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Exercise is any
bodily
bodily
activity that enhances or maintains
physical fitness Physical fitness is a state of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically valuable relative ''to' ...
and overall
health Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, Mental health, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".World Health Organization. (2006)''Constitution of the World He ...

health
and wellness. It is performed for various reasons, to aid growth and improve strength, prevent
aging Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older. The term refers especially to human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable t ...

aging
, develop
muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cate ...

muscle
s and the
cardiovascular system The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system An organ system is a group of organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many o ...
, hone
athletic
athletic
skills,
weight loss Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, by a mean loss of fluid, body fat (adipose tissue), or lean mass (namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other conne ...
or maintenance, improve health, or simply for enjoyment. Many individuals choose to exercise outdoors where they can congregate in groups, socialize, and improve
well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically valuable relative ''to'' someone. So the well-being of a person is what is ultimately good ''for'' this person, what is in the s ...
as well as
mental health Mental health is "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community", accor ...

mental health
. In terms of health benefits, the amount of recommended exercise depends upon the goal, the type of exercise, and the age of the person. Even doing a small amount of exercise is healthier than doing none.


Classification

Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body: *
Aerobic exercise Aerobic exercise (also known as endurance activities, cardio or cardio-respiratory exercise) is physical exercise Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness Physical fitness is a state of health Health ...

Aerobic exercise
is any
physical activity Physical activity is defined as any voluntary bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure.Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, 2009. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. Accessed 13/07 ...
that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
than it would while resting. The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase
cardiovascular The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system An organ system is a group of organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many o ...
endurance Endurance (also related to sufferance, resilience, constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or o ...

endurance
. Examples of aerobic exercise include
running Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion – an erect-stanced unguligrade quadruped – with a galloping gait. A 2006 animation of 1887 photos by Eadweard Muybridge Terrestrial locomotion has evolution, evolved as animal ...

running
,
cycling Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, Physical exercise, exercise or sport. People engaged in cycling are referred to as "cyclists", "bicyclists", or "bikers". Apart from two-wheeled bicy ...

cycling
,
swimming Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the ...
, brisk
walking Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gait Gait is the pattern of Motion (physics), movement of the limb (anatomy), limbs of animals, including Gait (human), humans, during Animal locomotion, locomotion over a solid substrate. M ...

walking
,
skipping rope A skipping rope (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval E ...
,
rowing Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oar An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. Oars have a flat blade at one end. Rowers grasp the oar at the other end. The difference between oars and paddles is t ...
,
hiking Hiking is a long, vigorous walk Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of terrestrial locomotion among legged animals. Walking is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendul ...

hiking
, dancing, playing
tennis Tennis is a racket sport Racket sports are game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) '', 1560, Pieter Bruege ...

tennis
,
continuous training Continuous Training, also known as continuous exercise or steady state training, is any type of physical training Physical fitness is a state of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ...
, and long distance running. *
Anaerobic exercise Anaerobic exercise is a type of exercise that breaks down glucose Glucose is a simple sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated sugar, or regul ...

Anaerobic exercise
, which includes
strength Physical strength *Physical strength, as in people or animals *Hysterical strength, extreme strength occurring when people are in life-and-death situations *Superhuman strength, great physical strength far above human capability *A common attrib ...
and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and increase muscle mass, as well as improve bone density,
balance Balance may refer to: Common meanings * Balance (ability) in biomechanics * Balance (accounting) * Balance or weighing scale Arts and entertainment Film * Balance (1983 film), ''Balance'' (1983 film), a Bulgarian film * Balance (1989 film), ''Bal ...
, and
coordination Coordination may refer to: * Coordination (linguistics) In linguistics, coordination is a complex syntactic In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentence ...
. Examples of strength exercises are push-ups,
pull-ups Pull-Ups is a brand of disposable training pants made under the Huggies brand of baby products. See also * Huggies *Toilet training Toilet training (also potty training or toilet learning) is the process of training someone, particularly a young ...
, lunges, squats, bench press. Anaerobic exercise also includes
weight training Weight training is a common type of strength training for developing the physical strength, strength and size of skeletal muscles.Keogh, Justin W, and Paul W Winwood. “Report for: The Epidemiology of Injuries Across the Weight-Training Sport ...
,
functional trainingFunctional training is a classification of exercise which involves training the body for the activities performed in daily life. Origins Functional training has its origins in rehabilitation Physical and occupational therapists and chiropractor ...
,
eccentric training An eccentric contraction is the motion of an active muscle while it is lengthening under load. Eccentric training is repetitively doing eccentric muscle contractions. For example, in a biceps curl the action of lowering the dumbbell back down from t ...
,
interval trainingInterval training is a type of training that involves a series of high intensity workouts interspersed with rest or relief periods. The high-intensity periods are typically at or close to anaerobic exercise Anaerobic exercise is a type of exercise t ...
,
sprinting Sprinting is running over a short distance at the top-most speed of the body in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running, typically as a way of quickly reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an op ...
, and
high-intensity interval training High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is a form of interval training, a cardiovascular exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic ...
which increase short-term muscle strength. *
Flexibility Stiffness is the extent to which an object resists deformation Deformation can refer to: * Deformation (engineering), changes in an object's shape or form due to the application of a force or forces. ** Deformation (mechanics), such changes co ...
exercises stretch and lengthen
muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cate ...

