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A personal union is the combination of two or more
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
that have the same
monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...

monarch
while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A
real union Real union is a union of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), ...

real union
, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing some limited governmental institutions. Unlike the personal union, in a
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, ...

federation
and a
unitary state A unitary state is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...
, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch. The term was coined by German jurist
Johann Stephan Pütter Johann Stephan Pütter (25 June 1725, Iserlohn – 12 August 1807, Göttingen) was a Persian law lecturer and publicist. He was professor of law at the university of Göttingen from 1746 until his death. He exerted great influence on the law instit ...
, introducing it into ''Elementa iuris publici germanici'' (Elements of German Public Law) of 1760. Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a
king King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...

king
becomes
queen regnant A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch, equivalent in rank and title to a king (title), king, who reigns in her own right over a realm known as a "kingdom"; as opposed to a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king ...
, and their child inherits the crown of both countries; the King of one country inherits the crown of another country) to virtual
annexation Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, ...
(where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings). They can also be codified (i.e., the constitutions of the states clearly express that they shall share the same person as head of state) or non-codified, in which case they can easily be broken (e.g., by the death of the monarch when the two states have different succession laws). Because presidents of republics are ordinarily chosen from within the citizens of the state in question, the concept of personal union has almost never crossed over from monarchies into republics, with the rare exception of the president of France being a
co-prince of Andorra The co-princes of Andorra are jointly the heads of state ( ca, cap d'estat) of the Principality of Andorra , image_flag = Flag of Andorra.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Andorra.svg , symbol_type ...
. In 1860
Marthinus Wessel Pretorius Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (17 September 1819 – 19 May 1901) was the first president of the South African Republic The South African Republic ( nl, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek; the ZAR; also known as the Transvaal Republic, af, Suid-Afr ...

Marthinus Wessel Pretorius
was simultaneously elected as the president of
TransvaalTransvaal is a historical geographic term associated with land north of (''i.e.'', beyond) the Vaal River in South Africa. A number of states and administrative divisions have carried the name Transvaal. * South African Republic (1856–1902; af, Z ...
and
Orange Free State The Orange Free State ( nl, Oranje Vrijstaat, af, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS) was an independent Boer Boers () ( af , Boere) refers to the descendants of the proto-Afrikaans-speaking colonist A settler is a person who ha ...
and he tried to unify the two countries but his mission failed and led to the
Transvaal Civil War The Transvaal Civil War was a series of skirmishes during the early 1860s in the South African Republic The South African Republic ( nl, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek; the ZAR; also known as the Transvaal Republic, af, Suid-Afrikaanse Republi ...
.


Albania

* Medieval Albanian Kingdom personal union with the
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the south of the between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the (1282–13 ...

Kingdom of Naples
(1272-1368) *Personal union with
Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia was proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946, when civil discontent l ...
(1939–1943).


Andorra

Even though France is now a republic with a president and not a monarchy, it has nevertheless been in personal union with the neighbouring nominal monarchy (non-hereditary) of
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
since 1278.


Austria

* Personal union with
Lands of the Bohemian Crown The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the Middle Ages, medieval and early modern periods connected by feudalism, feudal relations under the List of Bohemian monarchs, Bohemian kings. The cro ...
(1260–1276, 1306–1307, 1438–1439, 1453–1457, and 1526–1918). * Personal union with
Lands of the Hungarian Crown Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not covered by water. Land, lands, The Land or the Lands may also refer to: Entertainment and media Film *Land (1987 film), ''Land'' (1987 film), a British television film by Barry Collins *Land (2 ...
(1437–1439, 1444–1457, and 1526–1918). * Personal union with
Austrian Netherlands The Austrian Netherlands nl, Oostenrijkse Nederlanden; french: Pays-Bas Autrichiens; german: Österreichische Niederlande; la, Belgium Austriacum. was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797. The period began with the ...
(1714–1795). * Personal union with
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
(1519–1521). * Personal union with
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the south of the between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the (1282–13 ...

