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A pastiche is a work of
visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to ...
, literature, theatre, music, or architecture that
imitates
imitates
the style or character of the work of one or more other artists. Unlike
parody A parody, also called a spoof, a send-up, a take-off, a lampoon, a play on (something), or a caricature, is a creative work designed to imitate, comment on, and/or make fun of its subject by means of satire, satiric or irony, ironic imitation. Ofte ...
, pastiche celebrates, rather than mocks, the work it imitates. The word ''pastiche'' is a French
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
of the Italian noun ''
pasticcio In music, a ''pasticcio'' or ''pastiche'' is an opera or other musical work composed of works by different composers who may or may not have been working together, or an adaptation or localization of an existing work that is loose, unauthorized, or ...
'', which is a
pâté ''Pâté'' ( , , ) is a paste, pie or loaf filled with a forcemeat. Common forcemeats include ground meat from pork, poultry, fish or beef; fat, vegetables, herbs, spices and either wine or brandy (often cognac (brandy), cognac or armagnac (bra ...

pâté
or pie-filling mixed from diverse ingredients. Metaphorically, ''pastiche'' and ''
pasticcio In music, a ''pasticcio'' or ''pastiche'' is an opera or other musical work composed of works by different composers who may or may not have been working together, or an adaptation or localization of an existing work that is loose, unauthorized, or ...
'' describe works that are either composed by several authors, or that incorporate stylistic elements of other artists' work. Pastiche is an example of
eclecticism in art Eclecticism is a kind of mixed style in the fine arts 250px, '' The Art of Painting''; by Johannes Vermeer; 1666–1668; oil on canvas; 1.3 × 1.1 m; Kunsthistorisches Museum (Vienna, Austria) In European academic traditions, fine art is art ...
.
Allusion Allusion is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in order to produce a rhetoric Rhetoric () is the Art (skill), art of persua ...
is not pastiche. A literary allusion may refer to another work, but it does not reiterate it. Moreover, allusion requires the audience to share in the author's cultural knowledge. Both allusion and pastiche are mechanisms of
intertextuality Intertextuality is the shaping of a text's meaning by another text. It is the interconnection between similar or related works of literature that reflect and influence an audience's interpretation of the text. Intertextuality is the relation betwee ...
.


By art


Literature

In literary usage, the term denotes a
literary technique A narrative technique (known for literary fictional narratives as a literary technique, literary device, or fictional device) is any of several specific methods the creator of a narrative uses to convey what they want —in other words, a stra ...
employing a generally light-hearted tongue-in-cheek imitation of another's style; although jocular, it is usually respectful. The word implies a lack of originality or coherence, an imitative jumble, but with the advent of
postmodernism Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of philosophical skepticism, skepticism toward what it describes as the meta-narrative, grand narratives and ideology, ideologies of modernism, as well as oppos ...
, pastiche has become positively construed as deliberate, witty homage or playful imitation. For example, many stories featuring
Sherlock Holmes Sherlock Holmes () is a fictional detective created by British author Arthur Conan Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Referring to himself as a "consulting detective" in the stories, Holmes is known for his proficiency with observation, deduction, ...

Sherlock Holmes
, originally penned by
Arthur Conan Doyle Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer and physician. He created the character Sherlock Holmes in 1887 for ''A Study in Scarlet'', the first of four novels and fifty-six short stories about Hol ...
, have been written as pastiches since the author's time.
Ellery Queen Ellery Queen is a pseudonym created in 1929 by American crime fiction Crime fiction, detective story, murder mystery, mystery novel, and police novel are terms used to describe narratives that centre on criminal acts and especially on the invest ...
and
Nero Wolfe Nero Wolfe is a fictional character, a brilliant, oversized, eccentric armchair detective created in 1934 by American mystery (fiction), mystery writer Rex Stout. Wolfe was born in Montenegro and keeps his past murky. He lives in a luxurious brown ...
are other popular subjects of mystery parodies and pastiches. A similar example of pastiche is the posthumous continuations of the
Robert E. Howard Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906June 11, 1936) was an American author who wrote pulp magazine, pulp fiction in a diverse range of genres. He is well known for his character Conan the Barbarian and is regarded as the father of the sword and ...
stories, written by other writers without Howard's authorization. This includes the
Conan the Barbarian Conan the Barbarian (also known as Conan the Cimmerian) is a fictional sword and sorcery hero who originated in pulp magazine, pulp magazines and has since been adapted to Conan (books), books, Conan (comics), comics, several films (including ''C ...
stories of and
Lin Carter Linwood Vrooman Carter (June 9, 1930 – February 7, 1988) was an American author of science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 in the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Ima ...
. David Lodge's novel '' The British Museum Is Falling Down'' (
1965 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the . There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in s). This day is known as since the day marks the beginning of the year. __TOC__ ...
) is a pastiche of works by
JoyceJoyce may refer to: People * Joyce (name), list of people and fictional characters with the given name or surname *Joyce (singer), Joyce, (born 1948), Brazilian singer-songwriter * James Joyce (1882–1941), Irish modernist writer Places * Joyce, W ...
,
Kafka Franz Kafka (3 July 1883 – 3 June 1924) was a German-speaking Bohemian novelist and short-story writer, widely regarded as one of the major figures of 20th century in literature, 20th-century literature. His work fuses elements of literar ...
, and
Virginia Woolf Adeline Virginia Woolf (; ; 25 January 1882 28 March 1941) was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist literature, modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of Stream of consciousness (narrative mode), ...

