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The performing arts are arts such as music, dance, and drama which are performed for an audience. It is different from
visual arts The visual arts are Art#Forms, genres, media, and styles, art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics (art), ceramics, photography, video, filmmaking, design, crafts and architecture. Many artistic disciplines such as p ...

visual arts
, which is when artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static
art objects A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creation of aesthetics, aesthetic value. Except for "work of art", which may be used of any work regarded as art in its widest sense, including works fr ...
. Performing arts include a range of disciplines which are performed in front of a live audience, including theatre, music, and dance. Theatre, music, dance and
object manipulation Object manipulation is a form of dexterity Fine motor skill (or dexterity) is the coordination of small muscles in movement with the eyes, usually involving the synchronisation of hands and fingers. The complex levels of manual dexterity that h ...

object manipulation
, and other kinds of performances are present in all human cultures. The
history of music Music is found in every known society, past and present, and is considered to be a cultural universal. Since all people of the world, including the most isolated tribal groups, have a form of music, it may be concluded that music is likely to ha ...
and
dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be categorized and described by its ...
date to pre-historic times whereas
circus skills Circus skills are a group of disciplines that have been performed as entertainment in circus, sideshow, Street performance, busking, or variety show, variety, vaudeville or music hall shows. Most circus skills are still being performed today. Man ...
date to at least
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

Ancient Egypt
. Many performing arts are performed professionally. Performance can be in purpose built buildings, such as theatres and opera houses, on open air stages at festivals, on stages in tents such as circuses and on the street. Live performances before an audience are a form of entertainment. The development of
audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion ( ...
and
video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active d ...

video
recording has allowed for private consumption of the performing arts. The performing arts often aims to express one's emotions and feelings.


Performers

Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers. Examples of these include actors, comedians, dancers,
magicians Magician or The Magician may refer to: Performers * A practitioner of Magic (supernatural) * A practitioner of Magic (illusion) * Magician (fantasy), a character in a fictional fantasy context Entertainment Books * ''The Magician'', an 18th-cent ...
,
circus A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that may include s, , trained animals, acts, s, s, , s, , s, , and as well as other and stunt-oriented artists. The term ''circus'' also describes the performance w ...

circus
artists, musicians, and singers. Performing arts are also supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting, choreography and
stagecraft Stagecraft is a technical aspect of theatrical Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live ...

stagecraft
. A performer who excels in acting, singing, and dancing is commonly referred to as a ''triple threat''. Well-known examples of historical triple threat entertainers include
Gene Kelly Eugene Curran Kelly (August 23, 1912 – February 2, 1996) was an American actor, dancer, singer, filmmaker, and choreographer. He was known for his energetic and athletic dancing style, his good looks, and the likable characters that he played ...

Gene Kelly
,
Fred Astaire Fred Astaire (born Frederick Austerlitz; May 10, 1899 – June 22, 1987) was an American actor, dancer, singer, choreographer, and television presenter. He is widely considered the greatest dancer in film history. His stage and subsequen ...
,
Judy Garland Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an American actress, singer, vaudevillian, and dancer. With a career spanning 45 years, she attained international stardom as an actress in both musical and dramatic rol ...
,
Sammy Davis Jr. Samuel George Davis Jr. (December 8, 1925 – May 16, 1990) was an American singer, dancer, actor, vaudevillian and comedian whom critic Randy Blaser called "the greatest entertainer ever to grace a stage in these United States". At age th ...
,
Michael Jackson Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter and dancer. Dubbed the " King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century. Over a four-decade car ...

Michael Jackson
,
Beyoncé Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter ( ; ; born September 4, 1981) is an American singer and songwriter. Born and raised in Houston, Texas Houston ( ) is the most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitu ...
,
Madonna Madonna Louise Ciccone (; ; born August 16, 1958) is an American singer-songwriter and actress. She is considered one of the most influential figures in popular culture and has often been referred to as the " Queen of Pop". Madonna is noted ...

Madonna
, and
Jennifer Lopez Jennifer Lynn "J.Lo" Lopez (born July 24, 1969) is an American singer, actress, and dancer. In 1991, Lopez began appearing as a Fly Girl dancer on ''In Living Color ''In Living Color'' is an American sketch comedy Sketch comedy compris ...

Jennifer Lopez
. Performers often adapt their appearance, such as with
costume Costume is the distinctive style of dress or cosmetic of an individual or group that reflects class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch. In short costume is a cultural visual of the people. The term also was tradition ...

costume
s and stage makeup,
stage lighting Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theater, dance, opera, and other performance arts.
stage lighting
, and sound.


