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Silicate minerals are rock-forming
mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. Rafferty, ed. (2 ...

mineral
s made up of
silicate In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of
Earth's crust Earth's crust is a thin shell on the outside of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The ...
. In
mineralogy Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical mineralogy, optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifact (archaeology), artifacts. Specific st ...

mineralogy
,
silica Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide An oxide () is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any su ...

silica
(silicon dioxide) is usually considered a silicate mineral. Silica is found in nature as the mineral
quartz Quartz is a hard, crystalline mineral composed of silica (silicon dioxide). The atoms are linked in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon-oxygen Tetrahedral molecular geometry, tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, ...

quartz
, and its polymorphs. On Earth, a wide variety of silicate minerals occur in an even wider range of combinations as a result of the processes that have been forming and re-working the crust for billions of years. These processes include partial
melting Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiari ...

melting
,
crystallization Crystallization or crystallisation is the process by which a solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter 4 (four) is a number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising ...

crystallization
,
fractionation Fractionation is a separation process A separation process is a method that converts a mixture or solution of chemical substances into two or more distinct product mixtures. At least one of results of the separation is enriched in one or more of ...
,
metamorphism Metamorphism is the change of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs nat ...
,
weathering Weathering is the deterioration of Rock (geology), rocks, soils and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with water, atmospheric gases, and biological organisms. Weathering occurs ''in situ'' (on site, with little o ...
, and
diagenesis Diagenesis () is the process that describes physical and chemical changes in sediments Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering Weathering is the deterioration of rocks In geology ...
. Living organisms also contribute to this geologic cycle. For example, a type of
plankton Plankton are the diverse collection of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology ...

plankton
known as
diatom Diatoms (''diá-tom-os'' 'cut in half', from ''diá'', 'through' or 'apart', and the root of ''tém-n-ō'', 'I cut') are a major group of algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of s. It is a grou ...

diatom
s construct their
exoskeleton An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, ''éxō'' "outer" and σκελετός, ''skeletós'' "skeleton") is the external skeleton A skeleton is a structural frame that supports an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular ...

exoskeleton
s ("frustules") from silica extracted from
seawater Seawater, or salt water, is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for al ...

seawater
. The frustules of dead diatoms are a major constituent of
deep ocean The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean The ocean (also the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which co ...
sediment Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently sediment transport, transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. ...

sediment
, and of
diatomaceous earth Diatomaceous earth (), diatomite (), or kieselgur/kieselguhr is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous rock, siliceous sedimentary rock that can be crumbled into a fine shades of white, white to off-white powder. It has a particle size ranging ...
.


General structure

A silicate mineral is generally an
ionic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
whose
anion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ...
s consist predominantly of
silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a Tetravalence, tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member ...

silicon
and
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
atoms. In most minerals in the Earth's crust, each silicon atom is the center of an ideal tetrahedron, whose corners are four oxygen atoms
covalent A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and take ...

covalent
ly bound to it. Two adjacent tetrahedra may share a vertex, meaning that the oxygen atom is a bridge connecting the two silicon atoms. An unpaired vertex represents an ionized oxygen atom, covalently bound to a single silicon atom, that contributes one unit of negative charge to the anion. Some silicon centers may be replaced by atoms of other elements, still bound to the four corner oxygen corners. If the substituted atom is not normally tetravalent, it usually contributes extra charge to the anion, which then requires extra
cation An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are u ...
s. For example, in the mineral
orthoclase Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember An endmember (also end-member or end member) in mineralogy Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical ...

orthoclase
, the anion is a tridimensional network of tetrahedra in which all oxygen corners are shared. If all tetrahedra had silicon centers, the anion would be just neutral silica . Replacement of one in every four silicon atoms by an
aluminum Aluminium (aluminum in American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the Uni ...

aluminum
atom results in the anion , whose charge is neutralized by the
potassium Potassium is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, b ...

potassium
cations .


Main groups

In
mineralogy Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical mineralogy, optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifact (archaeology), artifacts. Specific st ...

mineralogy
,
silicate minerals Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of Earth's crust. In mineralogy, silica (silicon dioxide) is usually conside ...
are classified into seven major groups according to the structure of their silicate anion:Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis , , 1985). ''Manual of Mineralogy'', Wiley, (20th edition ed.). Note that tectosilicates can only have additional cations if some of the silicon is replaced by an atom of lower valence such as aluminium. Al for Si substitution is common.