Virginia Woolf
. In 1991
Alexandra Ripley Alexandra Ripley ( Braid; January 8, 1934 – January 10, 2004) was an American writer best known as the author of ''Scarlett (Ripley novel), Scarlett'' (1991), written as a sequel to ''Gone with the Wind (novel), Gone with the Wind''. Her first n ...
wrote the novel '' Scarlett'', a pastiche of ''
Gone with the WindGone with the Wind may refer to: * Gone with the Wind (novel), ''Gone with the Wind'' (novel), a 1936 novel by Margaret Mitchell * Gone with the Wind (film), ''Gone with the Wind'' (film), 1939 adaptation of the novel * Gone with the Wind (musical), ...
'', in an unsuccessful attempt to have it recognized as a
canonical Canonical may refer to: Science and technology * Canonical form In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geo ...
sequel. In 2017,
John Banville William John Banville (born 8 December 1945) is an Irish novelist, short story A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the ...
published ''Mrs. Osmond'', a sequel to
Henry James Henry James ( – ) was an American-British author. He is regarded as a key transitional figure between literary realism Literary realism is a literary genre, part of the broader realism (arts), realism in arts, that attempts to represent subj ...

Henry James
's ''
The Portrait of a Lady ''The Portrait of a Lady'' is a novel by Henry James, first published as a serial (literature), serial in ''The Atlantic Monthly'' and ''Macmillan's Magazine'' in 1880–81 and then as a book in 1881. It is one of James's most popular novels and ...
'', written in a style similar to that of James. In 2018, Ben Schott published ''Jeeves and the King of Clubs'', an homage to P. G. Wodehouse's character
Jeeves Jeeves (full name Reginald Jeeves, nickname Reggie) is a fictional character in a series of comedic Comedy (from the el, κωμῳδία, ''kōmōdía'') is a genre of fiction consisting of discourses or works intended to be humor Hu ...
, with the blessing of the Wodehouse estate.


Music

Charles Rosen Charles Welles Rosen (May 5, 1927December 9, 2012) was an American pianist and writer on music. He is remembered for his career as a concert pianist, for his recordings, and for his many writings, notable among them the book ''The Classical Styl ...

Charles Rosen
has characterized various works in imitation of
Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashi ...
style as pastiche, and
Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg ( , ; 15 June 18434 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer A composer (Latin wikt:compono, ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a person who writes musical composition, music, especially classical music ...

Edvard Grieg
's '' Holberg Suite'' was written as a conscious homage to the music of an earlier age. Some of
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky ( ; rus, Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский,Петръ Ильичъ Чайковскій in Russian pre-revolutionary script. ; 7 May 1840 – 6 November 1893Russia was still using old style dates in the 1 ...

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
's works, such as his '' Variations on a Rococo Theme'' and ''Serenade for Strings'', employ a poised "classical" form reminiscent of 18th-century composers such as
Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 17565 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, speci ...