muscle
s. Activities such as
stretching Stretching is a form of physical exercise Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness Physical fitness is a state of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-bein ...

stretching
help to improve
joint A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the skeleton in most vertebrate animals. Bones protect the various organs of th ...

joint
flexibility and keep muscles limber. The goal is to improve the
range of motion Range of motion (or ROM), is the linear or angular distance that a moving object may normally travel while properly attached to another. It is also called range of travel (or ROT), particularly when talking about mechanical devices and in mechanic ...
which can reduce the chance of injury. Physical exercise can also include training that focuses on
accuracy In a set of measurements, accuracy is closeness of the measurements to a specific value, while precision is the closeness of the measurements to each other. ''Accuracy'' has two definitions: # More commonly, it is a description of ''systematic er ...

accuracy
,
agility Agility or nimbleness is an ability to change the body's position efficiently, and requires the integration of isolated movement skills using a combination of balance Balance may refer to: Common meanings * Balance (ability) in biomechanics * ...
,
power Power most often refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy In , energy is the that must be to a or to perform on the body, or to it. Energy is a ; the law of states that energy can be in form, bu ...
, and
speed In everyday use and in kinematics Kinematics is a subfield of physics, developed in classical mechanics, that describes the Motion (physics), motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considerin ...

speed
. Types of exercise can also be classified as dynamic or static. 'Dynamic' exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the
diastolic Image:Heart diastole.png, upright=1.5, Heart performance during ventricular diastole: early diastole is a suction mechanism that draws blood 'down' from the left atrium (pink) and right atrium (blue) into each of the two ventricles. Then, in late ve ...
blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow. Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the
systolic to supply all body systems; 2) oxygen-depleted blood (blue arrow) in the right ventricle begins pulsing through the pulmonic (pulmonary) valve en route to the lungs for reoxygenation. depolarization is the start-point of the atrial stage of syst ...
pressure to rise significantly, albeit transiently, during the performance of the exercise.


Health effects

Physical exercise is important for maintaining
physical fitness Physical fitness is a state of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically valuable relative ''to' ...
and can contribute to maintaining a healthy weight, regulating the digestive system, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system. Some studies indicate that exercise may increase life expectancy and the overall quality of life. People who participate in moderate to high levels of physical exercise have a lower mortality rate compared to individuals who by comparison are not physically active. Moderate levels of exercise have been correlated with preventing aging by reducing inflammatory potential. The majority of the benefits from exercise are achieved with around 3500
metabolic equivalent The metabolic equivalent of task (MET) is the objective measure of the ratio of the rate at which a person expends energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . ...
(MET) minutes per week, with diminishing returns at higher levels of activity. For example, climbing stairs 10 minutes, vacuuming 15 minutes, gardening 20 minutes, running 20 minutes, and walking or bicycling for transportation 25 minutes on a daily basis would ''together'' achieve about 3000 MET minutes a week. A lack of
physical activity Physical activity is defined as any voluntary bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure.Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, 2009. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. Accessed 13/07 ...
causes approximately 6% of the burden of disease from coronary heart disease, 7% of type 2 diabetes, 10% of breast cancer and 10% of colon cancer worldwide. Overall, physical inactivity causes 9% of premature mortality worldwide.