Kingdom of Naples
(1714–1735),
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
(1714–1720),
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
(1720–1735),
Duchy of Parma The Duchy of Parma also referred to as Duchy of Parma and Piacenza, was an Italian state created in 1545 and located in northern Italy, in the current region of Emilia-Romagna. Originally a realm of the House of Farnese, Farnese family after Pop ...
(1735–1748), Venetia (1797–1805) and
Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
(1814–1859) * Personal union with
Kingdom of Slavonia The Kingdom of Slavonia ( hr, Kraljevina Slavonija, la, Regnum Sclavoniae, hu, Szlavón Királyság, german: Königreich Slawonien) was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy ...
(1699–1868),
Kingdom of Serbia The Kingdom of Serbia ( sr-cyr, Краљевина Србија, Kraljevina Srbija) was a country located in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a con ...
(1718–1739),
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Austrian Galicia or Austrian Poland, was established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy Habsburg Monarchy (german: Habsburgermonarchie), or Danubian Monarchy (german: Donaumo ...
(1772–1918),
Duchy of Bukovina The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary from 1867 until 1918. Name The name ''Bukovina'' came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the ...
(1774–1918),
New Galicia New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of t ...
(1795–1809),
Kingdom of Dalmatia The Kingdom of Dalmatia ( hr, Kraljevina Dalmacija; german: Königreich Dalmatien; it, Regno di Dalmazia) was a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815–1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). It encompassed the entir ...

Kingdom of Dalmatia
(1797–1805 and 1814–1918) and
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1878/1908–1918).


Bohemia

* Personal union with Poland 1003–1004 (
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, ...

Bohemia
occupied by Poles) * Personal union with Poland 1300–1306 and Hungary 1301–1305 ( Wenceslas II and Wenceslas III) * Personal union with Luxembourg 1313–1378 and 1383–1388 * Personal union with Hungary 1419–1439 (
Sigismund of LuxemburgSigismund (variants: Sigmund, Siegmund) is a German proper name, meaning "protection through victory", from Old High German ''sigu'' "victory" + ''munt'' "hand, protection". Tacitus latinises it '' Segimundus''. There appears to be an older form ...
and his son in law) and 1490–1526 ( Jagellon dynasty) * Personal union with Austria and Hungary 1526–1918 (except years 1619–1620)


Brandenburg

* Personal union with the
Principality of Ansbach The Principality or Margraviate of (Brandenburg-)Ansbach (german: Fürstentum Ansbach or ) was a principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government A gov ...
from 1415 to 1440 and 1470 to 1486. * Personal union with the
Duchy of Prussia The Duchy of Prussia (german: Herzogtum Preußen, pl, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (german: Herzogliches Preußen, link=no; pl, Prusy Książęce, link=no) was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The histor ...

Duchy of Prussia
from 1618, when
Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia Albert Frederick (german: Albrecht Friedrich; pl, Albrecht Fryderyk; 7 May 1553 – 28 August 1618) was the Duke of Prussia The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the monarch, hereditary rulers of the f ...

Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia
, died without male heirs and his son-in-law
John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg John Sigismund (german: Johann Sigismund; 8 November 1572 – 23 December 1619) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from the House of Hohenzollern A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, ...
, became ruler of both countries. Brandenburg and Prussia maintained separate governments and seats of power in Berlin and
Königsberg Königsberg (, , ) was the name for the historic Prussian city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia. Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement ''Twangste'' by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusade ...

Königsberg
respectively until 1701, when
Frederick IFrederick I may refer to: * Frederick of Utrecht or Frederick I (815/16–834/38), Bishop of Utrecht. * Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine (942–978) * Frederick I, Duke of Swabia (1050–1105) * Frederick I, Count of Zollern ...

Frederick I
consolidated them into one government.


Brazil

* Personal union with Portugal, under
Pedro I of Brazil Dom (title), Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the List of monarchs of Brazil, founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he List of P ...
(Pedro IV of Portugal), from 10 March to 28 May 1826. Pedro was the Prince Royal of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves when he declared the independence of Brazil in 1822, becoming its first emperor. When his father (
John VI of Portugal , house = Braganza , father = Pedro III of Portugal , mother = Maria I of Portugal , birth_date = , birth_place = Queluz Palace, Queluz, Portugal , death_date = , death_place = Bemposta Palace, Lisbon, Portugal ...
) died, Pedro also became King of Portugal, but abdicated the Portuguese throne 79 days later in favour of his older child Princess Maria da Glória.


Congo Free State and Belgium

*Personal union with Belgium from 1885 to 1908, when the
Congo Free State The Congo Free State, also known as the Independent State of the Congo (french: État indépendant du Congo), was a large state and absolute monarchy in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908. It was privately owned by and in a personal union with Leopo ...
became a Belgian colony. The only sovereign during this period was
Leopold II
Leopold II
, who continued as king of Belgium until his death a year later in 1909.