Nesosilicates or orthosilicates

Nesosilicates (from Greek 'island'), or orthosilicates, have the orthosilicate ion, which constitute isolated (insular)
tetrahedra In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position ...
that are connected only by interstitial
cation An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are u ...
s. The
Nickel–Strunz classification Nickel–Strunz classification is a scheme for categorizing mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Eart ...
is 09.A –examples include: *Phenakite group **
Phenakite Phenakite or phenacite is a fairly rare Silicate minerals, nesosilicate mineral consisting of beryllium Silicate minerals#Nesosilicates or orthosilicates, orthosilicate, beryllium, Be2silicon, Sioxygen, O4. Occasionally used as a gemstone, phenakit ...

Phenakite
– **
Willemite Willemite is a zinc Zinc is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Zinc is a slightly brittle metal at room temperature and has a silvery-greyish appearance when oxidation is removed. It is the first el ...

Willemite
– *
Olivine The mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.John P. ...

Olivine
group **
Forsterite Forsterite (Mg2SiO4; commonly abbreviated as Fo; also known as white olivine) is the magnesium-rich Endmember, end-member of the olivine solid solution series. It is Isomorphism (crystallography), isomorphous with the iron-rich end-member, fayalit ...

Forsterite
– **
Fayalite Fayalite (, commonly abbreviated to Fa) is the iron-rich endmember, end-member of the olivine solid solution, solid-solution series. In common with all minerals in the olivine, olivine group, fayalite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system (spac ...

Fayalite
– **
Tephroite Tephroite is the manganese Manganese is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike c ...
– *
Garnet Garnets () are a group of silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science c ...

Garnet
group **
Pyrope The mineral pyrope is a member of the garnet Garnets () are a group of silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ...

Pyrope
– **
Almandine Almandine (), also known as almandite, is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet Garnets () are a group of silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''g ...

Almandine
– **
Spessartine Spessartine is a nesosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of Earth's crust. In mineralogy, silica (sil ...

Spessartine
– **
Grossular Grossular is a calcium Calcium is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ca and atomic number 20. As an alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical a ...

Grossular
– **
Andradite Andradite is a species of the garnet group. It is a nesosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of Earth's ...
– **
Uvarovite Uvarovite is a chromium-bearing garnet group species with the formula: calcium, Ca3chromium, Cr2(silicon, Sioxygen, O4)3. It was discovered in 1832 by Germain Henri Hess who named it after Count Sergei Semenovitch Uvarov (1765–1855), a Russian st ...

Uvarovite
– ** Hydrogrossular – *Zircon group **
Zircon Zircon ( or ) is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in ...

Zircon
– **
Thorite Thorite, (Th,U)SiO4, is a rare nesosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concern ...
– **
Hafnon Hafnon is a hafnium nesosilicate mineral, chemical formula or . In natural zircon part of the zirconium is replaced by the very similar hafnium and so natural zircon is never pure . A zircon with 100% hafnium substitution can be made synthetical ...

Hafnon
– * group **
Andalusite Andalusite is an aluminium Silicate minerals, nesosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5. This mineral was called andalousite by Delamétehrie, who thought it came from Andalusia. It soon became clear that it was a locality error, and t ...

Andalusite
– **
Kyanite Kyanite is a typically blue aluminosilicate Aluminosilicate mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid ...

Kyanite
– **
Sillimanite Sillimanite is an aluminosilicate Aluminosilicate mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the ...

Sillimanite
– **
Dumortierite Dumortierite is a fibrous variably colored aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in American English, American and Canadian English) is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density ...
– **
Topaz Topaz ( ) is a silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned wit ...

Topaz
– **
Staurolite Staurolite is a reddish brown to black, mostly opaque, nesosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of Earth ...

Staurolite
– *
Humite Humite is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.J ...

Humite
group – ** Norbergite – **
Chondrodite Chondrodite is a nesosilicate mineral with formula . Although it is a fairly rare mineral, it is the most frequently encountered member of the humite group Humite is a mineral found in the volcanically ejected masses of Vesuvius. It was first ...

Chondrodite
– **
Humite Humite is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.J ...

Humite
– **
Clinohumite Clinohumite is an uncommon member of the Humite (mineral group), humite group, a magnesium silicate according to the chemical formula (magnesium, Mg, iron, Fe)9(silicon, Sioxygen, O4)4(fluorine, F,Ohydrogen, H)2. The formula can be thought of as ...