Types

Performing arts may include dance, music, opera, theatre and musical theatre,
magic Magic or Magick may refer to: * Ceremonial magic, encompasses a wide variety of rituals of magic * Chaos magic#REDIRECT Chaos magic {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from miscapitalization {{R unprintworthy ..., a contemporary magical practic ...
,
illusion An illusion is a distortion of the sense A sense is a biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the world and responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimuli. (For example, in the human body, t ...
,
mime #REDIRECT Mime artist A mime artist or just mime (from Greek , , "imitator, actor") is a person who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed ...

mime
,
spoken word Spoken word refers to an Oral tradition, oral poetic performance art that is based mainly on the poem as well as the performer's aesthetic qualities. It is a late 20th century continuation of an ancient oral artistic tradition that focuses on t ...
,
puppetry Puppetry is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a spe ...

puppetry
,
circus arts Circus skills are a group of disciplines that have been performed as entertainment in circus, sideshow, Street performance, busking, or variety show, variety, vaudeville or music hall shows. Most circus skills are still being performed today. Man ...
, and
performance art Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed by the artist or other participants. It may be witnessed live or through documentation, spontaneously developed or written, and is traditionally presented to a pu ...
. There is also a specialized form of fine art, in which the artists ''perform'' their work live to an audience. This is called performance art. Most performance art also involves some form of plastic art, perhaps in the creation of props. Dance was often referred to as a plastic art during the
Modern dance Modern dance is a broad genre of western concert dance, concert or theatrical dance which included dance styles such as ballet, folk, ethnic, religious, and social dancing; and primarily arose out of Europe and the United States in the late 19th ...
era.


Theatre

Theatre is the branch of performing arts concerned with acting out stories in front of an audience, using a combination of speech, gesture, music, dance, sound, and spectacle. Any one or more of these elements is considered performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays, theater takes such forms as plays, musicals, opera, ballet,
illusion An illusion is a distortion of the sense A sense is a biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the world and responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimuli. (For example, in the human body, t ...
,
mime #REDIRECT Mime artist A mime artist or just mime (from Greek , , "imitator, actor") is a person who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed ...
, classical Indian dance,
kabuki is a classical form of Japanese dance-drama. Kabuki theatre is known for its heavily-stylised performances, the often-glamorous costumes worn by performers, and for the elaborate make-up worn by some of its performers. Kabuki is thought to ...

kabuki
, mummers' plays,
improvisational theatre Improvisational theatre, often called improvisation or improv, is the form of theatre, often comedy, in which most or all of what is performed is unplanned or unscripted: created spontaneously by the performers. In its purest form, the dialogue, a ...
, comedy,
pantomime Pantomime (; informally panto) is a type of musical comedy Musical theatre is a form of theatre, theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, pathos ...

pantomime
, and non-conventional or contemporary forms like postmodern theatre,
postdramatic theatreThe notion of postdramatic theatre was established by German theatre researcher Hans-Thies Lehmann in his book ''Postdramatic Theatre'', summarising a number of tendencies and stylistic traits occurring in experimental theatre, avant-garde theatre si ...
, or performance art.


Dance

In the context of performing arts, dance generally refers to human
movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), commonly referred to as movement Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * Movement (short story), "Movement", a shor ...
, typically rhythmic and to music, used as a form of audience entertainment in a performance setting. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...

social
,
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-our, -or, see spelling diff ...

cultural
,
aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of m ...

aesthetic
,
artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what constitutes art, and i ...
, and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as
folk dance A folk dance is a dance Dance is a consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has and often value. Dance can be categorized and described by its , by its repertoire of movements, ...

folk dance
) to codified, virtuoso techniques such as
ballet Ballet () is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread and highly technical form of ...

ballet
. There is one another modern form of dance that emerged in 19th- 20th century with the name of
Free dance Free dance is a 20th-century dance form that preceded modern dance. Rebelling against the rigid constraints of classical ballet, Loie Fuller, Isadora Duncan and Ruth St. Denis (with her work in theater) developed their own styles of free dance an ...
style. This form of dance was structured to create a harmonious personality which included features such as physical and spiritual freedom.
Isadora Duncan Angela Isadora Duncan (May 26, 1877 or May 27, 1878 – September 14, 1927) was an American dancer who performed to great acclaim throughout Europe and the US. Born and raised in California, she lived and danced in Western Europe, the US and the ...

Isadora Duncan
was the first female dancer who argued about "woman of future" and developed novel vector of choreography using
Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, writer, and philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the ...