Mozart
(the composer whose work was his favorite). Perhaps one of the best examples of pastiche in modern music is that of
George Rochberg George Rochberg (July 5, 1918May 29, 2005) was an United States, American composer of contemporary classical music. Long a serialism, serial composer, Rochberg abandoned the practice following the death of his teenage son in 1964; he claimed this co ...
, who used the technique in his String Quartet No. 3 of 1972 and Music for the Magic Theater. Rochberg turned to pastiche from
serialism In music, serialism is a method of composition Composition or Compositions may refer to: Arts * Composition (dance), practice and teaching of choreography * Composition (music), an original piece of music and its creation *Composition (visual ...
after the death of his son in 1963. "
Bohemian Rhapsody "Bohemian Rhapsody" is a song by the British rock band Queen (band), Queen. It was written by Freddie Mercury for the band's 1975 album ''A Night at the Opera (Queen album), A Night at the Opera''. The song is a six-minute suite (music), suite, ...

Bohemian Rhapsody
" by
Queen Queen may refer to: Monarchy * Queen regnant, a female monarch of a Kingdom ** List of queens regnant * Queen consort, the wife of a reigning king * Queen dowager, the widow of a king * Queen mother, a queen dowager who is the mother of a reigni ...
is unusual as it is a pastiche in both senses of the word, as there are many distinct styles imitated in the song, all "hodge-podged" together to create one piece of music. A similar earlier example is " Happiness is a Warm Gun" by
the Beatles The Beatles were an English rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compou ...

the Beatles
. One can find musical "pastiches" throughout the work of the American composer
Frank Zappa Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American musician, singer, composer, songwriter and bandleader. His work is characterized by nonconformity Nonconformity or nonconformism may refer to: Culture and soci ...

Frank Zappa
. Comedian/parodist
"Weird Al" Yankovic Alfred Matthew "Weird Al" Yankovic ( ; born October 23, 1959) is an American singer, musician, record producer, and actor who is known for Comedy music, humorous songs that make light of popular culture, pop culture and often parody specific ...
has also recorded several songs that are pastiches of other popular recording artists, such as
Devo DEVO (, originally ) is an American rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical c ...

Devo
("
Dare to Be Stupid ''Dare to Be Stupid'' is the third studio album by "Weird Al" Yankovic, released on June 18, 1985. The album was one of many Yankovic records produced by former The McCoys, McCoys guitarist Rick Derringer. Recorded between August 1984 and March 1 ...
"),
Talking Heads Talking Heads were an American rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compo ...
("Dog Eat Dog"),
Rage Against the Machine Rage Against the Machine (often abbreviated as RATM or shortened to Rage) is an American rock band from Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is ...

Rage Against the Machine
("I'll Sue Ya"), and
The Doors The Doors were an American Rock music, rock band formed in Los Angeles in 1965, with vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, guitarist Robby Krieger, and drummer John Densmore. They were among the most controversial and influential ro ...
("
Craigslist Craigslist (stylized as craigslist) is an American classified advertisement Classified advertising is a form of advertising, particularly common in newspapers, online and other periodicals, which may be sold or distributed free of charge. Cla ...
"), though these so-called "style parodies" often walk the line between celebration (pastiche) and send-up (
parody A parody, also called a spoof, a send-up, a take-off, a lampoon, a play on (something), or a caricature, is a creative work designed to imitate, comment on, and/or make fun of its subject by means of satire, satiric or irony, ironic imitation. Ofte ...
). A ''pastiche Mass'' is a musical
Mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ...
where the constituent movements come from different Mass settings. Most often this convention has been chosen for concert performances, particularly by early-music ensembles. Masses are composed of movements:
Kyrie Kyrie, a transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that rep ...

Kyrie
,
Gloria Gloria may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music Christian liturgy and music * "Gloria in excelsis Deo", a doxology or hymn ** Gloria (Handel) ** Gloria (Jenkins) ** Gloria (Poulenc), a 1959 composition by Francis Poulenc ** Gloria (Vivaldi ...
,
Credo In Christian liturgy Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a community, communal response to and participation in the sacred through activities reflecting praise, tha ...

Credo
,
Sanctus The Sanctus ( la, Sanctus, "Holy") is a hymn A hymn is a type of song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creatin ...
,
Agnus Dei is the Latin name under which the "Lamb of God" is honoured within the Roman Rite Mass, Roman Catholic Mass and, by extension, other Christian liturgy, Christian liturgies descending from the Latin liturgical rites, Latin tradition. It is the na ...
; for example, the ''
Missa Solemnis {{Audio, De-Missa solemnis.ogg, Missa solemnis is Latin for Solemn Mass, and is a genre of Mass (music), musical settings of the Mass Ordinary, which are festively scored and render the Latin text extensively, opposed to the more modest Missa brevis ...
'' by and the ''
Messe de Nostre Dame ''Messe de Nostre Dame'' (''Mass of Our Lady'') is a polyphonic mass Mass is both a property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a c ...
'' by
Guillaume de Machaut Guillaume de Machaut (, ; also Machau and Machault; – April 1377) was a French composer and poet who was the central figure of the style in late medieval music Medieval music encompasses the sacred Sacred describes something tha ...
. In a pastiche Mass, the performers may choose a Kyrie from one composer, and a Gloria from another; or choose a Kyrie from one setting of an individual composer, and a Gloria from another.


