' (pronounced ), commonly Transliteration, transliterated into We ...

Luang Prabang
*
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
:
Kek Lok Si The Kek Lok Si Temple is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, wor ...
, Buddhist Maha Vihara, Brickfields *
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...

Myanmar
:
Shwedagon Pagoda The Shwedagon Pagoda ( mnw, ကျာ်ဒဂုၚ်; , ), officially named ''Shwedagon Zedi Daw'' ( my, ရွှေတိဂုံစေတီတော်, , ) and also known as the Great Dagon Pagoda and the Golden Pagoda, is a gilded stupa ...

Shwedagon Pagoda
,
Mahamuni Buddha Temple The Mahamuni Buddha Temple ( my, မဟာမုနိဘုရားကြီး, ; also called the Mahamuni Image) is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, includin ...

Mahamuni Buddha Temple
, ,
Bagan Bagan (, ; formerly Pagan) is an ancient city and a UNESCO World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and C ...

Bagan
, ,
Mandalay Hill Mandalay Hill ( ) is a hill that is located to the northeast of the city centre of Mandalay Mandalay ( or ; ) is the second-largest city in Myanmar, after Yangon. Located on the east bank of the Irrawaddy River, north of Yangon, the city ...

Mandalay Hill
, *
Nepal Nepal (; ne, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is ma ...

Nepal
: ,
Boudhanath Boudha( ne, 𑐧𑑁𑐡𑑂𑐢 𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐹𑐥, also called the ''Khāsa Chaitya'', Newar language, Nepal Bhasa ''Khāsti'', Prachalit Nepal alphabet : 𑐏𑐵𑐳𑑂𑐟𑐶 𑐩𑐵𑐴𑐵𑐔𑐿𑐟𑑂𑐫, Standard Tibetan ''Jarung ...

Boudhanath
,
Swayambhunath Swayambhu (Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida An abugida (, from ...

Swayambhunath
*
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
:
Borobudur Borobudur, also transcribed Barabudur ( id, Candi Borobudur, jv, ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶꦧꦫꦧꦸꦝꦸꦂ, Candhi Barabudhur) is a 7th-century Mahayana in Shishoin Temple (Tokyo). A unique feature of Mahāyāna is the belief that there are multipl ...

Borobudur
,
Mendut Mendut is a ninth-century Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social wh ...
,
Sewu Sewu ( jv, ꦱꦺꦮꦸ, Sèwu) is an eighth century Mahayana Buddhism, Buddhist Candi of Indonesia, temple located 800 metres north of Prambanan in Central Java, Indonesia. The word for a Hindu temple, Hindu or Buddhist temple in Languages of In ...

Sewu
*
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
: Yung-kang, Lung-men caves. The Four Sacred Mountains *
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
: **
Shikoku Pilgrimage , Temple 75 and the birthplace of Kūkai Image:土居商店街をゆくお遍路さんP4044924.JPG, An ''aruki-henro'' or walking pilgrim, marked out by his distinctive Conical Asian hat, sedge hat, white shirt, and kongō-zue. The ''henro-mic ...
, 88 Temple pilgrimage in the
Shikoku is one of the five main islands of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the sout ...

Shikoku
island. ** Japan 100 Kannon Pilgrimage, pilgrimage composed of the Saigoku, Bandō and Chichibu pilgrimages. ***
Saigoku Kannon Pilgrimage The is a pilgrimage of thirty-three Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no s ...
, pilgrimage in the
Kansai The or the , lies in the southern-central region of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...
region. *** Bandō Sanjūsankasho, pilgrimage in the
Kantō region The is a geography, geographical area of Honshu, the largest island of Japan. In a common definition, the region includes the Greater Tokyo Area and encompasses seven Prefectures of Japan, prefectures: Gunma Prefecture, Gunma, Tochigi Prefe ...
. *** Chichibu 34 Kannon Sanctuary, pilgrimage in Saitama Prefecture. ** Chūgoku 33 Kannon Pilgrimage, pilgrimage in the Chūgoku region. ** Kumano Kodō ** Mount Kōya.