Croatia

* Personal union with the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
1102–1918


Denmark

* Personal union with
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...
(986–995, 1000–1014, 1028–1035, 1042–1047, 1380–1397, 1397–1523 (
Kalmar Union The Kalmar Union (Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestr ...
) and 1524–1814 (
Denmark–Norway Denmark–Norway (Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestr ...
)). * Personal union with
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
(1013–1014, 1018–1035 (
North Sea Empire North Sea Empire and Anglo-Scandinavian Empire are terms used by historians to refer to the personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more State (polity), states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and ...
) and 1040–1042). * Personal union with
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...
(1397–1523 (
Kalmar Union The Kalmar Union (Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestr ...
)). * Personal union with
Duchy of Schleswig The Duchy of Schleswig ( da, Hertugdømmet Slesvig; german: Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: ''Hartogdom Sleswig''; North Frisian: ''Härtochduum Slaswik'') was a duchy in Southern Jutland (''Sønderjylland'') covering the area between about ...
(1086–1364, 1460–1864) and County/
Duchy of Holstein A duchy is a Middle Ages, medieval country, territory, fiefdom, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess, a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the king or Queen regnant, queen in European tradition. The term is used almost exclusively ...
(1460–1864). * Personal union with
Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg The Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg (german: Herzogtum Sachsen-Lauenburg, called ''Niedersachsen'' (Lower Saxony) between the 14th and 17th centuries), was a ''reichsfrei Imperial immediacy (german: Reichsfreiheit or ') was a privileged constitutional and ...
(1814–1864) * Personal union with
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...
(1918–1944).


England

* Personal union, as
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
, with
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
(1013–1014, 1018–1035 (
North Sea Empire North Sea Empire and Anglo-Scandinavian Empire are terms used by historians to refer to the personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more State (polity), states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and ...
) and 1040–1042). * Personal union, as Kingdom of England, with
Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizati ...

Duchy of Normandy
(1066–1087, 1106–1144, 1154-1204/1259). * Personal union, as Kingdom of England, with the
County of Anjou The County of Anjou (, ; ; la, Andegavia) was a small French county and predecessor to the better known Duchy of Anjou. Its capital was Angers and it was roughly coextensive with the diocese of Angers. Anjou was bordered by Brittany to the west, ...
(1154-1204). * Personal union, as Kingdom of England, with much of France (
Angevin Empire The Angevin Empire (; french: link=no, Empire Plantagenêt) describes the possessions of the Angevin kings of England The Angevins (; "from Anjou Anjou (, ; ; la, Andegavia) was a French province straddling the lower Loire River. Its cap ...

Angevin Empire
) (1154–1214). * Personal union, as Kingdom of England, with
Aquitaine Aquitaine ( , , ; oc, Aquitània ; eu, Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''Aguiéne''), archaic Guyenne or Guienne ( oc, Guiana), is a historical region of southwestern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=n ...

Aquitaine
(1154–1453). * Personal union, as Kingdom of England, with
Principality of Wales The Principality of Wales ( cy, Tywysogaeth Cymru) existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It i ...

Principality of Wales
(1284-1542). * Personal union, as Kingdom of England, with
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
(1422-1453). See also:
Dual monarchy of England and France The dual monarchy of England and France existed during the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War when Charles VII of France and Henry VI of England disputed the succession to the throne of France. It commenced on 21 October 1422 upon the death of K ...
. * Personal union, as Kingdom of England, with
Lordship of Ireland The Lordship of Ireland ( ga, Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was the part of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title= ...

Lordship of Ireland
(1171–1542) and
Kingdom of Ireland The Kingdom of Ireland ( ga, label= Classical Irish, an Ríoghacht Éireann; ga, label=Modern Irish Irish ( in ), sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a of the branch of the , which is a part of the . Irish is to the and was the po ...

Kingdom of Ireland
(1542–1649, 1660-1707). * Personal union, as Kingdom of England, with
Kingdom of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
(1556-1558). * Personal union, as Kingdom of England, with
Kingdom of Scotland The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern thi ...
(1603–1649, 1660-1707).1 * Personal union, as Kingdom of England, with
Principality of Orange The Principality of Orange (french: la Principauté d'Orange) was, from 1163 to 1713, a feudal state in Provence, in the south of modern-day France, on the east bank of the river Rhone, north of the city of Avignon, and surrounded by the indepen ...
(1689–1702). ''1: After 1707, see Great Britain below.''


France

* Personal union, as part of the
Angevin Empire The Angevin Empire (; french: link=no, Empire Plantagenêt) describes the possessions of the Angevin kings of England The Angevins (; "from Anjou Anjou (, ; ; la, Andegavia) was a French province straddling the lower Loire River. Its cap ...

