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Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the
monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...

monarch
s of
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the
annexation Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, ...
of Egypt by the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
in 30 BCE, although the term "pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until
Merneptah Merneptah or Merenptah (reigned July or August 1213 BC – May 2, 1203 BC) was the fourth pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along th ...
, c. 1210 BCE, during the
Nineteenth dynasty The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XIX), also known as the Ramessid dynasty, is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom of Egypt, New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and t ...
, "king" being the term used most frequently until the middle of the Eighteenth Dynasty. In the early dynasties, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles: the
Horus Horus or Her, Heru, Hor, Har in Ancient Egyptian, is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities Ancient Egyptian deities are the God (male deity), gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt. The beliefs and rituals surrounding ...
, the Sedge and Bee ( ''nswt-bjtj''), and the Two Ladies or Nebty ( ''nbtj'') name. The Golden Horus as well as the nomen and prenomen titles were added later. In Egyptian society,
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the deities and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the deities in a role that was both as civil and religious administrator. The pharaoh owned all of the land in Egypt, enacted laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt from invaders as the
commander-in-chief A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme command and control Command and control is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ... hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men' ...
of the army. Religiously, the pharaoh officiated over religious ceremonies and chose the sites of new temples. The pharaoh was responsible for maintaining
Maat Maat or Maʽat (Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture ...

Maat
(
mꜣꜥt
mꜣꜥt
), or cosmic order, balance, and justice, and part of this included going to war when necessary to defend the country or attacking others when it was believed that this would contribute to Maat, such as to obtain resources. During the early days prior to the unification of
Upper and Lower Egypt In Egyptian history The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River The Nile ( ar, النيل, an-Nīl, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin: Áman Dawū) is a major north-flowing river A river is a na ...
, the
Deshret Deshret ( egy, dšrt "Red One") was the formal name for the Red Crown of Lower Egypt , the Red Crown of Lower Egypt Image:Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png, 350px, Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفلى ...

Deshret
or the "Red Crown", was a representation of the kingdom of Lower Egypt, while the
Hedjet Hedjet ( egy, ḥḏt "White One") is the formal name for the White Crown of pharaonic Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Ho ...

Hedjet
, the "White Crown", was worn by the kings of the kingdom of Upper Egypt. After the unification of both kingdoms into one united Egypt, the
Pschent Pschent, the double crown of Egypt The pschent (; Ancient Greek, Greek ''wikt:ψχέντ, ψχέντ'') was the double Crown (headgear), crown worn by rulers in ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians generally referred to it as sekhem scepter, sekhem ...

Pschent
, the combination of both the red and white crowns was the official crown of kings. With time new headdresses were introduced during different dynasties such as the
Khat Khat or qat ( ''ch’at''; Oromo: ''Jimaa'', so, qaad, khaad or khat, ar, القات ''al-qāt'') is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angi ...
,
Nemes Nemes were pieces of striped headcloth worn by pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 70 ...
,
Atef Atef is the specific feathered white crown of the ancient Egyptian deity Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deit ...

Atef
,
Hemhem crown Hemhem crown was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egypti ...
, and
Khepresh The khepresh (''ḫprš'') was an ancient Egyptian royal headdress. It is also known as the blue crown or war crown. New Kingdom New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * ...

Khepresh
. At times, it was depicted that a combination of these headdresses or crowns would be worn together.


Etymology

The word ''pharaoh'' ultimately derives from the
Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex and stable culture with thousands of years of r ...

Egyptian
compound ', * "great house", written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs ' "house" and ' "column", here meaning "great" or "high". It was used only in larger phrases such as '' smr pr-ꜥꜣ'' "Courtier of the High House", with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the
Twelfth Dynasty The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egy ...
onward, the word appears in a wish formula "Great House, May it Live, Prosper, and be in Health", but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person. Sometime during the era of the
New Kingdom New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
,
Second Intermediate Period The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now th ...
, ''pharaoh'' became the form of address for a person who was king. The earliest confirmed instance where ''pr ꜥꜣ'' is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to
Akhenaten Akhenaten (pronounced ), also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten ( egy, wikt:ꜣḫ-n-jtn, ꜣḫ-n-jtn, meaning "Effective for the Aten"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh reigning or 1351–1334 BC, the tenth ruler of the Ei ...