Nietzsche
’s idea of "supreme mind in free mind". Dance is a powerful impulse, but the art of dance is that impulse channeled by skillful performers into something that becomes intensely expressive and that may delight spectators who feel no wish to dance themselves. These two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced largely by a professional few—are the two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject. In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, and neither can exist without the other.
Choreography Choreography is the art or practice of designing sequence In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed and order theory, order matters. Like a Set (mathematics), set, it contains Element (m ...

Choreography
is the art of making dances, and the person who practices this art is called a choreographer.


Music

Music is an art form which combines
pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including "definite pitch" and "indefinite pitch" ** Absolute pitch or "perfect pitch" ** Pitch class, a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octaves ...
, rhythm, and
dynamic Dynamics (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million ...
to create sound. It can be performed using a variety of instruments and styles and is divided into genres such as
folk Folk or Folks may refer to: Sociology *Nation *People * Folklore ** Folk art ** Folk dance ** Folk hero ** Folk music *** Folk metal *** Folk punk *** Folk rock *** British folk rock ** Folk religion * Folk taxonomy Arts, entertainment, and media ...

folk
,
jazz Jazz is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human s ...
,
hip hop Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabil ...
, pop, and rock, etc. As an art form, music can occur in live or recorded formats, and can be or improvised. As music is a
protean In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A ...

protean
art, it easily coordinates with words for songs as physical movements do in dance. Moreover, it has a capability of shaping human behaviors as it impacts our emotions.


History


Western performing arts

Starting in the 6th century BC, the
Classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, specifically of the 5th and 4th centuries BC *Classical antiquity, in the Greco-Roman world *Classical India, an historic period of India (c. 322 BC - c. 550 CE) *Classical period (music), in music ...
of performing art began in
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
, ushered in by the tragic poets such as
Sophocles Sophocles (; grc, Σοφοκλῆς, ; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41. is one of three ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , ...

Sophocles
. These poets wrote plays which, in some cases, incorporated dance (see
Euripides Euripides (; grc, Εὐριπίδης ''Eurīpídēs'', ; ) was a tragedian Tragedy (from the grc-gre, τραγῳδία, ''tragōidia'', ''tragōidia'') is a form of drama based on human suffering and, mainly, the terrible or sorrowfu ...

Euripides
). The
Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31  ...
began the widespread use of comedy. However, by the 6th century AD, Western performing arts had been largely ended, as the
Dark Ages Dark Ages or Dark Age may refer to: History and sociology *Dark Ages (historiography), the use of the term ''Dark Ages'' by historians and lay people **Byzantine Dark Ages (7th–8th centuries), period of large-scale transformation but obscure du ...
began. Between the 9th century and 14th century, performing art in the West was limited to religious historical enactments and
morality play The morality play is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category o ...
s, organized by the
Church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is usually used to refer to the p ...

Church
in celebration of holy days and other important events.


Renaissance

In the 15th century performing arts, along with the arts in general, saw a revival as the Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe plays, some of which incorporated dance, which were performed and
Domenico da PiacenzaDomenico da Piacenza (c. 1400 – c. 1470), also known as Domenico da Ferrara, was an Italian Renaissance dancing master. He became a very popular teacher with his students – most notably Antonio Cornazzano and Guglielmo Ebreo da Pesaro – who bot ...
credited with the first use of the term ''ballo'' (in ''De Arte Saltandi et Choreas Ducendi'') instead of ''danza'' (dance) for his ''baletti'' or ''balli''. The term eventually became ''Ballet''. The first Ballet ''per se'' is thought to be
Balthasar de BeaujoyeulxImage:Ballet 1582.png, Engraving of the first scene of the Ballet Comique de la Reine. :Image:Ballet 1582.png, Click to enlarge. Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx (also Balthasar de Beaujoyeux), originally Baldassare de Belgiojoso (died c. 1587 in Paris) was ...
's
Ballet Comique de la Reine Ballet () is a type of performance dance 300px, Ballet dancers executing ''grand jetes'' during a concert dance performance. Concert dance (also known as performance dance or theatre dance in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Gre ...
(1581). By the mid-16th century
Commedia Dell'arte (; ; ) was an early form of professional theatre, originating in Italy, that was popular throughout Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries. It was formerly called Italian comedy in English and is also known as ''commedia alla maschera'', ' ...
became popular in Europe, introducing the use of
improvisation Improvisation is the activity of making or doing something not planned beforehand, using whatever can be found. Improvisation in the performing arts is a very spontaneous performance without specific or scripted preparation. The skills of imp ...
. This period also introduced the Elizabethan masque, featuring music, dance and elaborate costumes as well as professional theatrical companies in England.
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

William Shakespeare
's plays in the late 16th century developed from this new class of professional performance. In 1597, the first opera,
Dafne ''Dafne'' is the earliest known work that, by modern standards, could be considered an . The by survives complete; the mostly-lost music was completed by , but at least two of the six surviving fragments are by . ''Dafne'' was first performed ...
was performed and throughout the 17th century, opera would rapidly become the entertainment of choice for the
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
in most of Europe, and eventually for large numbers of people living in cities and towns throughout Europe.