Angevin Empire
, with the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
(1154–1214). * Personal union with the Kingdom of England (1422-1453). See also:
Dual monarchy of England and France The dual monarchy of England and France existed during the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War when Charles VII of France and Henry VI of England disputed the succession to the throne of France. It commenced on 21 October 1422 upon the death of K ...
. * Personal union with the
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the south of the between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the (1282–13 ...

Kingdom of Naples
under the rule of Charles VIII (1495) and Louis XII (1501–1504). * Personal union with the
Duchy of Milan The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in th ...
under the rule of Louis XII (1499–1500 and 1500–1512) and
Francis IFrancis I or Francis the First may refer to: * Francesco I Gonzaga (1366–1407) * Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414–1450), reigned 1442–1450 * Francis I of France (1494–1547), reigned 1515–1547 * Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (1510–15 ...
(1515–1521 and 1524–1525). * Personal union with the
Kingdom of Scotland The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern thi ...
under the rule of Francis II (1559-1560). * Personal union with the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is ...
under the rule of
Henry IIIHenry III may refer to: * Henry III, Duke of Bavaria (940–989) * Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor (1017–1056) * Henry III, Count of Louvain (died 1095) * Henry III, Count of Luxembourg (died 1096) * Henry III, Duke of Carinthia (1050–1122) * Henr ...
(1574–1575). * Personal union with the
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = Monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity) ...
(1284–1328 and 1589–1620). * ''Partial'' personal union with
Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French ( ...

Andorra
since 1607 (the French head of state is one of the heads of state in Andorra) * Personal union under
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
with
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
and the
Confederation of the Rhine The Confederated States of the Rhine, simply known as the Confederation of the Rhine, was a confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common acti ...
. Note: The point at issue in the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
was the fear that the succession to the Spanish throne dictated by Spanish law, which would devolve on Louis, ''le Grand Dauphin'' — already heir to the throne of France — would create a personal union that would upset the European balance of power; France had the most powerful military in Europe at the time, and Spain the largest empire.


Georgia

*
Kingdom of Iberia In Greco-Roman geography The history of geography includes many histories of geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabi ...
and
Colchis In pre-Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of Mediterranean history The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the nor ...

Colchis
were connected power of the monarch in 300–90 years BC (
Pharnavazid dynasty The Pharnavazid ( ka, ფარნავაზიანი, tr) is the name of the first dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Ox ...
). *
Kingdom of Pontus The Kingdom of Pontus ( grc, Βασιλεία τοῦ Πόντου, ''Basileía toû Póntou'') was a Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of Mediterranean history The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic O ...
and
Colchis In pre-Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of Mediterranean history The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the nor ...

Colchis
were connected power of the monarch in 109 BC–64 AD. * 1000–1010
Kingdom of Abkhazia The Kingdom of Abkhazia ( ka, აფხაზთა სამეფო, tr; lit. "Kingdom of the Abkhazians"), also known as Abasgia or Egrisi-Abkhazia, was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with ...
and
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a penin ...
ruled by Bagrat III. In 1010 it united (together with the annexed Kakheti kingdom) into a single
Kingdom of Georgia The Kingdom of Georgia ( ka, საქართველოს სამეფო, tr), also known as the Georgian Empire, was a medieval Eurasian monarchy that started circa 1008 Anno Domini, AD. It reached Georgian Golden Age, its Golden Age o ...
. * Kingdom of Kakheti and Hereti were connected power of the monarch in 1020s–1104. * Principality of Mingrelia and Principality of Abkhazia in the 1557–1660 years under the rule of the House of Dadiani * Kingdom of Kartli and Kingdom of Kakheti united under the rule of a single monarch in 1513–1520 (David X of Kartli, David X), 1625–1633 (Teimuraz I of Kakheti, Teimuraz I), 1648–1658 (Rostom of Kartli, Rostom), 1660–1664 (Vakhtang V of Kartli, Vakhtang V), 1723 (Constantine II of Kakheti, Constantine II/III), to finally unite the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti in 1762 under the reign of Heraclius II of Georgia, Heraclius II and his descendants. * Kingdom of Imereti and Principality of Guria united under the rule of a single monarch in 1681–1683 (George III of Guria, George IV/III), 1701–1702, 1713–1714 (Mamia III Gurieli, Mamia (III)) and 1720 (George IV of Guria, George VIII/IV).