Akhenaten
(reigned c. 1353–1336 BCE) that is addressed to "Great House, L, W, H, the Lord". However, there is a possibility that the title ''pr ꜥꜣ'' was applied to
Thutmose III Thutmose III (variously also spelt Tuthmosis or Thothmes) was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty. Officially, Thutmose III ruled Egypt for almost 54 years and his reign is usually dated from 28 April 1479 ...

Thutmose III
(c. 1479–1425 BCE), depending on whether an inscription on the Temple of Armant can be confirmed to refer to that king. During the Eighteenth dynasty (sixteenth to fourteenth centuries BCE) the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late Twenty-first Dynasty (tenth century BCE), however, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, and from the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (eighth to seventh centuries BCE) it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only
epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied to seemingly real or fictitious people, divinities, ...
prefixed to the royal appellative. From the
Nineteenth dynasty The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XIX), also known as the Ramessid dynasty, is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom of Egypt, New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and t ...
onward ''pr-ꜥꜣ'' on its own, was used as regularly as ''
ḥm
ḥm
'', "Majesty". The term, therefore, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler presiding in that building, particularly by the Twenty-Second Dynasty and Twenty-third Dynasty. For instance, the first dated appearance of the title pharaoh being attached to a ruler's name occurs in Year 17 of
Siamun Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun Siamun was the sixth of during the . He built extensively in for a king of the and is regarded as one of the most powerful rulers of the Twenty-first Dynasty after . Siamun's prenomen, Netjerkheperr ...
(10th century BCE) on a fragment from the
Karnak The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (, which was originally derived from ar, خورنق ''Khurnaq'' "fortified village"), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical lan ...

Karnak
Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh
Siamun Neterkheperre or Netjerkheperre-Setepenamun Siamun was the sixth of during the . He built extensively in for a king of the and is regarded as one of the most powerful rulers of the Twenty-first Dynasty after . Siamun's prenomen, Netjerkheperr ...
. This new practice was continued under his successor
Psusennes II Titkheperure or Tyetkheperre Psusennes II Greek_language.html" "title="/nowiki>Greek language">Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellen ...
and the subsequent kings of the twenty-second dynasty. For instance, the Large Dakhla stela is specifically dated to Year 5 of king "Pharaoh Shoshenq, beloved of
Amun Amun (; also ''Amon'', ''Ammon'', ''Amen''; egy, jmn, ''reconstructed'' ; Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...

Amun
", whom all Egyptologists concur was
Shoshenq I Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a complex a ...
—the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty—including
Alan Gardiner Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner (29 March 1879, in Eltham, London, Eltham – 19 December 1963, in Oxford) was an English Egyptologist, linguist, philologist, and independent scholar. He is regarded as one of the premier Egyptologists of the early and ...
in his original 1933 publication of this stela. Shoshenq I was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as ''pr-ˤ3'' continued in traditional Egyptian narratives. By this time, the
Late Egyptian Late Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language The Egyptian language or Ancient Egyptian ( egy, 𓂋𓏺𓈖 𓆎𓅓𓏏𓊖, , cop, ϯⲙⲉⲧⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ) is an Afro-Asiatic language Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), als ...
word is reconstructed to have been pronounced whence
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, grc-koi, Φερων. In the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
, the title also occurs as he, פרעה ;Elazar Ari Lipinski: "Pesach – A holiday of questions. About the Haggadah-Commentary Zevach Pesach of Rabbi Isaak Abarbanel (1437–1508).
Explaining the meaning of the name Pharaoh." Published first in German in the official quarterly of the Organization of the Jewish Communities of Bavaria: ''Jüdisches Leben in Bayern. Mitteilungsblatt des Landesverbandes der Israelitischen Kultusgemeinden in Bayern.'' Pessach-Ausgabe Nr. 109, 2009, , S. 3–4.
from that, in the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
, grc-koi, φαραώ, pharaō, and then in
Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kn ...
''pharaō'', both ''-n'' stem nouns. The
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Qur'an
likewise spells it ar, فرعون ''firʿawn'' with ''n'' (here, always referring to the one evil king in the
Book of Exodus The Book of Exodus is the second book of the Torah and of the Old Testament. Starting with the deliverance of Moses by Pharaoh's daughter (Exodus), Pharaoh's daughter, it recounts the revelation at the Burning bush where he was called by Yahweh ...
story, by contrast to the good king in surah Yusuf's story). The Arabic combines the original
ayin ''Ayin'' (also ''ayn'' or ''ain''; transliterated ) is the sixteenth letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that i ...

