A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym
(or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author
and printed on the title page or by-line of their works in place of their real name.
A pen name may be used to make the author's name more distinctive, to disguise the author's gender, to distance the author from their other works, to protect the author from retribution for their writings, to merge multiple persons into a single identifiable author, or for any of a number of reasons related to the marketing or aesthetic presentation of the work.
The author's name may be known only to the publisher or may come to be common knowledge.
Europe and the United States
An author may use a pen name if their real name is likely to be confused with that of another author or other significant individual. For instance, from 1899 the British politician Winston Churchill
wrote under the name Winston S. Churchill
to distinguish his writings from those of the American novelist of the same name
, who was at the time much better known.
An author may use a pen name implying a rank or title which they have never actually held. William Earl Johns
wrote under the name "Captain W. E. Johns" although the highest army rank he held was acting lieutenant
and his highest air force rank was flying officer
Authors who regularly write in more than one genre may use different pen names for each, sometimes with no attempt to conceal a true identity. Romance
writer Nora Roberts
writes erotic thriller
s under the pen name J. D. Robb (such books are titled "Nora Roberts writing as J. D. Robb"); Scots writer Iain Banks
wrote mainstream or literary fiction under his own name and published science fiction
under Iain M. Banks; Samuel Langhorne Clemens
used the aliases Mark Twain and Sieur Louis de Conte for different works. Similarly, an author who writes both fiction and non-fiction (such as the mathematician and fantasy writer Charles Dodgson, who wrote as Lewis Carroll
) may use a pseudonym for fiction writing. Science fiction author Harry Turtledove
has used the name H. N. Turtletaub for a number of historical novels he has written because he and his publisher felt that the presumed lower sales of those novels might hurt book store orders for the novels he writes under his own name.
Occasionally, a pen name is employed to avoid overexposure. Prolific authors for pulp magazines
often had two and sometimes three short stories appearing in one issue of a magazine; the editor would create several fictitious author names to hide this from readers. Robert A. Heinlein
wrote stories under pseudonyms of Anson MacDonald (a combination of his middle name and his then-wife's maiden name) and Caleb Strong so that more of his works could be published in a single magazine. Stephen King
published four novels under the name Richard Bachman
because publishers did not feel the public would buy more than one novel per year from a single author. Eventually, after critics found a large number of style similarities, publishers revealed Bachman's true identity.
Sometimes a pen name is used because an author believes that their name does not suit the genre they are writing in. Western novelist Pearl Gray dropped his first name and changed the spelling of his last name to become Zane Grey
, because he believed that his real name did not suit the Western genre. Romance novelist Angela Knight
writes under that name instead of her actual name (Julie Woodcock) because of the double entendre
of her surname in the context of that genre. Romain Gary
, who was a well-known French writer, decided in 1973 to write novels in a different style under the name Émile Ajar
and even asked his cousin's son to impersonate Ajar; thus he received the most prestigious French literary prize
twice, which is forbidden by the prize rules. He revealed the affair in a book he sent his editor just before committing suicide in 1980.
Some pen names have been used for long periods, even decades, without the author's true identity being discovered, such as Elena Ferrante
and Torsten Krol
A pen name may be shared by different writers in order to suggest continuity of authorship. Thus the ''Bessie Bunter
'' series of English boarding-school stories, initially written by the prolific Charles Hamilton
under the name Hilda Richards, was taken on by other authors who continued to use the same pen-name.
In some forms of fiction, the pen name adopted is the name of the lead character, to suggest to the reader that the book is a (fictional) autobiography. Daniel Handler
used the pseudonym Lemony Snicket
to present his ''A Series of Unfortunate Events
'' books as memoirs by an acquaintance of the main characters. Some, however, do this to fit a certain theme. One example, Pseudonymous Bosch
, used his pen name just to expand the theme of secrecy in ''The Secret Series
Authors also may occasionally choose pen names to appear in more favourable positions in bookshops
, to maximise visibility when placed on shelves that are conventionally arranged alphabetically moving horizontally, then upwards vertically.
Some female authors have used pen names to ensure that their works were accepted by publishers and/or the public. Such is the case of Peru's Clarinda
, whose work was published in the early 17th century. More often, women have adopted masculine pen names. This was common in the 19th century, when women were beginning to make inroads into literature but, it was felt, would not be taken as seriously by readers as male authors. For example, Mary Ann Evans wrote under the pen name George Eliot
; and Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, Baronne Dudevant, used the pseudonym George Sand
and Anne Brontë
published under the names Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell, respectively. French-Savoyard writer and poet Amélie Gex
chose to publish as Dian de Jeânna ("John, son of Jane") during the first half of her career. Karen Blixen
's very successful ''Out of Africa
'' (1937) was originally published under the pen name Isak Dinesen. Victoria Benedictsson
, a Swedish author of the 19th century, wrote under the name Ernst Ahlgren. The science fiction
author Alice B. Sheldon for many years published under the masculine name of James Tiptree, Jr.
, the discovery of which led to a deep discussion of gender in the genre.