Goryeo

* Personal union with Shenyang in the Mongols, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty of China (1308–1313; Chungseon of Goryeo, King Chungseon) ** As King of Goryeo (高麗國王) and King of Shenyang (瀋陽王) in 1308–1310 ** As King of Goryeo and King of Shen (瀋王) in 1310–1313 King Chungseon reigned as King of Goryeo in 1298 and 1308–1313 and as King of Shenyang or King of Shen from 1307 (according to the ''History of Yuan'') or 1308 (according to ''Goryeosa'') to 1316. At that time, Goryeo had already become a vassal of Yuan dynasty and the Yuan imperial family and the Goryeo royal family had close relationship by marriages of convenience. Because he was a very powerful man during Külüg Khan, Emperor Wuzong's reign, he could become the King of Shenyang where many Korean people lived in China. However, he lost his power in the Yuan imperial court after the death of the Emperor Wuzong. Because the Yuan dynasty made Chungseon abdicate the crown of the Goryeo in 1313, the personal union was ended. Chungsuk of Goryeo, King Chungsuk, Chungseon's eldest son, became the new King of Goryeo. In 1316, the Yuan dynasty made Chungseon abdicate the crown of Shen in favour of Wang Go, one of his nephews, resulting in him becoming the new King of Shen.


Great Britain

''Before 1707, see England and Scotland.'' * Personal union with
Kingdom of Ireland The Kingdom of Ireland ( ga, label= Classical Irish, an Ríoghacht Éireann; ga, label=Modern Irish Irish ( in ), sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a of the branch of the , which is a part of the . Irish is to the and was the po ...

Kingdom of Ireland
(1707–1801). * Personal union with Electorate of Hanover (1714–1801). ''After 1801, see United Kingdom below.''


Hanover

* Personal union with Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland from 1714 to 1801. * Personal union with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom from 1801 to 1807 and again from 1814 to 1837, when Salic law, differing succession laws resulted in Victoria of the United Kingdom, Queen Victoria ascending the British throne and her uncle Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Ernest Augustus that of Hanover. * The personal union was interrupted from 1807 to 1813 when Hanover was merged into the Kingdom of Westphalia during the Napoleonic Wars. A few months after the Battle of Leipzig, the Kingdom of Hanover was re-established.


Holy Roman Empire

* Personal union with the
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
from 1194 to 1254 under the Hohenstaufen, Hohenstaufen dynasty. * Personal union with Spain from 1519 to 1556 under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. * Personal union with Hungary 1410–1439, 1556–1608, 1612–1740 and 1780–1806. * Personal union with
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the south of the between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the (1282–13 ...

Kingdom of Naples
(1714–1735),
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
(1714–1720),
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
(1720–1735)


Hungary

* Personal union with Croatia 1102–1918 (see above for details). * Personal union with Poland and Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Bohemia 1301–1305. * Personal union with Poland from 1370 to 1382 under the reign of Louis I of Hungary, Louis the Great. This period in Polish history is sometimes known as the ''Andegawen Poland''. Louis inherited the Polish throne from his maternal uncle Casimir III of Poland, Casimir III. After Louis' death the Polish nobles (the ''szlachta'') decided to end the personal union, since they did not want to be governed from Hungary, and chose Louis' younger daughter Jadwiga of Poland, Jadwiga as their new ruler, while Hungary was inherited by his elder daughter Mary of Hungary, Mary. Personal union with Poland for the second time from 1440 to 1444. * Personal union with Naples from 1385 to 1386 under the reign of Charles III of Naples. * Personal union with Bohemia, 1419–1439 and 1490–1918. * Personal union with the Archduchy of Austria, 1437–1439, 1444–1457, and 1526–1806. * Personal union with the Holy Roman Empire, 1410–1439, 1556–1608, 1612–1740 and 1780–1806. * Real union with Austria, 1867–1918 (the ''dual monarchy'' of Austria-Hungary) under the reigns of Franz Joseph of Austria, Franz Joseph and Karl I of Austria, Charles IV.


Iceland

* Personal union with Denmark Kingdom of Iceland, from 1918 to 1944, when the country became a republic.


Ireland

* Personal union, as
Kingdom of Ireland The Kingdom of Ireland ( ga, label= Classical Irish, an Ríoghacht Éireann; ga, label=Modern Irish Irish ( in ), sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a of the branch of the , which is a part of the . Irish is to the and was the po ...