Fitness

Individuals can increase fitness by increasing
physical activity Physical activity is defined as any voluntary bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure.Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, 2009. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. Accessed 13/07 ...
levels. Increases in muscle size from resistance training are primarily determined by diet and testosterone. This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population. Studies have shown that exercising in
middle age Middle age is the period of age beyond young adult A young adult is generally a person in the years following adolescence. Definitions and opinions on what qualifies as a young adult vary, with works such as Erik Erikson Erik Homburger ...

middle age
leads to better physical ability later in life. Early motor skills and development is also related to physical activity and performance later in life. Children who are more proficient with motor skills early on are more inclined to be physically active, and thus tend to perform well in sports and have better fitness levels. Early motor proficiency has a positive correlation to childhood physical activity and fitness levels, while less proficiency in motor skills results in a more sedentary lifestyle. A 2015 meta-analysis demonstrated that
high-intensity interval training High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is a form of interval training, a cardiovascular exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic ...
improved one's
VO2 max #REDIRECT VO2 max#REDIRECT VO2 max V̇O2 max (also maximal oxygen consumption, maximal oxygen uptake or maximal aerobic capacity) is the maximum rate of oxygen consumption measured during incremental exercise; that is, exercise of increasing intens ...
more than lower intensity endurance training.


Cardiovascular system

The beneficial effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system is well documented. There is a direct correlation between physical inactivity and cardiovascular disease, and physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for the development of
coronary artery disease Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), or simply heart disease, involves the reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle Cardiac muscle (also called heart muscle or myocardium) i ...
. Low levels of physical exercise increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases mortality. Children who participate in physical exercise experience greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness. Studies have shown that academic stress in youth increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in later years; however, these risks can be greatly decreased with regular physical exercise. There is a dose-response relationship between the amount of exercise performed from approximately  
kcal The calorie is a unit of energy Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action, a di ...
of energy expenditure per week and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and elderly men. The greatest potential for reduced mortality is seen in sedentary individuals who become moderately active. Studies have shown that since heart disease is the leading cause of death in women, regular exercise in aging women leads to healthier cardiovascular profiles. Most beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease mortality can be attained through moderate-intensity activity (40–60% of maximal oxygen uptake, depending on age). Persons who modify their behavior after myocardial infarction to include regular exercise have improved rates of survival. Persons who remain sedentary have the highest risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. According to the
American Heart Association The American Heart Association (AHA) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collectiv ...
, exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including
heart attack A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow Hemodynamics American and British English spelling differences#ae and oe, or haemodynamics are the Fluid dynamics, dynamics of blood flow. The circulatory sy ...
and
stroke A stroke is a medical condition A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Di ...

stroke
.


Immune system

Although there have been hundreds of studies on physical exercise and the
immune system The immune system is a network of biological processes that protects an organism from diseases. It detects and responds to a wide variety of pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, as well as Tumor immunology, cancer cells and objects such ...
, there is little direct evidence on its connection to illness.
Epidemiological Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where), patterns and determinants In mathematics, the determinant is a Scalar (mathematics), scalar value that is a function (mathematics), function of the entries of a s ...
evidence suggests that moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on the human
immune system The immune system is a network of biological processes that protects an organism from diseases. It detects and responds to a wide variety of pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, as well as Tumor immunology, cancer cells and objects such ...
; an effect which is modeled in a
J curve A J curve is any of a variety of J-shaped diagrams where a curve initially falls, then steeply rises above the starting point. Balance of trade model In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch ...