Modern era

The introduction of the
proscenium arch A proscenium ( grc-gre, προσκήνιον, ) is the metaphorical vertical plane of space in a theatre, usually surrounded on the top and sides by a physical proscenium arch (whether or not truly "arched") and on the bottom by the stage floor ...
in Italy during the 17th century established the traditional theatre form that persists to this day. Meanwhile, in England, the
Puritans The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of J ...
forbade acting, bringing a halt to performing arts that lasted until 1660. After that, women began to appear in both French and English plays. The French introduced a formal dance instruction in the late 17th century. It is also during this time that the first plays were performed in the
American Colonies#REDIRECT American colonies
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from ambiguous term {{R unprintworthy ...
. During the 18th century, the introduction of the popular
opera buffa ''Opera buffa'' (; "comic opera", plural: ''opere buffe'') is a genre of opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Singing, singers, but is distinct from musical theatre. Such ...
brought opera to the masses as an accessible form of performance.
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, speci ...

Mozart
's ''
The Marriage of Figaro ''The Marriage of Figaro'' ( it, Le nozze di Figaro, links=no, ), K. 492, is an opera buffa ''Opera buffa'' (; "comic opera", plural: ''opere buffe'') is a genre of opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental ...
'' and ''
Don Giovanni ''Don Giovanni'' (; K. 527; complete title: , literally ''The Rake __NOTOC__ Rake may refer to: * Rake (character), a man habituated to immoral conduct * Rake (theatre), the artificial slope of a theatre stage Science and technology * Rake rec ...

Don Giovanni
'' are landmarks of the late 18th century opera. At the turn of the 19th century,
Beethoven
Beethoven
and the
Romantic movement Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1 ...
ushered in a new era that led first to the spectacles of
grand opera Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real ...
and then to the musical dramas of
Giuseppe Verdi Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (; 9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian composer best known for his opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Si ...

Giuseppe Verdi
and the ''
Gesamtkunstwerk A ''Gesamtkunstwerk'' (, literally "total artwork", frequently translated as "total work of art", "ideal work of art", "universal artwork", "synthesis of the arts", "comprehensive artwork", or "all-embracing art form") is a work of art that makes u ...
'' (total work of art) of the operas of
Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemic Polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic (or ...

Richard Wagner
leading directly to the music of the 20th century. The 19th century was a period of growth for the performing arts for all social classes, technical advances such as the introduction of
gaslight
gaslight
to theatres,
burlesque A burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects. William Shakespeare, Shakespeare's Pyramus and Thisbe scene in ''Mi ...
, minstrel dancing, and variety theatre. In ballet, women make great progress in the previously male-dominated art.
Modern dance Modern dance is a broad genre of western concert dance, concert or theatrical dance which included dance styles such as ballet, folk, ethnic, religious, and social dancing; and primarily arose out of Europe and the United States in the late 19th ...
began in the late 19th century and early 20th century in response to the restrictions of traditional ballet. The arrival of
Sergei Diaghilev Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev ( ; rus, Серге́й Па́влович Дя́гилев, , sʲɪˈrɡʲej ˈpavləvʲɪdʑ ˈdʲæɡʲɪlʲɪf; 19 August 1929), usually referred to outside Russia as Serge Diaghilev, was a Russian art critic, pat ...
's
Ballets Russes The Ballets Russes () was an itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America. The company never performed in Russia, where the Russian Revolution, Revolution d ...
(1909–1929) revolutionized ballet and the performing arts generally throughout the Western world, most importantly through Diaghilev's emphasis on collaboration, which brought choreographers, dancers, set designers/artists, composers and musicians together to revitalize and revolutionize ballet. It is extremely complex.
Konstantin Stanislavski Konstantin Sergeyevich Stanislavski ( Alekseyev; russian: Константин Сергеевич Станиславский, p=kənstɐnʲˈtʲin sʲɪrˈgʲejɪvʲɪtɕ stənʲɪˈslafskʲɪj; 7 August 1938) was a seminal Soviet and Russia ...
's "System" revolutionized acting in the early 20th century, and continues to have a major influence on actors of stage and screen to the current day. Both
impressionism Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or ...

impressionism
and modern realism were introduced to the stage during this period. With the invention of the motion picture in the late 19th century by
Thomas Edison Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices in fields such as electric power generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from s ...