Kingdom of Ireland
, with the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
(1542–1649 then again following Stuart Restoration, the restoration 1660-1707). * Personal union, as Kingdom of Ireland, with the
Kingdom of Scotland The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern thi ...
(1603-1649 then again following the restoration 1660-1707). * Personal union, as Kingdom of Ireland, with the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1801) * Personal union, as Irish Free State (1922-1937) then as Éire (1937-1949), with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. (The period 1937-1949 Head of state of Ireland (1936 to 1949), is disputed).


Italy

* Personal union with Italian protectorate of Albania (1939–1943), Kingdom of Albania (1939–1943). *Personal union with the Ethiopian Empire (1936-1941)


Lithuania

* Personal union (the Polish-Lithuanian Union) with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland 1386–1401, 1447–1492 and 1501–1569; then transformed into a federation,
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is ...
.


Luxembourg

* Personal union with Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Bohemia, 1313–1378 and 1383–1388. * Personal union with the Netherlands from 1815 to 1890, when William III of the Netherlands, King and Grand Duke William III died leaving only a daughter, Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, Wilhelmina. Since Luxembourg held to Salic Law, Wilhelmina's distant cousin Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Adolphe succeeded to the Grand Duchy, ending the personal union.


Naples

* Personal union with
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
from 1385 to 1386 under the rule of Charles II of Hungary. * Personal union with Crown of Aragon (1442–1458 and 1504–1516). * Personal union with
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
under the rule of Charles VIII (1495) and Louis XII (1501–1504). * Personal union with
Kingdom of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
(1516–1714). * Personal union with Holy Roman Empire (1714–1735). * Personal union with
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
from 1735 to 1806 under the rule of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, House of Bourbon.


Navarre

* Personal union with France from 1285 to 1328 due to the marriage between Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre and the reign of their three sons, and from 1589 to 1620 due to the accession of Henry IV of France, Henry IV, after which Kingdom of Navarre, Navarre was formally integrated into France.


Netherlands

* Personal union with Luxembourg from 1815 to 1890.


Norway

* Sweyn Forkbeard ruled both Norway and Denmark from 999 to 1014. He also ruled England from 1013 to 1014. * Cnut the Great ruled both England and Denmark from 1018 to 1035. He also ruled Norway from 1028 to 1035. * Personal union with Denmark 1042–1047. Magnus I of Norway ruled both Norway and Denmark, who died of unclear circumstances. * Personal union with Sweden from 1319 to 1343. * Personal union with Sweden from 1449 to 1450. * Personal union with Denmark from 1380 to 1389/97. * The
Kalmar Union The Kalmar Union (Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestr ...
with Denmark and Sweden from 1389/97 to 1521/23 (sometimes defunct). * Personal union with Denmark 1523 to 1814. * Personal union with Sweden from 1814 (when Norway declared independence from Denmark and Swedish campaign against Norway (1814), was forced into a Union between Sweden and Norway, union with Sweden) to 1905.


Poland

* Personal union with the Kingdom of Bohemia from 1300 to 1306. * Personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages, Kingdom of Hungary, 1301–1305, 1370–1382 and 1440–1444 (see Personal union#Hungary, Hungary section above). * Personal union between the Duchy of Płock and Duchy of Wizna in 1345–1351, 1381–1382 and 1435–1495. * Personal union with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from Polish–Lithuanian union, 1386 to 1401, 1447 to 1492, and 1501 to 1569. * Personal union with the
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
from 1574 to 1575. * Personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden from 1592 to 1599. * Personal union with the Treaty of Hadiach, Duchy of Ruthenia (Ukraine) in 1658. * Personal union with the Electorate of Saxony, 1697–1706, 1709–1733 and 1734–1763. * Congress Poland, Personal union with the Russian Empire from 1815 to 1831.


Pomerania

* Personal union between Pomerania-Stolp and Pomerania-Stargard from 1395 to 1402 and from 1403 to 1478.


Portugal

* Iberian Union with Spain from 1580 to 1640, under Philip II of Spain, Philip II (also known as Philip I of Portugal), his Philip III of Spain, son and Philip IV of Spain, grandson. * Personal union with Brazil, under Peter I of Brazil (Peter IV of Portugal), from 10 March 1826 to 28 May 1826. Peter was the Prince Royal of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves when he declared the independence of Brazil in 1822, becoming its first emperor. When his father (
John VI of Portugal , house = Braganza , father = Pedro III of Portugal , mother = Maria I of Portugal , birth_date = , birth_place = Queluz Palace, Queluz, Portugal , death_date = , death_place = Bemposta Palace, Lisbon, Portugal ...
) died, Peter became also king of Portugal for only a few weeks, after which he abdicated the Portuguese throne in favor of his older daughter, Queen Maria II of Portugal, Princess Maria da Glória.