J curve
. Moderate exercise has been associated with a 29% decreased incidence of
upper respiratory tract infection An upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is an illness caused by an acute infection, which involves the upper respiratory tract, including the nose, Paranasal sinus, sinuses, pharynx, or larynx. This commonly includes nasal obstruction, sore ...
s (URTI), but studies of marathon runners found that their prolonged high-intensity exercise was associated with an increased risk of infection occurrence. However, another study did not find the effect. Immune cell functions are impaired following acute sessions of prolonged, high-intensity exercise, and some studies have found that athletes are at a higher risk for infections. Studies have shown that strenuous stress for long durations, such as training for a marathon, can suppress the immune system by decreasing the concentration of lymphocytes. The immune systems of athletes and nonathletes are generally similar. Athletes may have a slightly elevated
natural killer cell Natural killer cells, also known as NK cells or large granular lymphocytes (LGL), are a type of cytotoxic Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances c ...

natural killer cell
count and cytolytic action, but these are unlikely to be clinically significant. Vitamin C supplementation has been associated with a lower incidence of
upper respiratory tract infection An upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is an illness caused by an acute infection, which involves the upper respiratory tract, including the nose, Paranasal sinus, sinuses, pharynx, or larynx. This commonly includes nasal obstruction, sore ...
s in marathon runners.
Biomarker A biomarker, or biological marker is a measurable indicator Indicator may refer to: Biology * Indicator (genus), ''Indicator'' (genus), a genus of birds in the honeyguide family * Environmental indicator of environmental health (pressures, cond ...
s of
inflammation Inflammation (from la, inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anato ...
such as
C-reactive protein C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped) pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose circulating concentrations rise in response to inflammation. It is an acute-phase protein of hepatic origin that increases following interleukin-6 s ...

C-reactive protein
, which are associated with chronic diseases, are reduced in active individuals relative to sedentary individuals, and the positive effects of exercise may be due to its anti-inflammatory effects. In individuals with heart disease, exercise interventions lower blood levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, an important cardiovascular risk marker. The depression in the immune system following acute bouts of exercise may be one of the mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory effect.


Cancer

A systematic review evaluated 45 studies that examined the relationship between physical activity and cancer survival rates. According to the review, "
here Here is an adverb that means "in, on, or at this place". It may also refer to: Software * Here Technologies Here Technologies (trading as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ...
was consistent evidence from 27 observational studies that physical activity is associated with reduced all-cause, breast cancer–specific, and colon cancer–specific mortality. There is currently insufficient evidence regarding the association between physical activity and mortality for survivors of other cancers." Evidence suggests that exercise may positively affect the quality of life in cancer survivors, including factors such as anxiety, self-esteem and emotional well-being. For people with cancer undergoing active treatment, exercise may also have positive effects on health-related quality of life, such as fatigue and physical functioning. This is likely to be more pronounced with higher intensity exercise. Exercise may contribute to a reduction of cancer-related fatigue in survivors of
breast cancer Breast cancer is cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most o ...

breast cancer
. Although there is only limited scientific evidence on the subject, people with cancer cachexia are encouraged to engage in physical exercise. Due to various factors, some individuals with cancer cachexia have a limited capacity for physical exercise.
Compliance Compliance can mean: Healthcare * Compliance (medicine) In medicine, patient compliance (also adherence, capacitance) describes the degree to which a patient correctly follows medical advice. Most commonly, it refers to medication or drug compli ...
with prescribed exercise is low in individuals with cachexia and clinical trials of exercise in this population often suffer from high drop-out rates. Many go as far as to argue that supervised high-intensity resistance training should be made a critical part of rehabilitation for breast cancer survivors as it increases overall quality of life. There is low-quality evidence for an effect of aerobic physical exercises on anxiety and serious adverse events in adults with
hematological malignancies Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United ...
. Aerobic physical exercise may result in little to no difference in the mortality, quality of life, or physical functioning. These exercises may result in a slight reduction in depression and reduction in fatigue.


Neurobiological


Depression

Continuous aerobic exercise can induce a transient state of
euphoria Euphoria ( ) is the experience (or affect Affect may refer to: * Affect (education) * Affect (linguistics), attitude or emotion that a speaker brings to an utterance * Affect (philosophy) * Affect (psychology), the experience of feeling or e ...

