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Paper is a thin sheet
material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and t ...

material
produced by mechanically or chemically processing
cellulose Cellulose is an organic compound with the chemical formula, formula , a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of glycosidic bond, β(1→4) linked glucose, D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important stru ...

cellulose
fibre Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including ...

fibre
s derived from
wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

wood
,
rags
rags
,
grasses Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous Family (biology), family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species cultivated in ...
or other vegetable sources in
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known forms of , even though it provide ...

water
, draining the water through fine mesh leaving the fibre evenly distributed on the surface, followed by pressing and drying. Although paper was originally made in single sheets by hand, almost all is now made on large machines—some making reels 10 metres wide, running at 2,000 metres per minute and up to 600,000 tonnes a year. It is a versatile material with many uses, including
printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and images An Synthetic aperture radar, SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Santa Cru ...

printing
, packaging, decorating,
writing Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area arou ...

writing
,
cleaning Cleaning is the process of removing unwanted substances, such as dirt, infectious agents, and other impurities, from an object or environment. Cleaning occurs in many different contexts, and uses many different methods. Several occupations are de ...
, filter paper, wallpaper, book endpaper, conservation paper, laminated worktops, toilet tissue, currency and security paper and a number of industrial and construction processes. The papermaking process developed in east Asia, probably
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
, at least as early as 105 CE, by the
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...

Han
court
eunuch A eunuch ( ) is a man who has been castration, castrated. Throughout history, castration often served a specific social function. The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 2 ...

eunuch
Cai Lun Cai Lun (; courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. ...

Cai Lun
, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BCE in China. The modern
pulp and paper industry frame, International Paper is the world's largest pulp and paper maker. The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and oth ...
is global, with China leading its production and the United States following.


History

The oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to the 2nd century BCE in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
. The pulp papermaking process is ascribed to
Cai Lun Cai Lun (; courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. ...

Cai Lun
, a 2nd-century CE
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...

Han
court
eunuch A eunuch ( ) is a man who has been castration, castrated. Throughout history, castration often served a specific social function. The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 2 ...

eunuch
. It has been said that knowledge of papermaking was passed to the Islamic world after the
Battle of Talas The Battle of Talas or Battle of Artlakh (; ar, معركة نهر طلاس, translit=maerakat nahr talas, Nastaliq: ) was a military engagement between the Abbasid, Abbasid Caliphate along with its ally, the Tibetan Empire, against the Chinese ...

Battle of Talas
in 751 CE when two Chinese papermakers were captured as prisoners. Although the veracity of this story is uncertain, paper started to be made in
Samarkand fa, سمرقند , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = City , image_skyline = , image_alt = , image_caption = Clockwise from the top: The , ...

Samarkand
soon after. In the 13th century, the knowledge and uses of paper spread from the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
to
medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, where the first water-powered
paper mill A paper mill is a factory A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial Industrial may also refer to: Industry * Industrial archaeology, the study of the history of the industry * Industrial engineering, engineering ...
s were built. Because paper was introduced to the West through the city of Baghdad, it was first called ''bagdatikos''. In the 19th century, industrialization greatly reduced the cost of manufacturing paper. In 1844, the Canadian inventor
Charles Fenerty Charles Fenerty (January 1821 – 10 June 1892), was a Canadian inventor who invented the wood pulp Pulp is a Lignocellulosic biomass, lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibers from wood, ...
and the German inventor
Friedrich Gottlob Keller Friedrich Gottlob Keller (born 27 June 1816 in Hainichen, Saxony Hainichen is a market town in the German Free State of Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; hsb, Sakska), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: , Upper Sorbian: ), is a land ...

Friedrich Gottlob Keller
independently developed processes for pulping wood fibres.