ayin
from Egyptian along with the ''-n'' ending from Greek. In English, the term was at first spelled "Pharao", but the translators of the
King James Bible The King James Version (KJV), also the King James Bible (KJB) and the Authorized Version, is an English translations of the Bible, English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, which was commissioned in 1604 and publ ...

King James Bible
revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile, in Egypt itself, evolved into Sahidic Coptic ''pərro'' and then ''ərro'' by mistaking ''p-'' as the
definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases A noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a that has a or as its or performs the same grammatical function as a noun. Noun phrases are very common , and the ...
"the" (from ancient Egyptian '' pꜣ''). Other notable epithets are '' nswt'', translated to "king"; ''
ḥm
ḥm
'', "Majesty"; '' jty'' for "monarch or sovereign"; '' nb'' for "lord"; and '' ḥqꜣ'' for "ruler".


Regalia


Scepters and staves

Sceptre A sceptre (British English) or scepter (American English) is a Staff of office, staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of regalia, royal or imperial insignia. Figuratively, it means royal or imperial authority or sovereignt ...

Sceptre
s and staves were a general sign of authority in
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. ''Early Dynastic Egypt''. Routledge, 2001, p. 158. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of
Khasekhemwy Khasekhemwy (ca. 2690 BC; ', also transliteration of Ancient Egyptian, rendered ''Kha-sekhemui'') was the last Pharaoh of the Second Dynasty of Egypt. Little is known about him, other than that he led several significant military campaigns and bui ...

Khasekhemwy
in Abydos. Kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh
Anedjib Anedjib, more correctly Adjib and also known as Hor-Anedjib, Hor-Adjib and Enezib, is the Horus name of an Early Dynastic Period of Egypt, early Egyptian pharaoh, king who ruled during the First Dynasty of Egypt, 1st Dynasty. The Egyptian historian ...

Anedjib
is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called ''mks''-staff.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. ''Early Dynastic Egypt''. Routledge, 2001, p. 159. The scepter with the longest history seems to be the ''heqa''-sceptre, sometimes described as the shepherd's crook.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. ''Early Dynastic Egypt''. Routledge, 2001, p. 160. The earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to
prehistoric Egypt The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from the earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the vernacular, common title now us ...
. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to
Naqada III Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqada culture The Naqada culture is an archaeological culture of Chalcolithic Predynastic Egypt (c. 4000–3000 BC), named for the town of Naqada, Qena Governorate. A 2013 Oxford University radio carbon da ...
. Another scepter associated with the king is the ''was''-sceptre. This is a long staff mounted with an animal head. The earliest known depictions of the ''was''-scepter date to the First Dynasty. The ''was''-scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and deities. The
flail A flail is an agriculture, agricultural tool used for threshing, the process of separating cereal, grains from their husks. It is usually made from two or more large sticks attached by a short chain; one stick is held and swung, causing the othe ...

flail
later was closely related to the ''heqa''-scepter (the
crook and flail The crook (''heka'') and flail A flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing, the process of separating grains from their husks. It is usually made from two or more large sticks attached by a short chain; one stick is held and swung, ...

crook and flail
), but in early representations the king was also depicted solely with the flail, as shown in a late pre-dynastic knife handle that is now in the Metropolitan museum, and on the
Narmer Macehead The Narmer macehead is an ancient Egyptian decorative stone mace Mace may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Mace (G.I. Joe), a fictional character in the G.I. Joe universe * Mace, a fictional character in the 1995 film ''Strange Days (film), St ...