euphoria
, colloquially known as a "runner's high" in
distance running Long-distance running, or endurance running, is a form of continuous running over distances of at least . Physiologically, it is largely aerobic in nature and requires stamina as well as mental strength. Among mammals, humans are well adapte ...
or a "rower's high" in
crew A crew is a body or a class of people who work at a common activity, generally in a structured or hierarchical A hierarchy (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, ca ...
, through the increased biosynthesis of at least three
euphoriant Euphoria ( ) is the experience (or affect Affect may refer to: * Affect (education) * Affect (linguistics), attitude or emotion that a speaker brings to an utterance * Affect (philosophy) * Affect (psychology), the experience of feeling or e ...
neurochemicals:
anandamide Anandamide (ANA), also known as ''N''-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), is a fatty acid neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit a signal from a neuron across the synapse to a target cell, which can be a differe ...

anandamide
(an
endocannabinoid Cannabinoids () are compounds found in cannabis. The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Delta9-THC or Delta8-THC), the primary psychoactive drug, psychoactive compound in cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is anot ...

endocannabinoid
),
β-endorphin Beta-Endorphin or β-Endorphin, is an endogenous Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within a system such as an organism, Tissue (biology), tissue, or Cell (biology), cell. Endogenous substances and processes co ...
(an endogenous opioid), and
phenethylamine Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Ca ...

phenethylamine
(a
trace amine Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters. Compared to the ...
and
amphetamine Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living orga ...

amphetamine
analog).


Sleep

Preliminary evidence from a 2012 review indicated that physical training for up to four months may increase sleep quality in adults over 40 years of age. A 2010 review suggested that exercise generally improved
sleep Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is or of internal and external existence. Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and deba ...

sleep
for most people, and may help with
insomnia Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of an individual's sleep patterns. Some sleep disorders are severe enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and ...

insomnia
, but there is insufficient evidence to draw detailed conclusions about the relationship between exercise and sleep. A 2018 systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that exercise can improve sleep quality in people with insomnia.


Libido

One 2013 study found that exercising improved sexual arousal problems related to antidepressant use.


Mechanism of effects


Skeletal muscle

Resistance training and subsequent consumption of a protein-rich meal promotes
muscle hypertrophy Muscle hypertrophy or muscle building involves a hypertrophy or increase in size of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle (also called striated muscle - although cardiac muscle is also striated) is one of three major muscle types, the others being ca ...
and gains in
muscle strength Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are Organ (biology), organs of the vertebrate muscular system that are mostly attached by tendons to bones of the skeleton. The muscle cells of skeletal muscles are much longer than in the other ...
by stimulating myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and inhibiting muscle protein breakdown (MPB). The stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by resistance training occurs via
phosphorylation In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...

phosphorylation
of the
mechanistic target of rapamycin The mammalian target of rapamycin Sirolimus, also known as rapamycin, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis. It has ...
(mTOR) and subsequent activation of
mTORC1 mTORC1, also known as mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1, is a protein complex is a protein complex functioning as a molecular biological machine A molecular machine, nanite, or nanomachine i ...
, which leads to
protein biosynthesis Protein biosynthesis (or protein synthesis) is a core biological process, occurring inside cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a small ro ...
in cellular
ribosome Ribosomes ( ), also called Palade granules, are molecular machine, macromolecular machines, found within all cell (biology), cells, that perform Translation (biology), biological protein synthesis (mRNA translation). Ribosomes link amino acids ...

ribosome
s via phosphorylation of mTORC1's immediate targets (the
p70S6 kinase Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1), also known as p70S6 kinase (p70S6K, p70-S6K), is an enzyme (specifically, a protein kinase) that in humans is encoded by the ''RPS6KB1'' gene. It is a serine/threonine kinase that acts downstream of Phosph ...
and the
translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discusse ...

translation
repressor protein
4EBP1 Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (also known as 4E-BP1) is a protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ra ...
). The suppression of muscle protein breakdown following food consumption occurs primarily via increases in
plasma Plasma or plasm may refer to: Science * Plasma (physics), one of the four fundamental states of matter * Plasma (mineral) or heliotrope, a mineral aggregate * Quark–gluon plasma, a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics Biology * Blood plasma ...
insulin Insulin (, from Latin ''insula'', 'island') is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main Anabolism, anabolic hormone of the body. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and p ...

