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Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love, devotion, and sense of attachment to a
homeland A homeland is the concept of the place where a cultural, national, or racial identity had formed. The definition can also mean simply one's country of birth. When used as a proper noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other languag ...
or the country and alliance with other citizens who share the same sentiment to create a feeling of oneness among the people. This attachment can be a combination of many different feelings, language relating to one's own homeland, including ethnic, cultural, political or historical aspects. It encompasses a set of concepts closely related to
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation should be congruent with the State (polity), state. As a movement, nationalism tends to promote the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of peop ...
and mostly
liberal nationalism Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism, is a form of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common lang ...
. Some manifestations of patriotism emphasize the "land" element in love for one's
native land ''Native Land'' is a 1942 documentary film A documentary film is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a Recorded history, historical record". Bil ...
and use the symbolism of
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of , whereby farming of species created food that enabled people to live in cities. The began thousands of ...

agriculture
and the
soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body of soil, called the pedosphere ...

soil
– compare '' Blut und Boden''.


Terminology and usage

An excess of patriotism in the defense of a nation is called
chauvinism Chauvinism is the unreasonable belief in the superiority or dominance of one's own group or people, who are seen as strong and virtuous, while others are considered weak, unworthy, or inferior. It can be described as a form of extreme patriotism ...

chauvinism
; another related term is ''
jingoism Jingoism is nationalism in the form of aggressive and proactive foreign policy, such as a country's advocacy for the use of threats or actual force, as opposed to peaceful relations, in efforts to safeguard what it perceives as its national intere ...
''. The concept of Patriotism in America differs radically from the original European meaning. The English word 'Patriot' derived from "Compatriot," in the 1590s, from Middle French "Patriote" in the 15th Century. The French word's "Compatriote" and "Patriote" originated directly from Late Latin Patriota "fellow-countryman" in the 6th Century. From Greek Patriotes "fellow countryman," from Patrios "of one's fathers," Patris "fatherland." The term Patriot was "applied to barbarians who were perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive who had only a common Patris or fatherland." The original European meaning of Patriots applied to anyone who was a fellow countryman originated from that country regardless of the social-economic status.


The Psychology of a Patriot

A patriot is a person who would want to do anything possible to defend his/her country against denigrators or anything else that he/she may regard as evil and finds it to threaten the integrity and unity of people. But, people have misunderstood the true meaning of this term just like how they have misunderstood several other terms and use them for their own benefit and according to their own convenience. The Psychology of a Patriot is a bold account that provides an insight into the mindset and belief of a true patriot who thinks rationally and doesn't fear to call a spade a spade.


History

The general notion of
civic virtue Civic virtue is the harvesting of habits A habit (or wont as a humorous and formal term) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur Subconscious, subconsciously.
and group dedication has been attested in culture globally throughout the
historical period is commonly divided into three main s – , , and . Ancient history (6,000 BCE – 650 CE) Ancient history refers to the time period since the introduction of writing systems c. 3000 in the turn of prehistory to recorded history. It ends with ...
. For the
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
thinkers of 18th-century Europe, loyalty to the state was chiefly considered in contrast to loyalty to the
Church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used to refer to the physical build ...

Church
. It was argued that clerics should not be allowed to teach in public schools since their ''patrie'' was heaven, so that they could not inspire love of the homeland in their students. One of the most influential proponents of this classical notion of patriotism was
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, , ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment throughout Europe, as w ...

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
. Enlightenment thinkers also criticized what they saw as the excess of patriotism. In 1774,
Samuel Johnson Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709  – 13 December 1784), often called Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, critic A critic is a person who communicates an asses ...
published ''The Patriot'', a critique of what he viewed as false patriotism. On the evening of 7 April 1775, he made the famous statement, "Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel."
James Boswell James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (; 29 October 1740 (New Style, N.S.) – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish people, Scottish biographer, diarist, and lawyer, born in Edinburgh. He is best known for his biography of his friend and older contemp ...

James Boswell
, who reported this comment in his ''
Life of Johnson ''The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D.'' (1791) by James Boswell James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (; 29 October 1740 ( N.S.) – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish biographer, diarist, and lawyer, born in Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Ed ...
'', does not provide context for the quote, and it has therefore been argued that Johnson was in fact attacking the false use of the term "patriotism" by contemporaries such as
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, (; 25 May 1713 – 10 March 1792), styled Lord Mount Stuart between 1713 and 1723, was a British nobility, British nobleman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister of Kingdom of Great B ...