Christianity

Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. Aside from the early example of Origen in the third century, surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers including Jerome, Saint Jerome, and established by Helena (empress), Saint Helena, the mother of Constantine I and Christianity, Constantine the Great. The purpose of Christian pilgrimage was summarized by Pope Benedict XVI in this way: Pilgrimages were, and are, also made to Rome and other sites associated with the Twelve apostles, apostles, saints and Christian martyrs, as well as to places where there have been Marian apparitions, apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Virgin Mary. A popular pilgrimage journey is along the Way of St. James to the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, in Galicia (Spain), Galicia, Spain, where the
shrine A shrine ( la, scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as ...

shrine
of the apostle James, son of Zebedee, James is located. A combined pilgrimage was held every seven years in the three nearby towns of Maastricht, Aachen and Kornelimünster Abbey, Kornelimünster where many important relics could be seen (see: Pilgrimage of the Relics, Maastricht). Geoffrey Chaucer, Chaucer's ''The Canterbury Tales'' recounts tales told by Christian pilgrims on their way to Canterbury Cathedral and the shrine of Thomas Becket. Marian pilgrimages remain very popular in Christian pilgrimage#Latin America, Latin America.


Hinduism

According to Karel Werner's ''Popular Dictionary of Hinduism'', "most Hinduism, Hindu places of pilgrimage are associated with legendary events from the lives of various gods.... Almost any place can become a focus for pilgrimage, but in most cases they are sacred cities, rivers, lakes, and mountains." Hindus are encouraged to undertake pilgrimages during their lifetime, though this practice is not considered absolutely mandatory. Most Hindus visit sites within their region or locale. *Kumbh Mela: Kumbh Mela is one of the largest gatherings of humans in the world where pilgrims gather to bathe in a sacred or holy river. The location is rotated among Allahabad, Haridwar, Nashik, and Ujjain. *Char Dham (Four Holy pilgrimage sites): The famous four holy sites Puri, Rameswaram, Dwarka, and Badrinath (or alternatively the Himalayan towns of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri) compose the ''Char Dham'' (''four abodes'') pilgrimage circuit. *Kanwar Yatra, Kanwar Pilgrimage: The Kanwar is India's largest annual religious pilgrimage. As part of this phenomenon, millions of participants gather sacred water from the Ganga (usually in Haridwar, Gangotri, Gaumukh, or Sultanganj) and carry it across hundreds of miles to dispense as offerings in Śiva shrines. *Old Holy cities per Puranic Texts: Varanasi also known as Kashi (Shiva), Allahabad also known as Prayag, Haridwar-Rishikesh (Vishnu), Mathura-Vrindavan (Krishna), Pandharpur (Krishna), Paithan, Kanchipuram (Parvati), Dwarka (Krishna) and Ayodhya (Rama). *Major Temple cities: Puri, which hosts a major Vaishnavism, Vaishnava Jagannath temple and Rath Yatra celebration; Katra, Jammu and Kashmir, Katra, home to the Vaishno Devi Temple; Three comparatively recent temples of fame and huge pilgrimage are Shirdi, home to Sai Baba of Shirdi, Tirumala - Tirupati, home to the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple; and Sabarimala, where Ayyappan, Swami Ayyappan is worshipped. *Shakti Peethas: Another important set of pilgrimages are the ''Shakti Peethas'', where Shakti, the Mother Goddess is worshipped, the two principal ones being ''Kalighat'' and ''Kamakhya''. * Pancha Ishwarams - the five ancient Shiva temples of the island from classical antiquity. * The Murugan pilgrimage route of Sri Lanka, an ancient Arunagirinathar-traversed Pada Yatra route of Tiruppadai temples includes the Maviddapuram Kandaswamy Temple in Kankesanturai, the Nallur Kandaswamy temple in Jaffna, the Pancha Ishwaram Koneswaram temple in Trincomalee, the Verugal Murugan Kovil on the banks of the river Verugal Aru, in Verugal, Trincomalee District, the Mandur Kandaswamy temple of Mandur (Sri Lanka), Thirukkovil Sithira Velayutha Swami Kovil, in Thirukkovil, Batticaloa, the Arugam Bay and Panama (Sri Lanka), Panamai in Amparai district, the Ukanthamalai Murugan Kovil, in Okanda, Kumana National Park and then through the park and Tissamaharama to the deity's holiest site, Kataragama temple, Katirkamam in the South.