Early sources of fibre

Before the industrialisation of paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags. The rags were from
hemp Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a botanical class of ''Cannabis sativa ''Cannabis sativa'' is an annual herbaceous flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embry ...
,
linen Linen () is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen is very strong, absorbent, and dries faster than cotton. Because of these properties, linen is comfortable to wear in hot weather and is valued for use in garments. It also h ...

linen
and
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus '' Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural condition ...

cotton
. A process for removing printing inks from
recycled paper The recycling of paper is the process by which waste paper is turned into new paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or o ...
was invented by German jurist
Justus Claproth Justus Claproth (28 December 1728 – 20 February 1805) was a German jurist and inventor of the deinking process of recycled paper 400px, Waste paper collected for recycling in Italy The recycling of paper is the process by which waste paper ...
in 1774. Today this method is called
deinking Deinking is the industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance ...
. It was not until the introduction of
wood pulp Pulp is a Lignocellulosic biomass, lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibers from wood, fiber crops, Paper recycling, waste paper, or cotton paper, rags. Mixed with water and other chemical ...
in 1843 that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from
ragpicker Ragpicker, or chiffonnier, is a term for someone who makes a living by rummaging through refuse in the streets to collect material for salvage. Scraps of cloth and paper could be turned into cardboard, broken glass Glass is a non- crystallin ...
s.


Etymology

The word ''paper'' is etymologically derived from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
, which comes from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(), the word for the plant.
Papyrus Papyrus ( ) is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, ''Cyperus papyrus'', a wetland sedge. ''Papyrus'' (plural: ''papyri'') can also refer to a do ...

Papyrus
is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the ' plant, which was used in
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
and other
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
cultures for
writing Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area arou ...
before the introduction of paper. Although the word ''paper'' is etymologically derived from ''papyrus'', the two are produced very differently and the development of the first is distinct from the development of the second. Papyrus is a lamination of natural plant fibre, while paper is manufactured from fibres whose properties have been changed by maceration.


Papermaking


Chemical pulping

To make pulp from wood, a
chemical pulping process Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibers from wood, fiber crops, Paper recycling, waste paper, or cotton paper, rags. Mixed with water and other chemical or plant-based additives, ...
separates
lignin Lignin is a class of complex organic polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much", may refer to: Businesses * China Poly Group Corporation, a Chinese business group, and its s ...

lignin
from
cellulose Cellulose is an organic compound with the chemical formula, formula , a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of glycosidic bond, β(1→4) linked glucose, D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important stru ...

cellulose
fibre. A cooking liquor is used to dissolve the
lignin Lignin is a class of complex organic polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much", may refer to: Businesses * China Poly Group Corporation, a Chinese business group, and its s ...

lignin
, which is then washed from the
cellulose Cellulose is an organic compound with the chemical formula, formula , a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of glycosidic bond, β(1→4) linked glucose, D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important stru ...

cellulose
; this preserves the length of the cellulose fibres. Paper made from chemical pulps are also known as wood-free papers (not to be confused with tree-free paper); this is because they do not contain lignin, which deteriorates over time. The pulp can also be bleached to produce white paper, but this consumes 5% of the fibres. Chemical pulping processes are not used to make paper made from cotton, which is already 90% cellulose. There are three main chemical pulping processes: the
sulfite processThe sulfite process produces wood pulp Pulp is a Lignocellulosic biomass, lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibers from wood, fiber crops, Paper recycling, waste paper, or cotton paper, rag ...
dates back to the 1840s and was the dominant method before the second world war. The
kraft process The kraft process (also known as kraft pulping or sulfate process) is a process for conversion of into , which consists of almost pure fibers, the main component of . The kraft process entails treatment of wood chips with a hot mixture of water, ...

kraft process
, invented in the 1870s and first used in the 1890s, is now the most commonly practised strategy; one of its advantages is the chemical reaction with lignin produces heat, which can be used to run a generator. Most pulping operations using the kraft process are net contributors to the electricity grid or use the electricity to run an adjacent paper mill. Another advantage is that this process recovers and reuses all inorganic chemical reagents. Soda pulping is another specialty process used to pulp
straw Straw is an agricultural byproduct A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing Manufacturing is the Production (economics), production of goods through the use of Work (human activity ...

straw
s,
bagasse Bagasse ( ) is the dry pulpy fibrous material that remains after crushing sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominan ...
and
hardwoods is a popular hardwood Hardwood is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic materiala natural composite material, composite of cellulos ...
with high
silicate In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, ...
content.