Narmer Macehead
.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. ''Early Dynastic Egypt''. Routledge, 2001, p. 161.


The Uraeus

The earliest evidence known of the
Uraeus The Uraeus (; plural Uraei or Uraeuses; from the Greek , ''ouraîos'', "on its tail"; from Egyptian ' ('), "rearing cobra") is the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian cobra The Egyptian cobra (''Naja haje'') is a species In biology, a ...
—a rearing cobra—is from the reign of Den from the first dynasty. The cobra supposedly protected the pharaoh by spitting fire at its enemies.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. ''Early Dynastic Egypt''. Routledge, 2001, p. 162.


Crowns and headdresses


Deshret

The red crown of Lower Egypt, the
Deshret Deshret ( egy, dšrt "Red One") was the formal name for the Red Crown of Lower Egypt , the Red Crown of Lower Egypt Image:Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png, 350px, Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفلى ...

Deshret
crown, dates back to pre-dynastic times and symbolised chief ruler. A red crown has been found on a pottery shard from
Naqada Naqada ( ar, نقادة, translit=Naqāda, , grc, Παμπανίς, translit=Pampanís) is a town on the west bank of the Nile The Nile, , Bohairic , lg, Kiira , Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian langu ...
, and later,
Narmer Narmer ( egy, Wiktionary:nꜥr-mr, nꜥr-mr, meaning "painful," "stinging," "harsh," or "fierce catfish;" ) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period (Egypt), Early Dynastic Period. He was the successor to the Naqada III, Protod ...

Narmer
is shown wearing the red crown on both the
Narmer Macehead The Narmer macehead is an ancient Egyptian decorative stone mace Mace may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Mace (G.I. Joe), a fictional character in the G.I. Joe universe * Mace, a fictional character in the 1995 film ''Strange Days (film), St ...

Narmer Macehead
and the
Narmer Palette The Narmer Palette, also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, is a significant Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by th ...

Narmer Palette
.


Hedjet

The white crown of Upper Egypt, the
Hedjet Hedjet ( egy, ḥḏt "White One") is the formal name for the White Crown of pharaonic Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Ho ...

Hedjet
, was worn in the Predynastic Period by
Scorpion II Scorpion II ( Ancient Egyptian: possibly Selk or Weha), also known as King Scorpion, was a ruler during the Protodynastic Period of Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد مصر ', shortened to , , locally: ; ) is the southern portion of Egyp ...
, and, later, by Narmer.


Pschent

This is the combination of the Deshret and Hedjet crowns into a double crown, called the
Pschent Pschent, the double crown of Egypt The pschent (; Ancient Greek, Greek ''wikt:ψχέντ, ψχέντ'') was the double Crown (headgear), crown worn by rulers in ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians generally referred to it as sekhem scepter, sekhem ...

Pschent
crown. It is first documented in the middle of the
First Dynasty of Egypt The First Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty I) covers the first series of Egyptian kings to rule over a unified Egypt. It immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, possibly by Narmer, and marks the beginning of the Early Dynast ...
. The earliest depiction may date to the reign of
Djet Djet, also known as Wadj, Zet, and Uadji (in Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europ ...