Islam

The ''Hajj, Ḥajj'' ( ar, حَـجّ, main pilgrimage to Mecca) is one of the five pillars of Islam and a Fard, mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence. The gathering during the Hajj is considered the largest annual gathering of people in the world. Since 2014, two or three million people have participated the ''Hajj'' annually. The mosques in Mecca and Medina were closed in February 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia, COVID-19 pandemic and the ''hajj'' was permitted for only a very limited number of Saudi nationals and foreigners living in Saudi Arabia starting on 29 July. Another important place for Muslims is the city of Medina, the second holiest site in Islam, in Saudi Arabia, the final resting place of Muhammad in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi (The Mosque of the Prophet). The ''Ihram'' (white robe of pilgrimage) is meant to show equality of all Muslim pilgrims in the eyes of Allah. 'A white has no superiority over a black, nor a black over a white. Nor does an Arab have superiority over a non-Arab, nor a non-Arab over an Arab - except through piety' - statement of the Prophet Muhammad. About four million pilgrims participate in the Grand Magal of Touba, east of Dakar, Senegal. The pilgrimage celebrates the life and teachings of Cheikh Amadou Bamba, who founded the Mouride brotherhood in 1883 and begins on the 18th of Safar.


Shia

''Al-Arba‘īn'' ( ar, ٱلْأَرْبَـعِـيْـن, "The Forty"), ''Chehelom'' ( fa, , ur, , "the fortieth [day]") or ''Qirkhī'', ''Imāmīn Qirkhī'' ( az, İmamın qırxı ( ar, إمامین قیرخی), "the fortieth of Imam") is a Shia Muslim religious observance that occurs 40 (number), forty days after the Day of Ashura. It commemorates the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, which falls on the 20th or 21st day of the month of Safar. Imam Husayn ibn Ali and 72 companions were killed by Yazid I's army in the Battle of Karbala in 61 AH (680 Common Era, CE). Arba'een or forty days is also the usual length of mourning after the death of a family member or loved one in many Muslim traditions. Arba'een is one of the largest pilgrimage gatherings on Earth, in which up to 31 million people go to the city of Karbala in Iraq. The second largest holy city in the world, Mashhad, Iran, attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year, many of whom come to pay homage to Imam Reza (the eighth Shi'ite Imam). It has been a magnet for travelers since medieval times.


Judaism

While Solomon's Temple stood, Jerusalem was the centre of the Jewish religious life and the site of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals of Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot, and all adult men who were able were required to visit and offer sacrifices (''korbanot'') at the Temple. After the destruction of the Temple, the obligation to visit Jerusalem and to make sacrifices no longer applied. The obligation was restored with the Second Temple, rebuilding of the Temple, but following its destruction in 70 CE, the obligation to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and offer sacrifices again went into abeyance. The western retaining wall of the Temple Mount, known as the Western Wall or "Wailing" Wall, is the remaining part of Second Jewish Temple in the Old City (Jerusalem), Old City of Jerusalem is the most sacred and visited site for Jews. Pilgrimage to this area was off-limits to Jews from 1948 to 1967, when East Jerusalem was under Jordanian control. There are numerous lesser Jewish pilgrimage destinations, mainly tombs of ''tzadikim'', throughout Palestine (region), Palestine and all over the world, including: Hebron; Bethlehem; Mount Meron; Netivot; Uman, Ukraine; Silistra, Bulgaria; Damanhur, Egypt; and many others.


Sikhism

Sikhism does not consider pilgrimage as an act of spiritual merit. Guru Nanak went to places of pilgrimage to reclaim the fallen people, who had turned ritualists. He told them of the need to visit that temple of God, deep in the inner being of themselves. According to him: "He performs a pilgrimage who controls the Five Thieves, five vices." Eventually, however, Amritsar and Harmandir Sahib, Harmandir Sahib (the Golden Temple) became the spiritual and cultural centre of the Sikh faith, and if a Sikh goes on pilgrimage it is usually to this place. The Panj Takht (Punjabi: ਪੰਜ ਤਖ਼ਤ) are the five revered gurdwaras in India that are considered the thrones or seats of authority of Sikhism and are traditionally considered a pilgrimage.