Thomas Edison
and the growth of the
motion picture industry in Hollywood
motion picture industry in Hollywood
in the early 20th century, film became a dominant performance medium throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.
Rhythm and blues Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B or R'n'B, is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and ...
, a cultural phenomenon of black America, rose to prominence in the early 20th century; influencing a range of later popular music styles internationally. In the 1930s
Jean Rosenthal Jean Rosenthal (born Eugenia Rosenthal; March 16, 1912May 1, 1969) is considered a pioneer in the field of theatrical lighting design. She was born in New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United Sta ...
introduced what would become modern
stage lighting Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theater, dance, opera, and other performance arts.
stage lighting
, changing the nature of the stage as the
Broadway musical Broadway theatre,Although ''theater'' is the generally preferred spelling in the United States (see American and British English spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within differen ...
became a phenomenon in the United States.


Postwar

Post-World War II performing arts were highlighted by the resurgence of both ballet and opera in the Western world.
Postmodernism Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of philosophical skepticism, skepticism toward what it describes as the meta-narrative, grand narratives and ideology, ideologies of modernism, as well as oppos ...
in performing arts dominated the 1960s to large extent.


Eastern performing arts


Middle East

The earliest recorded theatrical event dates back to 2000 BC with the passion plays of
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

Ancient Egypt
. The story of the god
Osiris Osiris (, from Egyptian ''wsjr'', Coptic ) is the god In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne ...

Osiris
was performed annually at festivals throughout the civilization, marking the known beginning of a long relationship between theatre and religion. The most popular forms of theater in the medieval Islamic world were
puppet A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object, called a puppet A puppet is an ...

puppet
theatre (which included hand puppets,
shadow play Shadow play, also known as shadow puppetry, is an ancient form of storytelling Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing narrative, stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatre, theatrics or embellishment. Every cul ...
s and
marionette A marionette (; french: marionnette, ) is a puppet A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inan ...

marionette
productions) and live
passion play
passion play
s known as ''ta'ziya'', where actors re-enact episodes from
Muslim history Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...
. In particular,
Shia Islam Shia Islam or Shi'ism is the second largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanis ...
ic plays revolved around the ''
shaheed ''Shahid'', or ''Shaheed'' ( ', plural: '; female: ') denotes a martyr in Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , ...

shaheed
'' (martyrdom) of
Ali Ali ibn Abi Talib ( ar, عَلِيّ ٱبْن أَبِي طَالِب, ; 13 September 601 – 29 January 661) was a cousin, son-in-law and companion of the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad, who ru ...

Ali
's sons
Hasan ibn Ali Al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib ( ar, الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب; 2 March 625 – 2 April 670 Common Era, CE), also called Imam Hasan al-Mujtaba ( ar, الإمام الحسن المجتبى, link=no) by Shia Muslim ...

Hasan ibn Ali
and
Husayn ibn Ali Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib ( ar, الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب; 10 January 626 – 10 October 680 ), also known as Abu Abd Allah or Imam Husayn, was a grandson of the Islamic prophet and a of (the fourth calip ...
. Live secular plays were known as ''akhraja'', recorded in medieval '' adab'' literature, though they were less common than puppetry and ''ta'ziya'' theater.


Iran

In
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
there are other forms of theatrical events such as ''Naghali'' or ''Naqqāli'' (story telling), ''ٰRu-Howzi'', '' Siah-Bazi'', ''Parde-Khani'', and ''
Mareke giri Mareke Giri is a traditional public show in Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost ...
''. Prior to the twentieth century, storytelling was the most recognized form of entertainment, although today, some forms still remain. One form, ''Naghali,'' was traditionally performed in coffeehouses where the storytellers, or ''Naghals (Naqqāls),'' only recited sections of a story at a time, thus retaining regular cliental. These stories were based on events of historical or religious importance and many referenced poetry from the
Shahnameh The ''Shahnameh'' or ''Shahnama'' ( fa, شاهنامه, Šāhnāme ; ) is a long epic poem written by the Persian literature, Persian poet Ferdowsi for Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran ...
. Oftentimes these stories were altered to bond with the atmosphere or mood of the audience.