Djet
, and is otherwise surely attested during the reign of Den.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. ''Early Dynastic Egypt''. Routledge, 2001


Khat

The ''khat'' headdress consists of a kind of "kerchief" whose end is tied similarly to a
ponytail A ponytail is a hairstyle in which some, most or all of the hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabr ...

ponytail
. The earliest depictions of the ''khat'' headdress comes from the reign of Den, but is not found again until the reign of
Djoser Djoser (also read as Djeser and Zoser) was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ) ...

Djoser
.


Nemes

The
Nemes Nemes were pieces of striped headcloth worn by pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 70 ...
headdress dates from the time of
Djoser Djoser (also read as Djeser and Zoser) was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ) ...

Djoser
. It is the most common type of crown that has been depicted throughout Pharaonic Egypt. Any other type of crown, apart from the Khat headdress, has been commonly depicted on top of the Nemes. The statue from his
Serdab A serdab ( fa, سرداب, d=Sardāb), literally meaning "cold water", which became a loanword in Arabic for 'cellar' is an ancient Egyptian tomb The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of funerary practices that they believed were necessary ...
in
Saqqara Saqqara ( ar, سقارة, ), also spelled Sakkara or Saccara in English , is an Egyptian village in Giza Governorate Giza Governorate ( ar, محافظة الجيزة ') is one of the governorates of Egypt For administrative purposes, Egypt ...

Saqqara
shows the king wearing the ''nemes'' headdress.


Atef

Osiris is shown to wear the
Atef Atef is the specific feathered white crown of the ancient Egyptian deity Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deit ...

Atef
crown, which is an elaborate
Hedjet Hedjet ( egy, ḥḏt "White One") is the formal name for the White Crown of pharaonic Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Ho ...

Hedjet
with feathers and disks. Depictions of pharaohs wearing the Atef crown originate from the Old Kingdom.


Hemhem

The
Hemhem crown Hemhem crown was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egypti ...
is usually depicted on top of
Nemes Nemes were pieces of striped headcloth worn by pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 70 ...
,
Pschent Pschent, the double crown of Egypt The pschent (; Ancient Greek, Greek ''wikt:ψχέντ, ψχέντ'') was the double Crown (headgear), crown worn by rulers in ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians generally referred to it as sekhem scepter, sekhem ...

Pschent
, or
Deshret Deshret ( egy, dšrt "Red One") was the formal name for the Red Crown of Lower Egypt , the Red Crown of Lower Egypt Image:Lower Egypt Nomes 01.png, 350px, Map of Lower Egypt with its historical nomes Lower Egypt ( ar, مصر السفلى ...

Deshret
crowns. It is an ornate triple
Atef Atef is the specific feathered white crown of the ancient Egyptian deity Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deit ...

Atef
with corkscrew sheep horns and usually two uraei. The usage (depiction) of this crown begins during the Early
Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. Ne ...
.


Khepresh

Also called the blue crown, the
Khepresh The khepresh (''ḫprš'') was an ancient Egyptian royal headdress. It is also known as the blue crown or war crown. New Kingdom New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * ...

Khepresh
crown has been depicted in art since the New Kingdom. It is often depicted being worn in battle, but it was also frequently worn during ceremonies. It used to be called a war crown by many, but modern historians refrain from defining it thus.


Physical evidence

Egyptologist
Bob Brier Robert Brier (; born December 13, 1943) is an American Egyptologist Egyptology (from ''Egypt'' and Greek , '' -logia''; ar, علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, an ...
has noted that despite their widespread depiction in royal portraits, no ancient Egyptian crown has ever been discovered.
Tutankhamun Tutankhamun (, egy, wikt:twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn, twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn ''Təwātə-ʿānəḫ-amānə'', ; Egyptological pronunciation ''Tūt-anḫ-āmen'', ;  1341 1323 BC), commonly referred to as King Tut, was an ancient Egyptian phara ...