Taoism

Mazu, also spelled as Matsu, is the most famous sea goddess in the Chinese southeastern sea area, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Mazu Pilgrimage is more likely as an event (or temple fair), pilgrims are called as "Xiang Deng Jiao" (''pinyin: xiāng dēng jiǎo,'' it means "lantern feet" in Chinese), they would follow the Goddess's (Mazu) palanquin from her own temple to another Mazu temple. By tradition, when the village Mazu palanquin passes, the residents would offer free water and food to those pilgrims along the way. There are 2 main Mazu pilgrimages in Taiwan, it usually hold between lunar January and April, depends on Mazu's will. * Baishatun Mazu Pilgrimage: this pilgrimage can be traced to 1863, from Baishantun (Miaoli County) to Beigang (Yunlin County) and return, not over a definite route. * Dajia Mazu Pilgrimage: from Dajia (Taichung, Taichung City) to Xingang (Chiayi County) and return, it runs over a definite route.


Zoroastrianism

In Iran, there are pilgrimage destinations called ''Pir (Zoroastrianism), pirs'' in several provinces, although the most familiar ones are in the province of Yazd. In addition to the traditional Yazdi shrines, new sites may be in the process of becoming pilgrimage destinations. The ruins are the ruins of ancient fire temples. One such site is the ruin of the Sassanian era Azargoshnasp fire temple in Iran's Azarbaijan Province. Other sites are the ruins of Bahram fire temple, fire temples at Rey, south of the capital Tehran, and the Firouzabad ruins sixty kilometres south of Shiraz in the province of Fārs Province, Pars. Atash Behram ("Fire of victory") is the highest grade of fire temple in Zoroastrianism. It has 16 different "kinds of fire", that is, fires gathered from 16 different sources. Currently there are 9 Atash Behram, one in Yazd, Iran and the rest in Western
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
. They have become a pilgrimage destination. In India the cathedral fire temple that houses the Udvada Atash Behram, Iranshah Atash Behram, located in the small town of Udvada in the west coast province of Gujarat, is a pilgrimage destination.


Other


Meher Baba

The main pilgrimage sites associated with the spiritual teacher Meher Baba are Meherabad, India, where Baba completed the "major portion" of his work and where his tomb is now located, and Meherazad, India, where Baba resided later in his life.


Ancient Greece

The Eleusinian Mysteries, Eleusinian mysteries included a pilgrimage. The procession to Eleusis began at the Athens, Athenian cemetery Kerameikos and from there the participants walked to Eleusis, along the Sacred Way (Ἱερὰ Ὁδός, ''Hierá Hodós'').


See also

* Burial places of founders of world religions * HCPT – The Pilgrimage Trust * Hiking * Journey of self-discovery * Junrei * List of shrines * List of significant religious sites * Monastery * New Age travellers * Pardon (ceremony) * * Romeria * Sacred travel * World Youth Day


References


Further reading

* al-Naqar, Umar. 1972. ''The Pilgrimage Tradition in West Africa.'' Khartoum: Khartoum University Press. [includes a map 'African Pilgrimage Routes to Mecca, ca. 1300–1900'] * Coleman, Simon and John Elsner (1995), ''Pilgrimage: Past and Present in the World Religions.'' Cambridge: Harvard University Press. * Coleman, Simon & John Eade (eds) (2005), ''Reframing Pilgrimage. Cultures in Motion.'' London: Routledge. * Davidson, Linda Kay and David M. Gitlitz (2002), ''Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland: An Encyclopedia.'' Santa Barbara, Ca.: ABC-CLIO. * Gitlitz, David M. and Linda Kay Davidson (2006). ''Pilgrimage and the Jews.'' Westport, CT: Praeger. * Jackowski, Antoni. 1998. ''Pielgrzymowanie'' [Pilgrimage]. Wroclaw: Wydawnictwo Dolnoslaskie. * Kerschbaum & Gattinger, Via Francigena – DVD – Documentation, of a modern pilgrimage to Rome, , Verlag EUROVIA, Vienna 2005 * Margry, Peter Jan (ed.) (2008), ''Shrines and Pilgrimage in the Modern World. New Itineraries into the Sacred.'' Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. * * Sumption, Jonathan. 2002. ''Pilgrimage: An Image of Mediaeval Religion.'' London: Faber and Faber Ltd. * Wolfe, Michael (ed.). 1997. ''One Thousands Roads to Mecca.'' New York: Grove Press. * George Zarnecki, Zarnecki, George (1985), The Monastic World: The Contributions of The Orders. pp. 36–66, in Evans, Joan (ed.). 1985. ''The Flowering of the Middle Ages.'' London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. *


External links

* {{Authority control Pilgrimages, Religious tourism