insulin
. Similarly, increased muscle protein synthesis (via activation of mTORC1) and suppressed muscle protein breakdown (via insulin-independent mechanisms) has also been shown to occur following ingestion of
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB), otherwise known as its conjugate base, , is a natural product, naturally produced substance in humans that is used as a dietary supplement and as an ingredient in certain medical foods that are intended ...
. Aerobic exercise induces
mitochondrial biogenesis Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which cells increase mitochondria A mitochondrion (; ) is a double-membrane A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules ...
and an increased capacity for
oxidative phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation (UK , US ) or electron transport-linked phosphorylation or terminal oxidation is the metabolic pathway In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell (biology), c ...

oxidative phosphorylation
in the
mitochondria A mitochondrion (; ) is a double-membrane A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or other small particles. Biological membranes include cell membranes ...

mitochondria
of skeletal muscle, which is one mechanism by which aerobic exercise enhances submaximal endurance performance. These effects occur via an exercise-induced increase in the intracellular AMP:
ATP ATP may refer to: Companies and organizations * Association of Tennis Professionals * American Technical Publishers * ', a Danish pension * Armenia Tree Project * Association for Transpersonal Psychology * ATP architects engineers office * ATP ...

ATP
ratio, thereby triggering the activation of
AMP-activated protein kinase 5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme Enzymes () are protein Proteins are large s and s that comprise one or more long chains of . Proteins perform a vast array of ...
(AMPK) which subsequently phosphorylates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), the
master regulatorIn genetics, a master regulator is a gene at the top of a gene regulation hierarchy, particularly in regulatory pathways related to cell fate and cellular differentiation, differentiation. Examples Most genes considered master regulators code for tr ...
of mitochondrial biogenesis.


Other peripheral organs

Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as
myokineA myokine is one of several hundred cytokine Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that are comprised of one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residue ...
s which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and multiple anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases. Exercise reduces levels of
cortisol Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones. When used as a medication, it is known as hydrocortisone. It is produced in many animals, mainly by the ''zona fasciculata'' of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. ...

cortisol
, which causes many health problems, both physical and mental. Endurance exercise before meals lowers
blood glucose The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the concentration of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals. Glucose is a simple sugar, and approximately 4 g of glucose are present in the blood of a 70 ...
more than the same exercise after meals. There is evidence that vigorous exercise (90–95% of VO2 max) induces a greater degree of physiological
cardiac hypertrophy Ventricular hypertrophy (VH) is thickening of the walls of a ventricle (lower chamber) of the heart The heart is a muscular MUSCULAR (DS-200B), located in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ...
than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 max), but it is unknown whether this has any effects on overall morbidity and/or mortality. Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training).
Ventricular hypertrophy Ventricular hypertrophy (VH) is thickening of the walls of a ventricle (lower chamber) of the heart The heart is a muscular MUSCULAR (DS-200B), located in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ...
, the thickening of the ventricular walls, is generally beneficial and healthy if it occurs in response to exercise.


Central nervous system

The effects of physical exercise on the
central nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecu ...

central nervous system
are mediated in part by specific
neurotrophic factor Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of biomolecule A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the p ...
hormones that are released into the blood stream by muscles, including
BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin, is a protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max P ...
,
IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a hormone similar in tertiary structure, molecular structure to insulin which plays an important role in childhood growth, and has Anabolism, anabolic effects in adults. IGF-1 i ...
, and
VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by many cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels. To be specific, VEGF is a sub-family of growth factors ...
.


Public health measures

Multiple component community-wide campaigns are frequently used in an attempt to increase a population's level of physical activity. A 2015 Cochrane review, however, did not find evidence supporting a benefit. The quality of the underlying evidence was also poor. However, there is some evidence that school-based interventions can increase activity levels and fitness in children. Another Cochrane review found some evidence that certain types of exercise programmes, such as those involving gait, balance, co-ordination and functional tasks, can improve balance in older adults. Following progressive resistance training, older adults also respond with improved physical function. Survey of brief interventions promoting physical activity found that they are cost-effective, although there are variations between studies. Environmental approaches appear promising: signs that encourage the use of stairs, as well as community campaigns, may increase exercise levels. The city of
Bogotá Bogotá (, also , , ), officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santa Fe de Bogotá during the Spanish period and between 1991 and 2000, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Colombia, a ...