Clinohumite
– *
Datolite Datolite is a calcium boron hydroxide Silicate minerals, nesosilicate, calcium, Caboron, Bsilicon, Sioxygen, O4(Ohydrogen, H). It was first observed by Jens Esmark in 1806, and named by him from δατεῖσθαι, "to divide," and λίθος, "st ...

Datolite
– *
Titanite Titanite, or sphene (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populat ...

Titanite
– * Chloritoid – *
Mullite Mullite or porcelainite is a rare silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth scienc ...
(aka Porcelainite) –


Sorosilicates

Sorosilicates (from Greek 'heap, mound') have isolated pyrosilicate anions , consisting of double tetrahedra with a shared oxygen vertex—a silicon:oxygen ratio of 2:7. The Nickel–Strunz classification is 09.B. Examples include: *
Hemimorphite Hemimorphite is the chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by ...

Hemimorphite
(
calamine Calamine, also known as calamine lotion, is a medication used to treat mild itchiness Itch (also known as pruritus or automatic tickle) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex In biology Biology is the natural science that stu ...
) – *
Lawsonite Lawsonite is a hydrous calcium aluminium sorosilicate mineral with formula CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2·H2O. Lawsonite crystallizes in the orthorhombicIn crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems. Orthorhombic Lattice (gr ...
– *
Axinite
Axinite
– *
Ilvaite
Ilvaite
– *Epidote group (has both and groups} **
Epidote Epidote is a calcium Calcium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical ...

Epidote
– **
Zoisite Zoisite, first known as saualpite, after its type locality, is a calcium Calcium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of prot ...
– ***
Tanzanite Tanzanite is the blue and violet variety of the mineral zoisite (a calcium aluminium hydroxyl sorosilicate), caused by small amounts of vanadium Vanadium is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodi ...

Tanzanite
– **
Clinozoisite Clinozoisite is a complex calcium aluminium sorosilicate mineral with formula: Ca2Al3(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH). It forms a continuous solid solution series with epidote by substitution of iron(III) in the aluminium (m3 site) and is also called ''aluminiu ...
– **
Allanite Allanite (also called orthite) is a sorosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science c ...
– **
Dollaseite-(Ce)
Dollaseite-(Ce)
– *
Vesuvianite Vesuvianite, also known as idocrase, is a green, brown, yellow, or blue silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study o ...

Vesuvianite
(
idocrase
idocrase
) –


Cyclosilicates

Cyclosilicates (from Greek 'circle'), or ring silicates, have three or more tetrahedra linked in a ring. The general formula is (Si''x''O3''x'')2''x''−, where one or more silicon atoms can be replaced by other 4-coordinated atom(s). The silicon:oxygen ratio is 1:3. Double rings have the formula (Si2''x''O5''x'')2''x''− or a 2:5 ratio. The Nickel–Strunz classification is 09.C. Possible ring sizes include: File:Beryll.ring.combined.png, 6 units ,
beryl Beryl ( ) is a mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which i ...

beryl
(red: Si, blue: O) File:Benitoid.2200.png, 3 units ,
benitoite Benitoite () is a rare blue barium titanium silicate mineral, cyclosilicate, found in hydrothermal, hydrothermally altered serpentinite. It forms in low temperature, high pressure environments typical of subduction zones at Convergent boundary, con ...

benitoite
File:Papagoite.2200.png, 4 units , File:Eudialyte.2200.png, 9 units ,
eudialyte Eudialyte, whose name derives from the Greek language, Greek phrase Εὖ διάλυτος ''eu'' ''dialysis, dialytos'', meaning "well decomposable", is a somewhat rare, nine member ring cyclosilicate mineral, which forms in alkaline igneous rock ...

eudialyte
File:Milarite.png, 6 units, double ring ,
Some example minerals are: * 3-member single ring **
Benitoite Benitoite () is a rare blue barium titanium silicate mineral, cyclosilicate, found in hydrothermal, hydrothermally altered serpentinite. It forms in low temperature, high pressure environments typical of subduction zones at Convergent boundary, con ...

Benitoite
– * 4-member single ring **
Papagoite
Papagoite
– . * 6-member single ring **
Beryl Beryl ( ) is a mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which i ...

Beryl
– ** Bazzite – **
Sugilite
Sugilite
– **
Tourmaline Tourmaline ( ) is a crystalline A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecules in a solid are closely packed together ...