Tutankhamun
's tomb, discovered largely intact, did contain such regalia as his
crook and flail The crook (''heka'') and flail A flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing, the process of separating grains from their husks. It is usually made from two or more large sticks attached by a short chain; one stick is held and swung, ...

crook and flail
, but no crown was found among the funerary equipment. Diadems have been discovered. It is presumed that crowns would have been believed to have magical properties. Brier's speculation is that crowns were religious or state items, so a dead pharaoh likely could not retain a crown as a personal possession. The crowns may have been passed along to the successor.


Titles

During the kings had three titles. The
Horus name The Horus name is the oldest known and used crest Crest or CREST may refer to: Buildings *The Crest (Huntington, New York) The Crest is a historic house on Eatons Neck in Suffolk County, New York. Although on the land mass of Eatons Neck, the ...
is the oldest and dates to the late pre-dynastic period. The Nesu Bity name was added during the First Dynasty. The
Nebty name The Nebty name (also called the Two-Ladies-name) was one of the " great five names" used by Egyptian pharaoh Pharaoh (, ; cop, ''Pǝrro'') is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College D ...
(Two Ladies) was first introduced toward the end of the First Dynasty. The Golden falcon (''bik-nbw'') name is not well understood. The
prenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a given name, personal name chosen by the parents of a Ancient Rome, Roman child. It was first bestowed on the ''dies lustricus'' (day of Lustratio, lustration), the eighth day after the birth of a girl, or ...
and
nomen Nomen may refer to: *Nomen (Roman name) The (or simply ) was a hereditary name borne by the peoples of ancient Italy and later by the citizens of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. It was originally the name of one's (family or clan) by p ...
were introduced later and are traditionally enclosed in a
cartouche Image:Birth and Throne cartouches of pharaoh Seti I, from KV17 at the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. Neues Museum.jpg, upalt=A stone face carved with coloured hieroglyphics. Two cartouches - ovoid shapes with hieroglyphics inside - are visible at the ...
. By the Middle Kingdom, the official titulary of the ruler consisted of five names; Horus, Nebty, Golden Horus, nomen, and prenomen for some rulers, only one or two of them may be known.


Horus name

The Horus name was adopted by the king, when taking the throne. The name was written within a square frame representing the palace, named a
serekh In , a serekh is a rectangular enclosure representing the niched or gated façade of a palace surmounted by (usually) the , indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name. The serekh was the earliest convention used to set apart the roya ...

serekh
. The earliest known example of a serekh dates to the reign of king Ka, before the First Dynasty.Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, pp. 57f. The Horus name of several early kings expresses a relationship with
Horus Horus or Her, Heru, Hor, Har in Ancient Egyptian, is one of the most significant ancient Egyptian deities Ancient Egyptian deities are the God (male deity), gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt. The beliefs and rituals surrounding ...

Horus
.
Aha AHA, Aha, or aha may refer to: Arts, entertainment and media * Aha! (TV program), ''Aha!'' (TV program), an information and education TV program in the Philippines * a-ha, a Norwegian pop music band * Aha! (film), ''Aha!'' (film), 2007 Bangladesh ...
refers to "Horus the fighter",
Djer Djer (or Zer or Sekhty) is considered the third of the of in current Egyptology. He lived around the mid- and reigned for c. 40 years. A mummified forearm of Djer or his wife was discovered by , but was discarded by . Name The lists the ...

Djer
refers to "Horus the strong", etc. Later kings express ideals of kingship in their Horus names.
Khasekhemwy Khasekhemwy (ca. 2690 BC; ', also transliteration of Ancient Egyptian, rendered ''Kha-sekhemui'') was the last Pharaoh of the Second Dynasty of Egypt. Little is known about him, other than that he led several significant military campaigns and bui ...

Khasekhemwy
refers to "Horus: the two powers are at peace", while Nebra refers to "Horus, Lord of the Sun".