India

Folk theatre and dramatics can be traced to the religious ritualism of the Vedic peoples in the
2nd millennium BC The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. In the Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban de ...
. This folk theatre of the misty past was mixed with dance, food, ritualism, plus a depiction of events from daily life. The last element made it the origin of the classical theatre of later times. Many historians, notably D. D. Kosambi, Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Adya Rangacharaya, etc. have referred to the prevalence of ritualism amongst
Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples speaking these languages See also

*Aryan invasion theory (disambiguation) *Indo-Aryan tribes (disambigua ...
tribes in which some members of the tribe acted as if they were wild animals and some others were the hunters. Those who acted as mammals like goats, buffaloes, reindeer, monkeys, etc. were chased by those playing the role of hunters.
Bharata Muni Bharata Muni (भरत मुनि) was an ancient India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, t ...
(fl. 5th–2nd century BC) was an ancient Indian writer best known for writing the '' Natya Shastra of Bharata'', a theoretical treatise on Indian performing arts, including theatre, dance, acting, and music, which has been compared to
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
's ''
Poetics Poetics is the theory of literary forms and literary discourse Discourse is a generalization of the notion of a conversation Conversation is interactive communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is th ...
''. Bharata is often known as the father of Indian theatrical arts. His ''Natya Shastra'' seems to be the first attempt to develop the technique or rather art, of drama in a systematic manner. The Natya Shastra tells us not only what is to be portrayed in a drama, but how the portrayal is to be done. Drama, as Bharata Muni says, is the imitation of men and their doings (''loka-vritti''). As men and their doings have to be respected on the stage, so drama in Sanskrit is also known by the term ''roopaka'', which means portrayal. The ''
Ramayana ''Rāmāyana'' (; sa, रामायणम्, ) is one of the two major Sanskrit literature, Sanskrit Indian epic poetry, epics of ancient India and important text of Hinduism, the other being the ''Mahabharata, Mahābhārata''. The epi ...

Ramayana
'' and ''
Mahabharata The ''Mahābhārata'' (; sa, महाभारतम्, ', ) is one of the two major Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan langua ...

Mahabharata
'' can be considered the first recognized plays that originated in India. These epics provided the inspiration to the earliest Indian dramatists and they do it even today. Indian dramatists such as Bhāsa in the 2nd century BC wrote plays that were heavily inspired by the ''Ramayana'' and ''Mahabharata''.
Kālidāsa Kālidāsa (Devanagari: कालिदास; ''fl.'' 4th–5th century CE) was a Classical Sanskrit author who is often considered ancient India's greatest playwright and dramatist. His plays and poetry are primarily based on the Vedas, th ...
in the 1st century BC, is arguably considered to be ancient
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
's greatest dramatist. Three famous romantic plays written by Kālidāsa are the '' Mālavikāgnimitram'' (''Mālavikā and Agnimitra''), ''
Vikramōrvaśīyam ''Vikramōrvaśīyam'' (Devanagari विक्रमोर्वशीयम्), meaning ''Ūrvaśī Won by Valour'') is a five-act Sanskrit play by ancient Indian poet Kālidāsa, who lived in the 4th or 5th Century CE, on the Vedic love story ...
'' (''Pertaining to Vikrama and Urvashi''), and '' Abhijñānaśākuntala'' (''The Recognition of Shakuntala''). The last was inspired by a story in the ''Mahabharata'' and is the most famous. It was the first to be translated into English and German. In comparison to Bhāsa, who drew heavily from the epics, Kālidāsa can be considered an original playwright. The next great Indian dramatist was
Bhavabhuti Bhavabhuti was an 8th-century scholar of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the List of cou ...
(c. 7th century). He is said to have written the following three plays: ''Malati-Madhava'', '' Mahaviracharita'' and ''Uttar Ramacharita''. Among these three, the last two cover between them, the entire epic of ''Ramayana''. The powerful Indian emperor
Harsha Harshavardhana (c. 590–647 CE) was an Indian emperor who ruled North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in Sou ...

Harsha
(606–648) is credited with having written three plays: the comedy ''
Ratnavali ''Ratnavali'' (Precious Garland) is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the ...
'', ''
Priyadarsika ''Priyadarsika'' is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European la ...
'', and the
Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, an ...

Buddhist
drama ''
Nagananda ''Nagananda'' (''Joy of the Serpents'') is a Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch o ...
''. Many other dramatists followed during the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
. There were many performing art forms in the southern part of India, Kerala is such a state with different such art forms like
Koodiyattam Koodiyattam ( ml, കൂടിയാട്ടം; IAST: kūṭiyāṭṭaṁ; ) is a traditional performing art form in the state of Kerala, India. It is a combination of ancient Sanskrit theatre with elements of ''Koothu'', an ancient performi ...
, Nangyarkoothu, Kathakali, Chakyar koothu, Thirayattam and there were many prominent artists like Ramanchakyar, Painkulam Raman Chakyar and others.