Tourmaline
– ** Pezzottaite – **
Osumilite Osumilite is a very rare potassium-sodium-iron-magnesium-aluminium silicate mineral. Osumilite is part of the milarite group (also known as the milarite-osumilite group) of cyclosilicates. Characteristics Osumilite chemical formula is .Don S. G ...
– **
Cordierite Cordierite (mineralogy) or iolite (gemology) is a magnesium iron aluminium Silicate minerals, cyclosilicate. Iron is almost always present and a solid solution exists between Mg-rich cordierite and Fe-rich sekaninaite with a series formula: to ...

Cordierite
– ** Sekaninaite – * 9-member single ring **
Eudialyte Eudialyte, whose name derives from the Greek language, Greek phrase Εὖ διάλυτος ''eu'' ''dialysis, dialytos'', meaning "well decomposable", is a somewhat rare, nine member ring cyclosilicate mineral, which forms in alkaline igneous rock ...

Eudialyte
– * 6-member double ring **
Milarite
Milarite
– Note that the ring in
axinite
axinite
contains two B and four Si tetrahedra and is highly distorted compared to the other 6-member ring cyclosilicates.


Inosilicates

Inosilicates (from Greek enitive: 'fibre'), or chain silicates, have interlocking chains of
silicate In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...

silicate
tetrahedra In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position ...
with either , 1:3 ratio, for single chains or , 4:11 ratio, for double chains. The Nickel–Strunz classification is 09.D – examples include:


Single chain inosilicates

*
Pyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming Silicate minerals#Inosilicates, inosilicate minerals found in many Igneous rock, igneous and metamorphic rock, metamorphic rock (geology), rocks. Pyroxenes have t ...
group **Enstatite – orthoferrosilite series ***
Enstatite Enstatite is a mineral; the magnesium endmember of the pyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming Silicate minerals#Inosilicates, inosilicate minerals found in many Igneous rock, igneous and me ...

Enstatite
– *** Ferrosilite – **
Pigeonite Pigeonite is a mineral in the clinopyroxene subgroup of the pyroxene group. It has a general formula of . The calcium cation fraction can vary from 5% to 25%, with iron and magnesium making up the rest of the cations. Pigeonite crystallizes in th ...
– **Diopside – hedenbergite series ***
Diopside Diopside is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral with composition . It forms complete solid solution series with hedenbergite () and augite, and partial solid solutions with orthopyroxene and pigeonite. It forms variably colored, but typically dull gr ...

Diopside
– ***
Hedenbergite Hedenbergite, CaFeSi2 O6, is the iron Iron () is a chemical element with Symbol (chemistry), symbol Fe (from la, Wikt:ferrum, ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal that belongs to the first transition series and group 8 element, group 8 ...

Hedenbergite
– ***
Augite Augite is a common rock-forming pyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming s found in many and . Pyroxenes have the general formula , where X represents (Ca), (Na), (Fe II) or (Mg) and m ...

Augite
– **Sodium pyroxene series ***
Jadeite Jadeite is a pyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming Silicate minerals#Inosilicates, inosilicate minerals found in many Igneous rock, igneous and metamorphic rock, metamorphic rock (geology ...

Jadeite
– ***
Aegirine Aegirine is a member of the clinopyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming s found in many and . Pyroxenes have the general formula , where X represents (Ca), (Na), (Fe II) or (Mg) and m ...

Aegirine
(or acmite) – **
Spodumene Spodumene is a pyroxene The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to ''Px'') are a group of important rock-forming Silicate minerals#Inosilicates, inosilicate minerals found in many Igneous rock, igneous and metamorphic rock, metamorphic rock (geolog ...

Spodumene
– **
Pyroxferroite Pyroxferroite (Fe2+,Ca)SiO3 is a single chain inosilicate. It is mostly composed of iron, silicon and oxygen, with smaller fractions of calcium and several other metals. Together with armalcolite and tranquillityite, it is one of the three minerals ...
- *Pyroxenoid group **
Wollastonite Wollastonite is a calcium Calcium is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ca and atomic number 20. As an alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physica ...

Wollastonite
– **
Rhodonite Rhodonite is a manganese silicate minerals, inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name c ...