Bogotá
,
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
, for example, blocks off of roads on Sundays and holidays to make it easier for its citizens to get exercise. Such
pedestrian zone Pedestrian zones (also known as auto-free zones and car-free zones, as pedestrian precincts in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is ...
s are part of an effort to combat chronic diseases and to maintain a healthy . To identify which public health strategies are effective, a Cochrane overview of reviews is in preparation. Physical exercise was said to decrease healthcare costs, increase the rate of job attendance, as well as increase the amount of effort women put into their jobs. There is some level of concern about additional exposure to air pollution when exercising outdoors, especially near traffic. Children will mimic the behavior of their parents in relation to physical exercise. Parents can thus promote physical activity and limit the amount of time children spend in front of screens. Children who are overweight and participate in physical exercise experience a greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States, children and adolescents should do 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day. Implementing physical exercise in the school system and ensuring an environment in which children can reduce barriers to maintain a healthy lifestyle is essential. The
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes a ...

European Commission
's Directorate-General for Education and Culture (DG EAC) has dedicated programs and funds for Health Enhancing Physical Activity (HEPA) projects within its
Horizon 2020 The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP9, are funding programmes created by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic uni ...
and
Erasmus+ Erasmus+ is the European Commission's Programme for education, training, youth and sport for the period 2014–2020, succeeding the previous Lifelong Learning Programme (2007–2014). As an integrated programme, Erasmus+ offers more opportunities ...

Erasmus+
program, as research showed that too many Europeans are not physically active enough. Financing is available for increased collaboration between players active in this field across the EU and around the world, the promotion of HEPA in the EU and its partner countries, and the European Sports Week. The DG EAC regularly publishes a
Eurobarometer Eurobarometer is a series of public opinion Public opinion is the collective opinion of the people of a society on a specific topic or voting intention. Democracy requires public opinion because it derives authority from the public. Etymolog ...
on sport and physical activity.


Exercise trends

Worldwide there has been a large shift toward less physically demanding work. This has been accompanied by increasing use of mechanized transportation, a greater prevalence of labor-saving technology in the home, and fewer active recreational pursuits. Personal lifestyle changes, however, can correct the lack of physical exercise. Research published in 2015 suggests that incorporating mindfulness into physical exercise interventions increases exercise adherence and self-efficacy, and also has positive effects both psychologically and physiologically. File:Woman running barefoot on beach.jpg, Running helps in achieving
physical fitness Physical fitness is a state of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refers to what is intrinsically valuable relative ''to' ...
. File:Cruising on a Board.jpg, Skateboarding is good for cardiovascular health File:IDHM Wasserspringen 2018-02-18 3m mixed Vorkampf Sprung 3 18.jpg, Swimming as an exercise tones muscles and builds strength. File:2018 USA Indoor Track and Field Championships (40357948141).jpg, Sport of athletics, Athletics (ex. pole vault) as a form of exercise File:Cristiano Ronaldo Iran vs Portugal.jpg, Association football, Football as an exercise


Social and cultural variation

Exercising looks different in every country, as do the motivations behind exercising. In some countries, people exercise primarily indoors (such as at home or health clubs), while in others, people primarily exercise outdoors. People may exercise for personal enjoyment, health and well-being, social interactions, competition or training, etc. These differences could potentially be attributed to a variety of reasons including geographic location and social tendencies. In Colombia, for example, citizens value and celebrate the outdoor environments of their country. In many instances, they utilize outdoor activities as social gatherings to enjoy nature and their communities. In Bogotá, Colombia, a 70-mile stretch of road known as the Ciclovía is shut down each Sunday for bicyclists, runners, rollerbladers, skateboarders and other exercisers to work out and enjoy their surroundings. Similarly to Colombia, citizens of Cambodia tend to exercise socially outside. In this country, public gyms have become quite popular. People will congregate at these outdoor gyms not only to utilize the public facilities, but also to organize aerobics and dance sessions, which are open to the public. Sweden has also begun developing outdoor gyms, called ''utegym''. These gyms are free to the public and are often placed in beautiful, picturesque environments. People will swim in rivers, use boats, and run through forests to stay healthy and enjoy the natural world around them. This works particularly well in Sweden due to its geographical location. Exercise in some areas of China, particularly among those who are retired, seems to be socially grounded. In the mornings, Square dancing (China), square dances are held in public parks; these gatherings may include Latin dancing, ballroom dancing, tango, or even the jitterbug. Dancing in public allows people to interact with those with whom they would not normally interact, allowing for both health and social benefits. These sociocultural variations in physical exercise show how people in different geographic locations and social climates have varying motivations and methods of exercising. Physical exercise can improve health and well-being, as well as enhance community ties and appreciation of natural beauty.