Prussia

* Brandenburg-Prussia: personal union between the Margraviate of Brandenburg and
Duchy of Prussia The Duchy of Prussia (german: Herzogtum Preußen, pl, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (german: Herzogliches Preußen, link=no; pl, Prusy Książęce, link=no) was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The histor ...

Duchy of Prussia
(1618–1701). * Personal union between Kingdom of Prussia and Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1918), Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (later United Baltic Duchy) (1918). * Personal union between Kingdom of Prussia and Canton of Neuchâtel, Principality of Neuchâtel, 1707-1806 and 1814–1848. The King of Prussia exchanged territories with France during the 1806-1814 interim. * Personal union between Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire, 1871-1918.


Romania

* Personal union between Wallachia and Transylvania from 1599 to 1600 under the rule of Michael the Brave * Personal union between Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania in 1600 under the rule of Michael the Brave * Personal union between Wallachia and Moldavia from 1859 to 1862 under the rule of Alexandru Ioan Cuza


Sardinia

* Personal union with
Kingdom of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
(1516–1708). * Personal union with Holy Roman Empire (1714–1720). * Personal union with Duchy of Savoy from 1720.


Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha

In 1826, the newly created Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was initially a double duchy, ruled by Duke Ernest I in a personal union. In 1852, the duchies were bound in a political and real union. They were then a quasi-federal unitary state, even though later attempts to merge the duchies failed.


Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach

The duchies of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach were in personal union from 1741, when the ruling house of Saxe-Eisenach died out, until 1809, when they were merged into the single duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.


Schleswig and Holstein

''Duchies with peculiar rules for order of succession, succession. See the Schleswig-Holstein Question.'' The kings of Denmark at the same time being dukes of Schleswig and Holstein 1460–1864. (Holstein being part of the Holy Roman Empire, while Schleswig was a part of Denmark). The situation was complicated by the fact that for some time, the Duchies were divided among collateral branches of the House of Oldenburg (the ruling House in Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein). Besides the "main" Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Glückstadt, ruled by the Kings of Denmark, there were states encompassing territory in both Duchies. Notably the Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp and the subordinate Dukes of Schleswig-Holstein-Beck, Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg and Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.


Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

The duchies of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen were in personal union from 1909, when Günther, Prince of Schwarzburg, Prince Günther of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt succeeded also to the throne of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, until 1918, when he (and all the other German monarchs) abdicated.


Scotland

* Personal union, as
Kingdom of Scotland The Kingdom of Scotland ( gd, Rìoghachd na h-Alba; sco, Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843. Its territories expanded and shrank, but it came to occupy the northern thi ...
, with the
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
during the reign of Francis II (1559-1560), first husband of Mary, Queen of Scots. * Personal union, as Kingdom of Scotland, with the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
and
Kingdom of Ireland The Kingdom of Ireland ( ga, label= Classical Irish, an Ríoghacht Éireann; ga, label=Modern Irish Irish ( in ), sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a of the branch of the , which is a part of the . Irish is to the and was the po ...

Kingdom of Ireland
(1603-1707) following the accession of James VI and I, James VI, King of Scots, to the joint English and Irish throne. (All monarchs of Scotland were in a personal union with England and Ireland throughout the period 1603–1707, with the exception of Charles II of England, Charles II, reigning solely as King of Scots 1649–1651, and the subsequent interregnum between 1651 and restoration of the House of Stuart in 1660)1 * Personal union, as Kingdom of Scotland, with the Dutch Republic (1689-1702) during the reign of William II of Scotland.'' 1: After 1707, see United Kingdom below.'' After 1707, see Great Britain above.''


Sicily

* Union (or Personal Union) with the Holy Roman Empire from 1194 to 1254 under the rule of the Hohenstaufen, House of Hohenstaufen. * Personal union with the Crown of Aragon from 1282 to 1285 and 1409 to 1516 under the rule of the House of Barcelona and the House of Trastámara. * Personal union with the
Kingdom of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
from 1516 to 1713 under the rule of the House of Habsburg and the House of Bourbon. * Personal union with the Duchy of Savoy from 1713 to 1720 under the rule of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, Victor Amadeus II of Savoy. * Personal union with the Holy Roman Empire from 1720 to 1734 under the rule of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI of Habsburg. * Personal union with the
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the south of the between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the (1282–13 ...

Kingdom of Naples
from 1735 to 1806 under the rule of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, House of Bourbon.