Rhodonite
– **
Pectolite Pectolite is a white to gray mineral, sodium, Nacalcium, Ca2silicon, Si3oxygen, O8(Ohydrogen, H), sodium calcium hydroxide inosilicate. It crystallizes in the triclinic system typically occurring in radiated or fibrous crystalline masses. It has a M ...


Double chain inosilicates

*
Amphibole Amphibole () is a group of inosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of Earth's crust. In mineralogy, s ...

Amphibole
group **
Anthophyllite Anthophyllite is an amphibole mineral: ☐Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2 (☐ is for a vacancy, a point defect in the crystal structure), magnesium iron inosilicate hydroxide. Anthophyllite is polymorphic with cummingtonite. Some forms of anthophyllite ar ...

Anthophyllite
– **Cummingtonite series *** Cummingtonite – ***
Grunerite Grunerite is a mineral of the amphibole Amphibole () is a group of Silicate minerals, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedron, tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ...
– **Tremolite series ***
Tremolite Tremolite is a member of the amphibole Amphibole () is a group of Silicate minerals, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedron, tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containin ...

Tremolite
– ***
Actinolite Actinolite is an amphibole Amphibole () is a group of inosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of ...

Actinolite
– **
Hornblende Hornblende is a complex inosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of Earth's crust. In mineralogy, silica ...

Hornblende
– **Sodium amphibole group ***
Glaucophane Glaucophane is the name of a mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks o ...

Glaucophane
– ***
Riebeckite Riebeckite is a sodium Sodium is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms th ...

Riebeckite
(
asbestos Asbestos (pronounced: or ) is a naturally occurring fibrous silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fair ...
) – ***
Arfvedsonite Arfvedsonite is a sodium Sodium is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms ...

Arfvedsonite
File:Pyroxen-chain.png, Inosilicate, pyroxene family, with 2-periodic single chain ,
diopside Diopside is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral with composition . It forms complete solid solution series with hedenbergite () and augite, and partial solid solutions with orthopyroxene and pigeonite. It forms variably colored, but typically dull gr ...

diopside
File:Tremolite-chain.png, Inosilicate, clinoamphibole, with 2-periodic double chains ,
tremolite Tremolite is a member of the amphibole Amphibole () is a group of Silicate minerals, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedron, tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containin ...

tremolite
File:Wollastonite-chain.png, Inosilicate, unbranched 3-periodic single chain of
wollastonite Wollastonite is a calcium Calcium is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ca and atomic number 20. As an alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physica ...

wollastonite
File:Rhodonite-chain.png, Inosilicate with 5-periodic single chain,
rhodonite Rhodonite is a manganese silicate minerals, inosilicate, (Mn, Fe, Mg, Ca)SiO3 and member of the pyroxenoid group of minerals, crystallizing in the triclinic system. It commonly occurs as cleavable to compact masses with a rose-red color (the name c ...

rhodonite
File:Pellyite-chain.png, Inosilicate with cyclic branched 8-periodic chain,


Phyllosilicates

Phyllosilicates (from Greek 'leaf'), or sheet silicates, form parallel sheets of silicate tetrahedra with or a 2:5 ratio. The Nickel–Strunz classification is 09.E. All phyllosilicate minerals are
hydrate In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in th ...
d, with either
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
or
hydroxyl A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is a functional group with the chemical formula -OH and composed of one oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the ...

hydroxyl
groups attached. Examples include: *
Serpentine subgroup The serpentine subgroup (part of the kaolinite Kaolinite ( ) is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and ...
**
Antigorite
Antigorite
– **
Chrysotile Chrysotile or white asbestos is the most commonly encountered form of asbestos, accounting for approximately 95% of the asbestos in the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor (2007)29 C.F.R.&n ...

Chrysotile
– **
Lizardite Lizardite is a mineral from the serpentine Serpentine may refer to: Music * Serpentine (album), ''Serpentine'' (album), a 2002 goth metal album by Flowing Tears * Serpentine (song), "Serpentine" (song), a 2011 country song by Tiffany * Serpent ...
– *
Clay minerals Clay minerals are hydrous In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their ch ...
group **1:1 clay minerals (TO) ***
Halloysite Halloysite is an aluminosilicate clay mineral with the empirical formula Al2Si2O5(OH)4. Its main constituents are oxygen (55.78%), silicon (21.76%), aluminium (20.90%), and hydrogen (1.56%). Halloysite typically forms by hydrothermal alteration of ...

Halloysite
– ***
Kaolinite Kaolinite ( ) is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of in ...