John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute
(the patriot-minister) and his supporters; Johnson spoke elsewhere in favor of what he considered "true" patriotism. However, there is no direct evidence to contradict the widely held belief that Johnson's famous remark was a criticism of patriotism itself.


Philosophical issues

Patriotism may be strengthened by adherence to a national religion (a
civil religionCivil religion, also referred to as a civic religion, is the implicit religious values of a nation, as expressed through public ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered p ...
or even a
theocracy Theocracy is a form of government in which one or more deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/superna ...

theocracy
). This is the opposite of the
separation of church and state The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations Religious activities generally need some infrastructure to be conducted. F ...
demanded by the Enlightenment thinkers who saw patriotism and faith as similar and opposed forces.
Michael Billig Michael Billig is a British academic. He is Emeritus Professor of Social Sciences at Loughborough University Loughborough University (abbreviated as ''Lough'' or ''Lboro'' for post-nominals) is a public In public relations and communi ...
and
Jean Bethke Elshtain Jean Paulette Bethke Elshtain (1941–2013) was an American ethicist, political philosopher, and public intellectual. She was the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Professor of Social and Political Ethics in the University of Chicago Divinity School w ...
have both argued that the difference between patriotism and faith is difficult to discern and relies largely on the attitude of the one doing the labelling.
Christopher Heath Wellman Christopher “Kit” Heath Wellman (born February 22, 1967) is an American philosopher. He teaches at Washington University in St. Louis, where he is also dean of academic planning for Arts & Sciences. He is best known for his distinctive views on ...
, professor of
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existen ...

philosophy
at
Washington University in St. Louis Washington University in St. Louis (WashU, or WUSTL) is a private research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher ( ...

Washington University in St. Louis
, describes that a popular view of the "patriotist" position is robust obligations to compatriots and only minimal samaritan responsibilities to foreigners. Wellman calls this position "patriotist" rather than "nationalist" to single out the members of territorial, political units rather than cultural groups.
George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell
, in his influential essay ''
Notes on Nationalism ''Notes on Nationalism'' is an essay completed in May 1945 by George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, ...
'' distinguished patriotism from the related concept of
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation should be congruent with the State (polity), state. As a movement, nationalism tends to promote the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of peop ...
:
By 'patriotism' I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force upon other people. Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both militarily and culturally. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power. The abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, ''not'' for himself but for the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to sink his own individuality.


Opposition

Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (; 21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his ''nom de plume A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a ...

Voltaire
stated that "It is lamentable, that to be a good patriot one must become the enemy of the rest of mankind."
Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (; ; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a Germans, German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work ''The World as Will and Representation'' (expanded in 1844), which characterizes the Phenomenon, phenomena ...
wrote in his ''
The World as Will and Representation ''The World as Will and Representation'' (''WWR''; german: Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung, ''WWV'') is the central work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer (; ; 22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was ...
'' that “The cheapest sort of pride is national pride; for if a man is proud of his own nation, it argues that he has no qualities of his own of which a person can be proud” Kōtoku Shūsui, a famous Japanese
anarchist Anarchism is a political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them. Its top ...

anarchist
of the late 19th/early 20th century, devoted a large section of his widely read ''Imperialism, Monster of the Twentieth Century'' to a condemnation of patriotism. One of the many arguments is based on the
Confucian , Shanxi Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China. Variously described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a ...
value of empathy: "I am as convinced as
Mencius Mencius ( ); born Mèng Kē (); or Mengzi (; 372–289 BC) was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is, after only Confucius } Confucius ( ; zh, s=, p=Kǒng Fūzǐ, "Master Kǒng"; or ...

Mencius
that any man would rush without hesitation to rescue a child who was about to fall into a well... A human being moved by such selfless love and charity does not pause to think whether the child is a family member or a close relative. When he rescues the child from danger, he does not even ask himself whether the child is his own or belongs to another." Patriotism is used to dehumanize others who we would naturally have empathy for. He argues, " triotism is a discriminating and arbitrary sentiment confined to those who belong to a single nation state or live together within common national borders", a sentiment cultivated and used by militarists in their drive for war.
Marxists Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies socia ...
have taken various stances regarding patriotism. On one hand,
Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wis ...