Nesu Bity name

The ''Nesu Bity'' name, also known as
prenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a given name, personal name chosen by the parents of a Ancient Rome, Roman child. It was first bestowed on the ''dies lustricus'' (day of Lustratio, lustration), the eighth day after the birth of a girl, or ...
, was one of the new developments from the reign of Den. The name would follow the glyphs for the "Sedge and the Bee". The title is usually translated as king of Upper and Lower Egypt. The ''nsw bity'' name may have been the birth name of the king. It was often the name by which kings were recorded in the later annals and king lists.


Nebty name

The earliest example of a ''Nebty'' (
Two Ladies In Ancient Egyptian texts, the "Two Ladies" ( egy, wikt:nbtj, nbtj, sometimes anglicized ''Nebty'') was a religious euphemism for the goddesses Wadjet and Nekhbet, two deity, deities who were Tutelary deity, patrons of the ancient Egyptians and wors ...

Two Ladies
) name comes from the reign of king
Aha AHA, Aha, or aha may refer to: Arts, entertainment and media * Aha! (TV program), ''Aha!'' (TV program), an information and education TV program in the Philippines * a-ha, a Norwegian pop music band * Aha! (film), ''Aha!'' (film), 2007 Bangladesh ...
from the First Dynasty. The title links the king with the goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt
Nekhbet Nekhbet (; also spelt Nekhebit) was an early predynastic The prehistory of Egypt spans the period from the earliest human settlement to the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period around 3100 BC, starting with the first Pharaoh Pharaoh (, ...
and
Wadjet Wadjet (; egy, wikt:wꜣḏ#Etymology, wꜢḏyt "Green One"), known to the Greek world as Uto (; grc-koi, Οὐτώ) or Buto (; ) among other renderings including Wedjat, Uadjet, and Udjo, was originally the ancient tutelary deity, local god ...
. The title is preceded by the vulture (Nekhbet) and the cobra (Wadjet) standing on a basket (the neb sign).


Golden Horus

The Golden Horus or Golden Falcon name was preceded by a falcon on a gold or ''nbw'' sign. The title may have represented the divine status of the king. The Horus associated with gold may be referring to the idea that the bodies of the deities were made of gold and the
pyramid A pyramid (from el, πυραμίς ') is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act ...
s and obelisks are representations of (golden) sun-rays. The gold sign may also be a reference to Nubt, the city of Set. This would suggest that the iconography represents Horus conquering Set.


Nomen and prenomen

The
prenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a given name, personal name chosen by the parents of a Ancient Rome, Roman child. It was first bestowed on the ''dies lustricus'' (day of Lustratio, lustration), the eighth day after the birth of a girl, or ...
and Nomen (ancient Egypt), nomen were contained in a cartouche. The prenomen often followed the King of Upper and Lower Egypt (''nsw bity'') or Lord of the Two Lands (''nebtawy'') title. The prenomen often incorporated the name of Ra, Re. The nomen often followed the title Son of Re (''sa-ra'') or the title Lord of Appearances (''neb-kha'').Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. ''The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt''. Thames & Hudson. 2004.


See also

* List of pharaohs * Roman pharaoh * Coronation of the pharaoh * Curse of the pharaohs * Egyptian chronology * Pharaohs in the Bible


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Shaw, Garry J. ''The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign'', Thames and Hudson, 2012. * Sir
Alan Gardiner Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner (29 March 1879, in Eltham, London, Eltham – 19 December 1963, in Oxford) was an English Egyptologist, linguist, philologist, and independent scholar. He is regarded as one of the premier Egyptologists of the early and ...
''Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs'', Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76. * Jan Assmann, "Der Mythos des Gottkönigs im Alten Ägypten," in Christine Schmitz und Anja Bettenworth (hg.), ''Menschen - Heros - Gott: Weltentwürfe und Lebensmodelle im Mythos der Vormoderne'' (Stuttgart, Franz Steiner Verlag, 2009), pp. 11–26.


External links


Digital Egypt for Universities
{{Authority control Ancient Egyptian titles Heads of state Royal titles Noble titles Pharaohs, Positions of authority Torah monarchs Titles of national or ethnic leadership Deified people Egyptian royal titles