Musical theatre

In musical theatre, pastiche is often an indispensable tool for evoking the sounds of a particular era for which a show is set. For the 1971 musical ''
Follies ''Follies'' is a Musical theater, musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and a book by James Goldman. The story concerns a reunion in a crumbling Broadway theatre, scheduled for demolition, of the past performers of the "Weismann's Fol ...
'', a show about a reunion of performers from a musical
revue A revue is a type of multi-act popular theatrical Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a liv ...

revue
set between the World Wars,
Stephen Sondheim Stephen Joshua Sondheim ( ; March 22, 1930 – November 26, 2021) was an American composer and lyricist. Among the most important figures in 20th-century musical theater Musical theatre is a form of theatre, theatrical performance that combi ...
wrote over a dozen songs in the style of Broadway songwriters of the 1920s and 1930s. Sondheim imitates not only the music of composers such as
Cole Porter Cole Albert Porter (June 9, 1891 – October 15, 1964) was an American composer and songwriter. Many of his songs became Standard (music), standards noted for their witty, urbane lyrics, and many of his scores found success on Broadway thea ...
,
Irving Berlin Irving Berlin (born Israel Beilin; yi, ישראל ביילין; May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was a Russian American composer and lyricist, widely considered one of the greatest songwriters in history. His music forms a great part of th ...
,
Jerome Kern Jerome David Kern (January 27, 1885 – November 11, 1945) was an American composer of musical theatre and popular music. One of the most important American theatre composers of the early 20th century, he wrote more than 700 songs, used in over ...
, and
George Gershwin George Gershwin (; born Jacob Gershwine; September 26, 1898 – July 11, 1937) was an American pianist and composer, whose compositions spanned both popular and classical genres. Among his best-known works are the orchestral compositions ' ...

George Gershwin
but also the lyrics of writers such as
Ira Gershwin Ira Gershwin (born Israel Gershowitz; December 6, 1896 – August 17, 1983) was an American lyricist A lyricist or lyrist is a songwriter Songwriting partners Rodgers and Hart working on a song in 1936 A songwriter is a musician A mus ...
,
Dorothy Fields Dorothy Fields (July 15, 1904 – March 28, 1974) was an American librettist A libretto (Italian for "booklet") is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is ...
,
Otto Harbach Otto Abels Harbach, born Otto Abels Hauerbach (August 18, 1873 – January 24, 1963) was an United States, American lyricist and librettist of about 50 Musical theater, musical comedies. He was Oscar Hammerstein II's mentor and believed that libret ...

Otto Harbach
, and
Oscar Hammerstein II Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II (; July 12, 1895 – August 23, 1960) was an American lyricist, librettist A libretto (Italian for "booklet") is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera ...
. For example, Sondheim notes that the torch song "
Losing My Mind "Losing My Mind" is a song written by Stephen Sondheim Stephen Joshua Sondheim (; born March 22, 1930) is an American composer and lyricist known for his work in musical theatre. One of the most important figures in 20th-century musical th ...
" sung in the show contains "near-stenciled rhythms and harmonies" from the Gershwins' "The Man I Love" and lyrics written in the style of Dorothy Fields. Examples of musical pastiche also appear in other Sondheim shows including ''Gypsy'', ''Saturday Night'', ''Assassins'', and ''
Anyone Can Whistle ''Anyone Can Whistle'' is a musicalMusicAL was a 24-hour Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is locate ...
''.