Spain

Leon, Castile and Aragon * Kingdom of León, Kingdom of Galicia and Kingdom of Asturias (914–924). * Kingdom of León and Crown of Castile (1037–1065 and 1072–1230). * Crown of Aragon and
Kingdom of Navarre ) , religion = , common_languages = , title_leader = Monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity) ...
(1076–1134). * Crown of Aragon and
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
(1412–1516). * Crown of Aragon and
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the south of the between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the (1282–13 ...

Kingdom of Naples
(1442–1458 and 1504–1516). * Crown of Castile and Duchy of Burgundy (1506). * Crown of Castile and Crown of Aragon from 1516 to 1715, during Habsburg Spain and until the Nueva Planta decrees (1707-1715) annexed the different territories of the Crown of Aragon to the Crown of Castile, converting Spain into a
real union Real union is a union of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), ...

real union
. Spain * Personal union with Archduchy of Austria and Habsburg Monarchy, Austrian dynastic lands (1519–1521). * Personal union with Holy Roman Empire (1519–1556) under Charles I. * Personal union with
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the south of the between 1282 and 1816. It was established by the (1282–13 ...

Kingdom of Naples
(1516–1714),
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sar ...
(1516–1708),
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
(1516–1713) and
Duchy of Milan The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in th ...
(1540–1706). * Personal union with Habsburg Netherlands (1516–1581) and Spanish Netherlands (1581–1714). * Personal union with
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
(1556–1558). * Personal union (Iberian Union) with Kingdom of Portugal (1580–1640).


Sweden

* Personal union with Norway from 1319 to 1343. * Personal union with Skåneland, Scania from 1332 to 1360. * The
Kalmar Union The Kalmar Union (Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestr ...
with
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
and Norway from 1389/97 to 1521/23 (sometimes defunct). * Personal union with Norway from 1449 to 1450. * Personal union with the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1592 to 1599. * Swedish kings united his kingdom with Estonia under Swedish rule, Estonia (1581–1721), Livonia (1629–1721), Kexholm County, Karelia (1617–1721), Scania (1645–1721), Bremen-Verden (1648–1719), Swedish Pomerania, Pomerania (1630–1815), Swedish Wismar, Wismar (1648–1803) and Swedish Ingria, Ingria (1583–1595 and 1617–1721). * Union between Sweden and Norway, Personal union with Norway from 1814 to 1905.


United Kingdom

* Personal union with the Electorate of Hanover (1801–1806). * Personal union with the Kingdom of Hanover (1814–1837). * Personal union with the Irish Free State (1922–1937) and Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949, Ireland (''de jure'') from 1937 to 1949; * The former Dominions and Commonwealth realms: **Dominion of Newfoundland, Newfoundland (1907–1934), **Union of South Africa, South Africa (1910–1961), **Dominion of India, India (1947–1950), **Dominion of Pakistan, Pakistan (1947–1956), **Dominion of Ceylon, Ceylon (1948–1972), **Dominion of Ghana, Ghana (1957–1960), **Federation of Nigeria, Nigeria (1960–1963), **Sierra Leone (1961–1971), Sierra Leone (1961–1971), **Tanganyika (1961–1964), Tanganyika (1961–1962), **Trinidad and Tobago (1962–1976), **Uganda (1962–1963), Uganda (1962–1963), **Kenya (1963–1964), Kenya (1963–1964), **Malawi (1964–1966), Malawi (1964–1966), **State of Malta, Malta (1964–1974), **The Gambia (1965–1970), The Gambia (1965–1970), **Guyana (1966–1970), Guyana (1966–1970), **Mauritius (1968–1992), Mauritius (1968–1992), **Dominion of Fiji, Fiji (1970–1987). **Barbados (1966-2021) * Personal union with the current Commonwealth realms: **Canada since 1867, **Australia since 1901, **New Zealand since 1907, **Jamaica since 1962, **The Bahamas since 1973, **Grenada since 1974, **Papua New Guinea since 1975, **Solomon Islands since 1978, **Tuvalu since 1978, **Saint Lucia since 1979, **Saint Vincent and the Grenadines since 1979, **Antigua and Barbuda since 1981, **Belize since 1981, **Saint Kitts and Nevis since 1983.


Wales

* Personal union, as
Principality of Wales The Principality of Wales ( cy, Tywysogaeth Cymru) existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It i ...

Principality of Wales
, with
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
(1284-1542). ''After 1542, see England above.''


See also

*Composite monarchy *Confederation *Dynastic union *King-Emperor *Political union *Dual mandate


Notes


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Personal Union Political systems Personal unions,