China

There are references to theatrical entertainments in China as early as 1500 BC during the Shang dynasty; they often involved music, clowning and acrobatic displays. The Tang dynasty is sometimes known as "The Age of 1000 Entertainments". During this era, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang China, Emperor Xuanzong formed an acting school known as the Children of the Pear Garden to produce a form of drama that was primarily musical. During the Han Dynasty, shadow puppetry first emerged as a recognized form of theatre in China. There were two distinct forms of shadow puppetry, Cantonese southern and Pekingese northern. The two styles were differentiated by the method of making the puppets and the positioning of the rods on the puppets, as opposed to the type of play performed by the puppets. Both styles generally performed plays depicting great adventure and fantasy, rarely was this very stylized form of theatre used for political propaganda. Cantonese shadow puppets were the larger of the two. They were built using thick leather that created more substantial shadows. Symbolic color was also very prevalent; a black face represented honesty, a red one bravery. The rods used to control Cantonese puppets were attached perpendicular to the puppets' heads. Thus, they were not seen by the audience when the shadow was created. Pekingese puppets were more delicate and smaller. They were created out of thin, translucent leather usually taken from the belly of a donkey. They were painted with vibrant paints, thus they cast a very colorful shadow. The thin rods that controlled their movements were attached to a leather collar at the neck of the puppet. The rods ran parallel to the bodies of the puppet then turned at a ninety degree angle to connect to the neck. While these rods were visible when the shadow was cast, they laid outside the shadow of the puppet; thus they did not interfere with the appearance of the figure. The rods attached at the necks to facilitate the use of multiple heads with one body. When the heads were not being used, they were stored in a muslin book or fabric lined box. The heads were always removed at night. This was in keeping with the old superstition that if left intact, the puppets would come to life at night. Some puppeteers went so far as to store the heads in one book and the bodies in another, to further reduce the possibility of reanimating puppets. Shadow puppetry is said to have reached its highest point of artistic development in the 11th century before becoming a tool of the government. In the Song dynasty, there were many popular plays involving acrobatics and music. These developed in the Yuan dynasty into a more sophisticated form with a four- or five-act structure. Yuan drama spread across China and diversified into numerous regional forms, the best known of which is Beijing Opera, which is still popular today.


Thailand

In Thailand, it has been a tradition from the Middle Ages to stage plays based on plots drawn from Indian epics. In particular, the theatrical version of Thailand's national epic ''Ramakien'', a version of the Indian ''
Ramayana ''Rāmāyana'' (; sa, रामायणम्, ) is one of the two major Sanskrit literature, Sanskrit Indian epic poetry, epics of ancient India and important text of Hinduism, the other being the ''Mahabharata, Mahābhārata''. The epi ...

Ramayana
'', remains popular in Thailand even today.


Cambodia

In Cambodia, inscriptions dating back to the 6th century AD indicates evidences of dancers at a local temple and using puppetry for religious plays. At the ancient capital Angkor Wat, stories from the Indian epics ''Ramayana'' and ''
Mahabharata The ''Mahābhārata'' (; sa, महाभारतम्, ', ) is one of the two major Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan langua ...

Mahabharata
'' have been carved on the walls of temples and palaces. Similar reliefs are found at Borobudur in Indonesia.