Mechanical pulping

There are two major mechanical pulps: thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and groundwood pulp (GW). In the TMP process, wood is chipped and then fed into steam-heated refiners, where the chips are squeezed and converted to fibres between two steel discs. In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones to be made into fibres. Mechanical pulping does not remove the
lignin Lignin is a class of complex organic polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much", may refer to: Businesses * China Poly Group Corporation, a Chinese business group, and its s ...

lignin
, so the yield is very high, > 95%; however, lignin causes the paper thus produced to turn yellow and become brittle over time. Mechanical pulps have rather short fibres, thus producing weak paper. Although large amounts of
electrical energy Electrical energy is energy derived as a result of movement of electrically charged particles. When used loosely, ''electrical energy'' refers to energy that has been converted ''from'' electric potential energy. This energy is supplied by the comb ...
are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than the chemical kind.


De-inked pulp

Paper recycling 400px, Waste paper collected for recycling in Italy The recycling of paper is the process by which waste paper is turned into new paper products. It has a number of important benefits: It saves waste paper from occupying homes of people and prod ...

Paper recycling
processes can use either chemically or mechanically produced pulp; by mixing it with water and applying mechanical action the
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

hydrogen
bonds in the paper can be broken and fibres separated again. Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre for the sake of quality; generally speaking, de-inked pulp is of the same quality or lower than the collected paper it was made from. There are three main classifications of recycled fibre: * Mill broke or internal mill waste – This incorporates any substandard or grade-change paper made within the paper mill itself, which then goes back into the manufacturing system to be re-pulped back into paper. Such out-of-specification paper is not sold and is therefore often not classified as genuine reclaimed recycled fibre; however most paper mills have been reusing their own waste fibre for many years, long before recycling became popular. * Preconsumer waste – This is offcut and processing waste, such as guillotine trims and envelope blank waste; it is generated outside the paper mill and could potentially go to landfill, and is a genuine recycled fibre source; it includes de-inked preconsumer waste (recycled material that has been printed but did not reach its intended end use, such as waste from printers and unsold publications). * Postconsumer waste – This is fibre from paper that has been used for its intended end use and includes office waste, magazine papers and newsprint. As the vast majority of this material has been printed – either digitally or by more conventional means such as lithography or rotogravure – it will either be recycled as printed paper or go through a de-inking process first. Recycled papers can be made from 100% recycled materials or blended with virgin pulp, although they are (generally) not as strong nor as bright as papers made from the latter.


Additives

Besides the fibres, pulps may contain fillers such as
chalk Chalk is a soft, white, porous Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the (i.e. "empty") spaces in a , and is a of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a between 0% and 100%. Strictly speaking, some tests measure the "acce ...

chalk
or
china clay Kaolinite ( ) is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of in ...
, which improve its characteristics for printing or writing. Additives for
sizing Sizing or size is a substance that is applied to, or incorporated into, other materials—especially papers and textiles—to act as a protective filler or glaze. Sizing is used in papermaking Papermaking is the manufacture of paper and car ...
purposes may be mixed with it or applied to the paper web later in the manufacturing process; the purpose of such sizing is to establish the correct level of surface absorbency to suit ink or paint.


Producing paper

The pulp is fed to a paper machine, where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying. Pressing the sheet removes the water by force. Once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, which is not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water. When making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead. Drying involves using air or heat to remove water from the paper sheets. In the earliest days of papermaking, this was done by hanging the sheets like laundry; in more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used. On the paper machine, the most common is the steam-heated can dryer. These can reach temperatures above and are used in long sequences of more than forty cans where the heat produced by these can easily dry the paper to less than six percent moisture.


Finishing

The paper may then undergo
sizing Sizing or size is a substance that is applied to, or incorporated into, other materials—especially papers and textiles—to act as a protective filler or glaze. Sizing is used in papermaking Papermaking is the manufacture of paper and car ...
to alter its physical properties for use in various applications. Paper at this point is ''uncoated''.
Coated paper Coated paper (also known as enamel paper, gloss paper, and slick paper) is paper that has been coated by a mixture of materials or a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much ...
has a thin layer of material such as
calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held togethe ...