Film

Pastiche can also be a cinematic device whereby filmmakers pay homage to another filmmaker's style and use of
cinematography Cinematography (from ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Gre ...

cinematography
, including camera angles,
lighting Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usua ...

lighting
, and mise en scène. A film's writer may also offer a pastiche based on the works of other writers (this is especially evident in
historical films A historical drama (also period drama, costume drama, and period piece) is a work set in a past time period, usually used in the context of film and television. Historical drama includes historical fiction Historical fiction is a literary genre ...
and
documentaries A documentary film is a non-fictional motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record". Bill Nichols has characterised the documentary in terms of "a filmma ...
but can be found in
non-fiction Nonfiction (also spelled non-fiction) is any document or content (media), media content that intends, in good faith, to present only truth and accuracy regarding information, events, or people. Nonfictional content may be presented either Objecti ...
drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed in a theatre, or on Radio drama, radio or television.Elam (1980, 98). Considered as a ...

drama
,
comedy Comedy (from the el, κωμῳδία, ''kōmōdía'') is a genre of fiction that consists of discourses or works intended to be humor Humour (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic la ...

comedy
and
horror Horror may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Genres *Horror fiction, a genre of fiction **Japanese horror, Japanese horror fiction **Korean horror, Korean horror fiction *Horror film, a film genre *Horror comics, comic books focusing on h ...
films as well). Italian director
Sergio Leone Sergio Leone (; 3 January 1929 – 30 April 1989) was an Italian film director, producer and screenwriter credited as the creator of the Spaghetti Western The Spaghetti Western is a broad subgenre of Western (genre), Western films produced in ...

Sergio Leone
's ''
Once Upon a Time in the West ''Once Upon a Time in the West'' ( , "Once upon a time (there was) the West") is a 1968 epic Spaghetti Western film directed by Sergio Leone Sergio Leone (; January 3, 1929 – April 30, 1989) was an Italian film director, producer and scr ...
'' is a pastiche of earlier American
Westerns Western is a genre of fiction Fiction generally is a narrative form, in any media (communication), medium, consisting of people, events, or places that are imagination, imaginary—in other words, not based strictly on history or fact.Willi ...
. Another major filmmaker,
Quentin Tarantino Quentin Jerome Tarantino (; born March 27, 1963) is an American filmmaker, film director, screenwriter, producer, film critic, and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear storylines, dark humor Darkness, the polar opposite of brig ...

Quentin Tarantino
, often uses various plots, characteristics and themes from many lesser-known films to create his films, among them from the films of Sergio Leone, in effect creating a pastiche of a pastiche. Tarantino has openly stated that "I steal from every single movie ever made." Director
Todd Haynes Todd Haynes (; born January 2, 1961) is an American filmmaker from Los Angeles, California. His films span four decades with consistent themes examining the personalities of well-known musicians, dysfunctional and dystopian societies, and blurred ...

Todd Haynes
' 2002 film '' Far From Heaven'' was a conscious attempt to replicate a typical
Douglas Sirk Douglas Sirk (born Hans Detlef Sierck; 26 April 1897 – 14 January 1987) was a German film director best known for his work in Hollywood melodramas of the 1950s. Sirk started his career in Weimar Republic, Germany as a stage and screen director, ...
melodrama—in particular ''
All That Heaven Allows ''All That Heaven Allows'' is a 1955 American drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed in a theatre, or on Radio drama, r ...
''. The film works as a mostly reverential and unironic tribute to Sirk's filmmaking, lovingly re-creating the stylized mise-en-scene, colors, costumes, cinematography and lighting of Sirkian melodrama. In cinema, the influence of
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia fr ...

George Lucas
' ''
Star Wars ''Star Wars'' is an American epic film, epic space opera multimedia franchise created by George Lucas, which began with the Star Wars (film), eponymous 1977 film and quickly became a worldwide popular culture, pop-culture Cultural impact of S ...

Star Wars
'' films (spawning their own pastiches, such as the 1983 3D film '' Metalstorm: The Destruction of Jared-Syn'') can be regarded as a function of postmodernity.


Architecture

In discussions of urban planning, the term "pastiche" may describe developments as imitations of the building styles created by major architects: with the implication that the derivative work is unoriginal and of little merit, and the term is generally attributed without reference to its urban context. Many 20th century European developments can in this way be described as pastiches, such as the work of Vincent Harris and Edwin Lutyens who created early 20th century Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassical and Georgian architecture, Neo-Georgian architectural developments in Britain, or of later pastiche works based on the architecture of the modernist Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and the Bauhaus movement. The term itself is not pejorative; however, Alain de Botton describes pastiche as "an unconvincing reproduction of the styles of the past".


See also


References


Further reading

* * * {{Authority control The arts Pejorative terms