More recently, women who write in genres commonly written by men sometimes choose to use initials, such as K. A. Applegate
, C. J. Cherryh
, P. N. Elrod
, D. C. Fontana
, S. E. Hinton
, G. A. Riplinger
, J. D. Robb
, and J. K. Rowling
. Alternatively, they may use a unisex pen name, such as Robin Hobb
(the second pen name of novelist Margaret Astrid Lindholm Ogden
A collective name, also known as a house name, is sometimes used with series fiction
published under one pen name even though more than one author may have contributed to the series. In some cases the first books in the series were written by one writer, but subsequent books were written by ghost writer
s. For instance, many of the later books in ''The Saint
'' adventure series were not written by Leslie Charteris
, the series' originator. Similarly, ''Nancy Drew
'' mystery books are published as though they were written by Carolyn Keene
, ''The Hardy Boys
'' books are published as the work of Franklin W. Dixon
, and ''The Bobbsey Twins
'' series are credited to Laura Lee Hope
, although numerous authors have been involved in each series. Erin Hunter
, author of the ''Warriors
'' novel series, is actually a collective pen name used by authors Kate Cary
, Cherith Baldry
, Tui T. Sutherland
, and the editor Victoria Holmes
Collaborative authors may also have their works published under a single pen name. Frederic Dannay and Manfred B. Lee published their mystery novels and stories under the pen name Ellery Queen
, as well as publishing the work of ghost-writer
s under the same name. The writers of ''Atlanta Nights
'', a deliberately bad book intended to embarrass the publishing firm PublishAmerica
, used the pen name Travis Tea. Additionally, the credited author of ''The Expanse
'', James S.A. Corey
, is an amalgam of the middle names of collaborating writers Daniel Abraham
and Ty Franck respectively, while S.A. are the initials of Abraham's daughter. Sometimes multiple authors will write related books under the same pseudonym; examples include T. H. Lain
in fiction. The Australian fiction collaborators who write under the pen name Alice Campion
is a group of women who have so far written two novels together - ''The Painted Sky'' (2015) / ''Der Bunte Himmel'' (2015) written by five and ''The Shifting Light'' (2017) by four.
In the 1780s, ''The Federalist Papers
'' were written under the pseudonym "Publius" by Alexander Hamilton
, James Madison
, and John Jay
. The three men chose the name "Publius" because it recalled the founder of the Roman Republic, and using it implied a positive intention.
In pure mathematics
, Nicolas Bourbaki
is the pseudonym of a group of mostly French connected mathematicians attempting to expose the field in an axiomatic and self-contained, encyclopedic form.
Concealment of identity
A pseudonym may be used to protect the writer for exposé books about espionage or crime. Former SAS soldier Steven Billy Mitchell used the pseudonym Andy McNab
for his book about a failed SAS
mission titled ''Bravo Two Zero
''. The name Ibn Warraq
("son of a papermaker") has been used by dissident Muslim authors. Author Brian O'Nolan
used the pen names Flann O'Brien and Myles na gCopaleen for his novels and journalistic writing from the 1940s to the 1960s because Irish civil servant
s were not allowed at that time to publish works under their own names. The identity of the enigmatic twentieth century novelist B. Traven
has never been conclusively revealed, despite thorough research.
A multiple-use name
or anonymity pseudonym is a pseudonym open for anyone to use and these have been adopted by various groups, often as a protest against the cult of individual creators. In Italy, two anonymous groups of writers have gained some popularity with the collective names of Luther Blissett
and Wu Ming
In Indian languages, writers may put a pen name at the end of their names, like Ramdhari Singh Dinkar
. Sometimes they also write under their pen name without their actual name like Firaq Gorakhpuri
In early Indian literature, we find authors shying away from using any name considering it to be egotistical. Due to this notion, even today it is hard to trace the authorship of many earlier literary works from India. Later, we find that the writers adopted the practice of using the name of their deity of worship or Guru's name as their pen name. In this case, typically the pen name would be included at the end of the prose or poetry.
Composers of Indian classical music used pen names in compositions to assert authorship, including Sadarang
, Gunarang (Fayyaz Ahmed Khan
), Ada Rang (court musician of Muhammad Shah
), Sabrang (Bade Ghulam Ali Khan
), and Ramrang (Ramashreya Jha
). Other compositions are apocryphally ascribed to composers with their pen names.
Japanese poets who write haiku
often use a ''haigō'' (俳号). The haiku poet Matsuo Bashō
had used two other haigō before he became fond of a banana plant (''bashō'') that had been given to him by a disciple and started using it as his pen name at the age of 36.
Similar to a pen name, Japan
s usually have a ''gō'' or art-name
, which might change a number of times during their career. In some cases, artists adopted different ''gō'' at different stages of their career, usually to mark significant changes in their life. One of the most extreme examples of this is Hokusai
, who in the period 1798 to 1806 alone used no fewer than six. Manga artist
Ogure Ito uses the pen name Oh! great
because his real name Ogure Ito is roughly how the Japanese pronounce "oh great".
Persian and Urdu poetry
:''Note: List of Urdu language poets
provides pen names for a range of Urdu
A ''shâ'er'' (Persian
from Arabic, for poet) (a poet
who writes ''she'r
s'' in Urdu
) almost always has a "takhallus", a pen name, traditionally placed at the end of the name (often marked by a graphical sign placed above it) when referring to the poet by his full name. For example, Hafez
is a pen-name for ''Shams al-Din'', and thus the usual way to refer to him would be ''Shams al-Din Hafez'' or just ''Hafez''. ''Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan'' (his official name and title) is referred to as ''Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib
'', or just ''Mirza Ghalib''.
The French phrase ''nom de plume'' is occasionally still seen as a synonym for the English term "pen name": this is a "back-translation" and originated in England rather than France. H. W. Fowler
and F. G. Fowler, in ''The King's English
'' state that the term ''nom de plume'' "evolved" in Britain, where people wanting a "literary" phrase failed to understand the term ''nom de guerre
'', which already existed in French. Since ''guerre'' means "war" in French, ''nom de guerre'' did not make sense to the British, who did not understand the French metaphor.
See also French phrases used by English speakers
*Chinese courtesy name
*List of pen names
*List of pseudonyms
*Nom de guerre
– the equivalent concept among professional wrestlers.
– the equivalent concept among performers.
Pen NamesThe King's English, H. W. Fowler & F. G. Fowler