Kaolinite
– **2:1 clay minerals (TOT) ***
Pyrophyllite Pyrophyllite is a phyllosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with t ...

Pyrophyllite
– ***
Talc Talc, or talcum, is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of ...

Talc
– ***
Illite Illite is a group of closely related non-expanding clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="glacial till, Northern Ireland">gla ...

Illite
– ***
Montmorillonite Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science c ...
(smectite) – ***
Chlorite The chlorite ion An ion () is an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects th ...
– ***
Vermiculite Vermiculite is a hydrous In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemi ...
– **Other clay minerals ***
Sepiolite Sepiolite, also known in English by the German name meerschaum ( , ; ; meaning "sea foam"), is a soft white clay mineral Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in American English, American and Canadian English) is a c ...
– ***
Palygorskite Palygorskite or attapulgite is a magnesium aluminium Silicate minerals, phyllosilicate with formula (Mg,aluminium, Al)2silicon, Si4oxygen, O10(Ohydrogen, H)·4(water, H2O) that occurs in a type of clay soil common to the Southeastern United State ...
(or attapulgite) – (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)*4(H2O) *
Mica Micas ( ) are a group of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs natural ...

Mica
group **
Biotite Biotite is a common group of Silicate minerals#Phyllosilicates, phyllosilicate minerals within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula . It is primarily a solid solution, solid-solution series between the iron-endmember annite, and ...

Biotite
– **
Fuchsite Fuchsite, also known as chrome mica, is a chromium (Cr) rich variety of the mineral muscovite, belonging to the mica group of phyllosilicate minerals, with the chemical formula . Trivalency, Trivalent chromium replaces one of the aluminium (Al) ato ...

Fuchsite
– **
Muscovite Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a hydrated phyllosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'' ...

Muscovite
– **
Phlogopite Phlogopite is a yellow, greenish, or reddish-brown member of the mica Micas ( ) are a group of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined ...

Phlogopite
– **
Lepidolite Lepidolite is a lilac ''Syringa vulgaris'', the lilac or common lilac, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversi ...

Lepidolite
– **
Margarite:''This article refers about a member of the mica group, and should not be confused with "Margarita (disambiguation), margarita".'' Margarite is a calcium rich member of the mica group of the Silicate minerals, phyllosilicates with formula: calcium ...
– **
Glauconite Glauconite is an iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's and . It is the fourth most common . In ...
File:Muskovite.sheet.png, Phyllosilicate, mica group,
muscovite Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a hydrated phyllosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'' ...

muscovite
(red: Si, blue: O) File:Apophyllite.sheet.png, Phyllosilicate, single net of tetrahedra with 4-membered rings,
apophyllite The name apophyllite refers to a specific group of phyllosilicates Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of Earth's ...
-(KF)-apophyllite-(KOH) series File:Pyrosmalite.sheet.png, Phyllosilicate, single tetrahedral nets of 6-membered rings, pyrosmalite-(Fe)-pyrosmalite-(Mn) series File:Zeophyllite.sheet.png, Phyllosilicate, single tetrahedral nets of 6-membered rings, zeophyllite File:Carletonite.sheet.png, Phyllosilicate, double nets with 4- and 6-membered rings,


Tectosilicates

Tectosilicates, or "framework silicates," have a three-dimensional framework of silicate
tetrahedra In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position ...
with in a 1:2 ratio. This group comprises nearly 75% of the crust of the
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wi ...

Earth
. Tectosilicates, with the exception of the quartz group, are
aluminosilicate Aluminosilicate mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure for ...
s. The Nickel–Strunz classifications are 09.F and 09.G, 04.DA (Quartz/ silica family). Examples include: *3D-Silicates, quartz family **
Quartz Quartz is a hard, crystalline mineral composed of silica (silicon dioxide). The atoms are linked in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon-oxygen Tetrahedral molecular geometry, tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, ...

Quartz
– **
Tridymite Tridymite is a high-temperature polymorph of silica Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide An oxide () is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In c ...

Tridymite
– **
Cristobalite Cristobalite is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure ...

Cristobalite
– **
Coesite Coesite is a form ( polymorph) of silicon dioxide Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is an oxide of rutile. Ti(IV) centers are grey; oxygen centers are red. Notice that oxygen forms three bonds to titanium and titanium forms six bonds to ...