calcium carbonate
or
china clay Kaolinite ( ) is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of in ...
applied to one or both sides in order to create a surface more suitable for high-resolution
halftone Halftone is the reprographicReprography is the reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means, such as photography or xerography. Reprography is commonly used in catalogs and archives, as well as in the architectural reprograph ...
screens. (Uncoated papers are rarely suitable for screens above 150 lpi.) Coated or uncoated papers may have their surfaces polished by
calender Calender machine for electrode pressing in Lithium-ion battery manufacturing A calender is a series of hard pressure rollers used to finish or smooth a sheet of material such as paper, textiles, or plastics. Calender rolls are also used to ...

calender
ing. Coated papers are divided into matte, semi-matte or silk, and gloss. Gloss papers give the highest
optical density In optics Optics is the branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physic ...
in the printed image. The paper is then fed onto reels if it is to be used on web printing presses, or cut into sheets for other printing processes or other purposes. The fibres in the paper basically run in the machine direction. Sheets are usually cut "long-grain", i.e. with the grain parallel to the longer dimension of the sheet. Continuous form paper (or continuous stationery) is cut to width with holes punched at the edges, and folded into stacks.


Paper grain

All paper produced by paper machines as the
Fourdrinier Machine A paper machine (or paper-making machine) is an industrial machine which is used in the pulp and paper industry Image:InternationalPaper6413.jpg, frame, International Paper is the world's largest pulp and paper maker. The pulp and paper industry ...
are wove paper, i.e. the wire mesh that transports the web leaves a pattern that has the same density along the paper grain and across the grain. Textured finishes,
watermark A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in w ...
s and wire patterns imitating hand-made ''laid'' paper can be created by the use of appropriate rollers in the later stages of the machine. Wove paper does not exhibit "laidlines", which are small regular lines left behind on paper when it was handmade in a mould made from rows of metal wires or bamboo. Laidlines are very close together. They run perpendicular to the "chainlines", which are further apart. Handmade paper similarly exhibits "deckle edges", or rough and feathery borders.


Applications

Paper can be produced with a wide variety of properties, depending on its intended use.


Published, written, or informational items

* For representing value:
paper money A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a ...
,
bank note A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a l ...
,
cheque A cheque, or check (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the Unit ...
,
security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...

security
(see ''
security paper Security paper is a paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through ...
''),
voucher A voucher is a bond of the redeemable transaction type which is worth a certain monetary value and which may be spent only for specific reasons or on specific goods. Examples include housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to ...

voucher
, ticket * For storing information:
book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of v ...

book
,
notebook A notebook (also known as a notepad, writing pad, drawing pad, or legal pad) is a book or stack of paper pages that are often Ruled paper, ruled and used for purposes such as recording notes or memoranda, other writing, drawing or scrapbooking. ...

notebook
,
graph paper Graph paper, coordinate paper, grid paper, or squared paper is writing paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other ve ...
,
punched card A punched card (also punch cardSteven Pinker, in ''The Stuff of Thought'', Viking, 2007, p.362, notes the loss of ''-ed'' in pronunciation ''as it did in ice cream, mincemeat, and box set, formerly iced cream, minced meat, and boxed set.'' or p ...

punched card
,
photographic paper Photographic paper is a coated paper, paper coated with a light-sensitive chemical formula, like photographic film, used for making photographic prints. When photographic paper is exposed to light, it captures a latent image that is then Film devel ...
* For published materials, publications, and reading materials: books, newspapers, magazines, posters, pamphlets, maps, signs, labels, advertisements, billboards. * For individual use:
diary A diary is a record (originally in handwritten format) with discrete entries arranged by date reporting on what has happened over the course of a day or other period. A personal diary may include a person's experiences, thoughts, and/or feelin ...

diary
, notebooks, writing pads, memo pads journals, planners, note to remind oneself, etc.; for temporary personal use: scratch paper * For business and professional use: copier paper, ledger paper, typing paper, computer printer paper. Specialized paper for forms and documents such as invoices, receipts, tickets, vouchers, bills, contracts, official forms, agreements. * For
communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

communication
: between individuals and/or groups of people:
letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Object (philosophy ...
, post cards, airmail, telegrams,
newsprint Newsprint is a low-cost, non-archival paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, ...
,
card stock Card stock, also called cover stock and pasteboard, is paper that is thicker and more durable than normal writing and printing paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism ...
* For organizing and sending documents: envelopes, file folders, packaging, pocket folders, partition folders. * For artistic works and uses; drawing paper, pastels, water color paintings, sketch pads, charcoal drawings, * For special printed items using more elegant forms of paper; stationary, parchment,