Karl Marx
famously stated that "The working men have no country" and that "the supremacy of the proletariat will cause them ational differencesto vanish still faster." The same view is promoted by present-day
Trotskyists Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch of Marxism developed by Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky. Trotsky self-identified as an Orthodox Marxism, orthodox Marxist and Bolsheviks, Bolshevik–Leninism, Leninist. He supported founding a ...
such as Alan Woods, who is "in favour of tearing down all frontiers and creating a socialist world commonwealth." On the other hand, Marxist-Leninists and
Maoists Maoism, officially called Mao Zedong Thought () by the Chinese Communist Party, is a variety of Marxism–Leninism that Mao Zedong developed for realising a socialist revolution in the agricultural, pre-industrial society of the Republic of Ch ...
are usually in favor of socialist patriotism based on the theory of
socialism in one country#REDIRECT Socialism in one country Socialism in one country ( rus, links=no, социали́зм в отде́льно взя́той стране́, r=sotsializm v otdelno vzyatoy strane, t=socialism in a single country) was a theory put forth by ...
.


Region-specific issues

In the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
, thinkers such as
Jürgen Habermas Jürgen Habermas (, ; ; born 18 June 1929) is a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, e ...
have advocated a " Euro-patriotism", but patriotism in Europe is usually directed at the
nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
and more often than not coincides with "
Euroscepticism Euroscepticism, also known as EU-scepticism, means criticism of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. I ...
".


Surveys

Several surveys have tried to measure patriotism for various reasons, such as the
Correlates of WarThe Correlates of War project is an academic study of the history of warfare History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing s ...
project which found some correlation between war propensity and patriotism. The results from different studies are time dependent. For example, patriotism in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
before
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
ranked at or near the top, whereas today it ranks at or near the bottom of patriotism surveys. Since 1981, the
World Values Survey The World Values Survey (WVS) is a global research project that explores people's values In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong acti ...
explores people's national values and beliefs and refer to the average answer "for high income residents" of a country to the question "Are you proud to be nsert nationality". It ranges from 1 (not proud) to 4 (very proud).


See also


References


Further reading

* Charles Blatberg, ''From Pluralist to Patriotic Politics: Putting Practice First'', Oxford University Press, 2000. . * Craig Calhoun, ''Is it Time to Be Postnational?'', in ''Ethnicity, Nationalism, and Minority Rights'', (eds.) Stephen May, Tariq Modood and Judith Squires. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. pp. 231–56. * Paul Gomberg, “Patriotism is Like Racism,” in Igor Primoratz, ed., ''Patriotism'', Humanity Books, 2002, pp. 105–12. . *
Jürgen Habermas Jürgen Habermas (, ; ; born 18 June 1929) is a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, e ...
, “Appendix II: Citizenship and National Identity,” in ''Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy'', trans. William Rehg, MIT Press, 1996. * Johan Huizinga, “Patriotism and Nationalism in European History”. In ''Men and Ideas. History, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance''. Transl. by James S. Holmes and Hans van Marle. New York: Meridian Books, 1959. *
Alasdair MacIntyre Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (; born 12 January 1929) is a Scottish-American philosopher who has contributed to moral and political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the natu ...

Alasdair MacIntyre
, 'Is Patriotism a Virtue?', in: R. Beiner (ed.), ''Theorizing Citizenship'', 1995, State University of New York Press, pp. 209–28. * Joshua Cohen and Martha C. Nussbaum, ''For Love of Country: Debating the Limits of Patriotism'', Beacon Press, 1996. . *
George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell
, "Notes on Nationalism" in ''England Your England and Other Essays'', Secker and Warburg, 1953. * Igor Primoratz, ed., ''Patriotism'', Humanity Books, 2002. . * Daniel Bar-Tal and Ervin Staub, ''Patriotism'', Wadsworth Publishing, 1999. . * Maurizio Viroli, ''For Love of Country: An Essay on Patriotism and Nationalism'', Oxford University Press, 1997. . * 1922 that America is "the only nation in the world that is founded on a creed. That creed is set forth with dogmatic and even theological lucidity in the Declaration of Independence." *
John Witherspoon John Witherspoon (February 5, 1723 – November 15, 1794) was a Scottish Americans, Scottish American Presbyterian minister and a Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father of the United States. Witherspoon embraced the concepts of Sc ...

John Witherspoon
The Dominion of Providence Over The Passions of Man, Princeton May 17, 1776. {{Authority control Nationalism
Political terminology Technical terminology of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The ...