Coesite
– **
Stishovite Stishovite is an extremely hard, dense tetragonal In crystallography Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure). The word "crystallography" is derived f ...

Stishovite
– **
Moganite Moganite is an oxide mineral The oxide mineral class includes those minerals in which the oxide anion (O2−) is bonded to one or more metal alloys. The hydroxide-bearing minerals are typically included in the oxide class. The minerals with c ...

Moganite
– **
Chalcedony Chalcedony () is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of quartz and moganite. These are both silica minerals, but they differ in that quartz has a trigonal crystal structure, while moganite is monoclinic. Chalced ...

Chalcedony
– *Tectosilicates,
feldspar Feldspars are a group of rock-forming aluminium Aluminium (aluminum in and ) is a with the  Al and  13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common , at approximately one third that of . It has a great affinity ...
group **Alkali feldspars (potassium feldspars) ***
Microcline Microcline (KAlSi3O8) is an important igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others being Sedimentary rock, sedimen ...

Microcline
– ***
Orthoclase Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember An endmember (also end-member or end member) in mineralogy Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical ...

Orthoclase
– ***
Anorthoclase The mineral anorthoclase ((Na,K)AlSi3O8) is a crystalline solid solution A solid solution describes a family of materials which have a range of compositions (e.g. AxB1−x) and a single crystal structure. Many examples can be found in metallur ...
– ***
Sanidine Sanidine is the high temperature form of potassium Potassium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the propert ...

Sanidine
– **
Plagioclase Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical compositio ...
feldspars ***
Albite Albite is a plagioclase Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well- ...

Albite
– ***
Oligoclase Oligoclase is a rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks ...
–      (Na:Ca 4:1) ***
Andesine Andesine is a silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with th ...
–      (Na:Ca 3:2) ***
Labradorite Labradorite ((Ca, Na)(Al, Si)4O8) is a calcium-enriched feldspar Feldspars are a group of rock-forming aluminium tectosilicate minerals, containing sodium, calcium, potassium or barium. The most common members of the feldspar group are the ' ...

Labradorite
–      (Na:Ca 2:3) ***
Bytownite Bytownite is a calcium rich member of the plagioclase solid solution series of feldspar minerals with composition between anorthite and labradorite. It is usually defined as having between 70 and 90%Anorthite, An (formula: (Ca0.7-0.9,Na0.3-0.1) l(A ...
–      (Na:Ca 1:4) ***Anorthite – *Tectosilicates, feldspathoid family **Nosean – **Cancrinite – **Leucite – **Nepheline – **Sodalite – **Hauyne – ***Lazurite – *Tectosilicates, scapolite group **Marialite – **
Meionite Meionite is a tectosilicate belonging to the scapolite group with the formula Ca4Al6Si6O24CO3. Some samples may also contain a sulfate group. It was first discovered in 1801 on Mt Somma, Vesuvius, Italy. It was named by Rene Just Haüy after μει ...
– *Tectosilicates,
zeolite Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate Aluminosilicate mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Ear ...

zeolite
family **
Natrolite Natrolite is a tectosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific ...

Natrolite
– **
Erionite Erionite is a naturally occurring fibrous mineral that belongs to a group of minerals called zeolites. It usually is found in volcanic ash , Chile, stretching across Patagonia from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. on April 17, 2010. Volcanic ...
– **
Chabazite
Chabazite
– **
Heulandite Heulandite is the name of a series of Silicate minerals, tecto-silicate minerals of the zeolite group. Prior to 1997, heulandite was recognized as a mineral species, but a reclassification in 1997 by the International Mineralogical Association ch ...

Heulandite
– **
Stilbite Stilbite is the name of a series of tectosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of Earth's crust. In minera ...

Stilbite
– **
Scolecite Scolecite is a tectosilicate Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups. They are the largest and most important class of minerals and make up approximately 90 percent of Earth's crust. In mineralogy, silica (silicon ...

Scolecite
– **
Mordenite Mordenite is a zeolite mineral with the chemical formula, (calcium, Ca, sodium, Na2, potassium, K2)aluminum, Al2silicon, Si10oxygen, O24·7water, H2O. and it is one of the six most abundant zeolites and is used commercially. It was first described ...
– **
Analcime Analcime or analcite (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...


See also

* * *


References


External links


Mindat.org, Dana classification

Webmineral : Dana's New Silicate Classification
{{Authority control ja:ケイ酸塩鉱物 pl:Krzemiany