Packaging and industrial uses

* For packaging:
corrugated box Corrugated box design is the process of matching design factors for corrugated fiberboard Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards. It is made on "flute lamination machines" or " ...
,
paper bag A paper bag is a bag made of paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the ...
,
envelope An envelope is a common packaging Packaging is the art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of designing, evaluating, and producing packages. Packa ...

envelope
,
wrapping paper Gifts wrapped in the traditional Japanese wrapping called Furoshiki. Gift wrapping is the act of Packaging and labelling, enclosing a gift in some sort of material. Wrapping paper is a kind of paper designed for gift wrapping. An alternative to gi ...
, paper string * For cleaning:
toilet paper Toilet paper (sometimes called toilet tissue) is a tissue paper Tissue paper or simply tissue is a lightweight paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term ...
,
paper towel A paper towel is an absorbent, disposable towel A towel is a piece of absorption (chemistry), absorbent cloth, fabric or paper used for drying or wiping a body or a surface. It draws moisture through direct contact. In households, several types ...

paper towel
s,
facial tissue Facial tissue and paper handkerchief refers to a class of soft, absorbent, disposable A disposable (also called disposable product) is a product designed for a single use after which it is recycled or is disposed as solid waste. The term is al ...
. * For food utensils and containers:
wax paper Waxed paper (also wax paper or paraffin paper) is paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical s ...
, s and paper cups, beverage cartons, tea bags, condiments, food packaging, coffee filters, cupcake cups. * For construction:
papier-mâché papier-mâché masks, Haiti Papier-mâché (, ; , literally "paper-mash") is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper adhesive, wallp ...
, origami paper,
paper plane A paper plane, paper aeroplane ( UK), paper airplane ( US), paper glider, paper dart or dart is a toy aircraft, usually a glider made out of folded paper or paperboard. History The origin of folded paper gliders is generally considered to ...

paper plane
s, quilling,
paper honeycomb Honeycomb structures are natural or man-made structures that have the geometry of a honeycomb A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal prismatic wax cells built by honey bee A honey bee (also spelled honeybee) is a eusocial flying insect within ...
,
sandpaper upright=1.35, Sheets of sandpaper with different grit sizes (40 (coarse), 80, 150, 240, 600 (fine)). Sandpaper and glasspaper are names used for a type of coated abrasive A coated abrasive is an abrasive grain bonded to a flexible Substrate (m ...

sandpaper
, used as a core material in
composite material A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or o ...

composite material
s,
paper engineering Paper engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the usage of physical science Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies abiotic component, non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branc ...
, construction paper, paper yarn, and paper clothing * For other uses: emery paper, blotting paper, litmus paper, universal indicator paper, paper chromatography, electrical insulation paper (see also fishpaper), filter paper, wallpaper It is estimated that paper-based storage solutions captured 0.33% of the total in 1986 and only 0.007% in 2007, even though in absolute terms the world's capacity to store information on paper increased from 8.7 to 19.4 petabytes."The World's Technological Capacity to Store, Communicate, and Compute Information"
, especiall
Supporting online material
, Martin Hilbert and Priscila López (2011), Science (journal), Science, 332(6025), 60–65; free access to the article through here: martinhilbert.net/WorldInfoCapacity.html
It is estimated that in 1986 paper-based postal letters represented less than 0.05% of the world's telecommunication capacity, with sharply decreasing tendency after the massive introduction of digital technologies. Paper has a major role in the visual arts. It is used by itself to form two- and three-dimensional shapes and collages. It has also evolved to being a structural material used in furniture design. Watercolor paper has a long history of production and use.