Nutrition and recovery

Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of Macronutrient (nutrition), macronutrients while providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise. Active recovery is recommended after participating in physical exercise because it removes lactic acid, lactate from the blood more quickly than inactive recovery. Removing lactate from circulation allows for an easy decline in body temperature, which can also benefit the immune system, as an individual may be vulnerable to minor illnesses if the body temperature drops too abruptly after physical exercise. Exercise has an effect on appetite, but whether it increases or decreases appetite varies from individual to individual, and is affected by the intensity and duration of the exercise.


Excessive exercise

Excessive exercise or overtraining occurs when a person exceeds their body's ability to recover from strenuous exercise.


History

The benefits of exercise have been known since antiquity. Dating back to 65 BCE, it was Cicero, Marcus Cicero, Roman politician and lawyer, who stated: "It is exercise alone that supports the spirits, and keeps the mind in vigor." Exercise was also seen to be valued later in history during the Early Middle Ages as a means of survival by the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe. More recently, exercise was regarded as a beneficial force in the 19th century. In 1858 Archibald MacLaren opened a gymnasium at the University of Oxford and instituted a training regimen for Major Frederick Hammersley (born 1824), Frederick Hammersley and 12 non-commissioned officers. This regimen was assimilated into the training of the British Army, which formed the Royal Army Physical Training Corps, Army Gymnastic Staff in 1860 and made sport an important part of military life. Several mass exercise movements were started in the early twentieth century as well. The first and most significant of these in the UK was the Women's League of Health and Beauty, founded in 1930 by Mary Bagot Stack, that had 166,000 members in 1937. The link between physical health and exercise (or lack of it) was further established in 1949 and reported in 1953 by a team led by Jerry Morris. Dr. Morris noted that men of similar social class and occupation (bus conductors versus bus drivers) had markedly different rates of heart attacks, depending on the level of exercise they got: bus drivers had a sedentary occupation and a higher incidence of heart disease, while bus conductors were forced to move continually and had a lower incidence of heart disease.


Other animals

Studies of animals indicate that physical activity may be more adaptable than changes in food intake to regulate energy homeostasis, energy balance. Mouse, Mice having access to Hamster wheel, activity wheels engaged in voluntary exercise and increased their propensity to run as adults. Selective breeding, Artificial selection of mice exhibited significant heredity, heritability in voluntary exercise levels, with "high-runner" breeds having enhanced VO2 max, aerobic capacity, hippocampus, hippocampal neurogenesis, and skeletal muscle morphology (biology), morphology. The effects of exercise training appear to be heterogeneous across non-mammalian species. As examples, exercise training of salmon showed minor improvements of endurance, and a forced swimming regimen of yellowtail amberjack and rainbow trout accelerated their growth rates and altered muscle morphology favorable for sustained swimming. Crocodiles, alligators, and ducks showed elevated aerobic capacity following exercise training. No effect of endurance training was found in most studies of lizards, although one study did report a training effect. In lizards, Sprint (running), sprint training had no effect on maximal exercise capacity, and muscular damage from over-training occurred following weeks of forced treadmill exercise.


See also

* Active living * Behavioural change theories * Bodybuilding * Exercise hypertension * Exercise-induced nausea * Exercise intensity * Exercise intolerance * Exercise-induced anaphylaxis * Exercise-induced asthma * Kinesiology * Metabolic equivalent * Non-exercise associated thermogenesis * Neurobiological effects of physical exercise * Supercompensation * Warming up


References


External links


Adult Compendium of Physical Activities
– a website containing lists of Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) values for a number of physical activities, based upon
Physical activity and the environment
– guidance on the promotion and creation of physical environments that support increased levels of physical activity.



{{Authority control Physical exercise, Management of obesity