Philippines

In the Philippines, the famous epic poetry, epic poem Ibong Adarna, originally titled ''"Korido at Buhay na Pinagdaanan ng Tatlong Prinsipeng Magkakapatid na anak nina Haring Fernando at Reyna Valeriana sa Kahariang Berbania"'' (English: "Corrido and Life Lived by the Three Princes, children of King Fernando and Queen Valeriana in the Kingdom of Berbania") from the 16th century was written by José de la Cruz (writer), José de la Cruz during the Spanish era. Aside from theatrical performances, different films were produced by different film studios/ television productions. The first produced "Ang Ibong Adarna" film was produced by LVN Pictures, the biggest film studio in the history of the Philippines. Florante at Laura is an ''"awit (poem), awit"'' or a poem consisting of 12-syllable quatrains with the full title ''"Pinagdaanang Buhay ni Florante at ni Laura sa Kahariang Albanya"'' (English: "The History of Florante and Laura in the Kingdom of Albania (medieval), Kingdom of Albania") was written by Francisco Balagtas in 1838 during his imprisonment dedicated to his sweetheart Maria Asuncuion Rivera (nicknamed "M.A.R.", referenced to as "Selya"). The poem has a special part entitled "Kay Selya" (English: "For Celia") specially dedicated for Rivera. The Philippine's national hero, José Rizal who is also a novelist, created the two famous poems in the Philippines, ''Noli Me Tángere (novel), Noli Me Tángere'' (Latin for "Touch me not", with an acute accent added on the final word in accordance with Spanish orthography) (1887) that describes perceived inequities of the Spanish Catholic friars and the ruling government and ''El Filibusterismo'' (translations: The filibusterism; The Subversive or The Subversion, as in the Locsín English translation, are also possible translations, also known by its alternative English title The Reign of Greed) (1891). The novel's dark theme departs dramatically from the previous novel's hopeful and romantic atmosphere, signifying Ibarra's resort to solving his country's issues through violent means, after his previous attempt in reforming the country's system made no effect and seemed impossible with the corrupt attitude of the Spaniards toward the Filipinos. These novels were written during the colonization of the Philippines by the Spanish Empire. All of these literary pieces were under the curriculum of the K-12 Program for Junior High Schools, Ibong Adarna is under the Grade 7 Curriculum; Florante at Laura (Grade 8); ''Noli Me Tángere'' (Grade 9); and El Filibusterismo (Grade 10).


Japan

During the 14th century, there were small companies of actors in Japan who performed short, sometimes vulgar comedies. A director of one of these companies, Kan'ami (1333–1384), had a son, Zeami Motokiyo (1363–1443), who was considered one of the finest child actors in Japan. When Kan'ami's company performed for Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358–1408), the of Japan, he implored Zeami to have a court education for his arts. After Zeami succeeded his father, he continued to perform and adapt his style into what is today Noh. A mixture of
pantomime Pantomime (; informally panto) is a type of musical comedy Musical theatre is a form of theatre, theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, pathos ...

pantomime
and vocal acrobatics, the Noh style of theatre has become one of Japan's most refined forms of theatrical performance. Japan, after a long period of civil wars and political disarray, was unified and at peace primarily due to Tokugawa Ieyasu (1600–1668). However, alarmed at the increasing numbers of Christians within the country due to the proselytizing efforts of Christian missionaries, he cut off contact from Japan to Europe and China and outlawed Christianity. When peace did come, a flourish of cultural influence and growing merchant class demanded its own entertainment. The first form of theatre to flourish was Ningyō jōruri (commonly referred to as Bunraku). The founder of and main contributor to Ningyō jōruri, Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653–1725), turned his form of theatre into a true art form. Ningyō jōruri is a highly stylized form of theatre using puppets, today about the size of a human. The men who control the puppets train their entire lives to become master puppeteers, when they can then operate the puppet's head and right arm and choose to show their faces during the performance. The other puppeteers, controlling the less important limbs of the puppet, cover themselves and their faces in a black suit, to imply their invisibility. The dialogue is handled by a single person, who uses varied tones of voice and speaking manners to simulate different characters. Chikamatsu wrote thousands of plays during his lifetime, most of which are still used today. Kabuki began shortly after Bunraku, legend has it by an actress named Okuni, who lived around the end of the 16th century. Most of kabuki's material came from Noh and Bunraku, and its erratic dance-type movements are also an effect of Bunraku. However, kabuki is less formal and more distant than Noh, yet very popular among the Japanese public. Actors are trained in many varied things including dancing, singing, pantomime, and even acrobatics. Kabuki was first performed by young girls, then by young boys, and by the end of the 16th century, kabuki companies consisted of all men. The men who portrayed women on stage were specifically trained to elicit the essence of a woman in their subtle movements and gestures.


History of African performing arts


History of performing arts in the Americas


History of performing arts in Oceania

Oftentimes, Melanesian dance exhibits a cultural theme of masculinity where leadership and a unique skill set are important for sharing with the community. These dances demonstrate the soldiery of a man, however they can also represent profitability such as encouraging conflict resolutions or healing. The costumes of impersonating dancers incorporate large masks and unhuman-like characteristics that act to imitate mythical figures. The music can also act as a voice for these magical personas.


See also

* Entertainment * Outline of performing arts * Performing arts education * Performing arts presenters * United States copyright law in the performing arts
Pamela D, Franklin Cultural Center for the Performing Arts
*Persian theatre *Theatre of Japan *Western culture


References


External links


Bibliography of Performing Arts In The East

European Collected Library on Performing Arts
{{Authority control Performing arts, Entertainment