Types, thickness and weight

The thickness of paper is often measured by caliper, which is typically given in thousandths of an inch in the United States and in micrometres (µm) in the rest of the world. Paper may be between thick. Paper is often characterized by weight. In the United States, the weight is the weight of a ream (bundle of 500 sheets) of varying "basic sizes" before the paper is cut into the size it is sold to end customers. For example, a ream of 20 lb, paper weighs 5 pounds because it has been cut from larger sheets into four pieces. In the United States, printing paper is generally 20 lb, 24 lb, 28 lb, or 32 lb at most. Cover stock is generally 68 lb, and 110 lb or more is considered
card stock Card stock, also called cover stock and pasteboard, is paper that is thicker and more durable than normal writing and printing paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism ...
. In Europe and other regions using the ISO 216 paper-sizing system, the weight is expressed in grams per square metre (g/m2 or usually just g) of the paper. Printing paper is generally between 60 g and 120 g. Anything heavier than 160 g is considered card. The weight of a ream therefore depends on the dimensions of the paper and its thickness. Most commercial paper sold in North America is cut to standard paper sizes based on United States customary units, customary units and is defined by the length and width of a sheet of paper. The ISO 216 system used in most other countries is based on the surface area of a sheet of paper, not on a sheet's width and length. It was first adopted in Germany in 1922 and generally spread as nations adopted the metric system. The largest standard size paper is A0 (A zero), measuring one square metre (approx. 1189 × 841 mm). A1 is half the size of a sheet of A0 (i.e., 594 mm × 841 mm), such that two sheets of A1 placed side by side are equal to one sheet of A0. A2 is half the size of a sheet of A1, and so forth. Common sizes used in the office and the home are A4 and A3 (A3 is the size of two A4 sheets). The density of paper ranges from for tissue paper to for some specialty paper. Printing paper is about . Paper may be classified into seven categories: * ''Printing papers'' of wide variety. * ''Wrapping papers'' for the protection of goods and merchandise. This includes wax and kraft papers. * ''Writing paper'' suitable for stationery requirements. This includes ledger, bank, and bond paper. * ''Blotting papers'' containing little or no size. * ''Drawing papers'' usually with rough surfaces used by artists and designers, including cartridge paper. * ''Handmade papers'' including most decorative papers, Ingres papers, Japanese paper and tissue paper, tissues, all characterized by lack of grain direction. * ''Specialty papers'' including cigarette paper, toilet tissue, and other industrial papers. Some paper types include: * Bank paper * Banana paper * Bond paper * Book paper *
Coated paper Coated paper (also known as enamel paper, gloss paper, and slick paper) is paper that has been coated by a mixture of materials or a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much ...
: glossy and matte surface * Construction paper, Construction paper/sugar paper * Cotton paper * Fish paper (vulcanized fibres for electrical insulation) * Inkjet paper * Kraft paper * Laid paper * Leather paper * Mummy paper * Oak tag paper * Sandpaper * Tyvek paper * Wallpaper * Washi * Waterproof paper * Wax paper * Wove paper * Xuan paper


Paper stability

Much of the early paper made from wood pulp contained significant amounts of alum, a variety of aluminium sulfate salt that is significantly acidic. Alum was added to paper to assist in
sizing Sizing or size is a substance that is applied to, or incorporated into, other materials—especially papers and textiles—to act as a protective filler or glaze. Sizing is used in papermaking Papermaking is the manufacture of paper and car ...
, making it somewhat water resistant so that inks did not "run" or spread uncontrollably. Early papermakers did not realize that the alum they added liberally to cure almost every problem encountered in making their product would be eventually detrimental. The
cellulose Cellulose is an organic compound with the chemical formula, formula , a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of glycosidic bond, β(1→4) linked glucose, D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important stru ...

cellulose
fibres that make up paper are hydrolyzed by acid, and the presence of alum eventually degrades the fibres until the acidic paper disintegrates in a process known as "slow fire". Documents written on Cotton paper, rag paper are significantly more stable. The use of non-acidic additives to make paper is becoming more prevalent, and the stability of these papers is less of an issue. Paper made from pulp mill#The mill, mechanical pulp contains significant amounts of
lignin Lignin is a class of complex organic polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much", may refer to: Businesses * China Poly Group Corporation, a Chinese business group, and its s ...

lignin
, a major component in wood. In the presence of light and oxygen, lignin reacts to give yellow materials, which is why
newsprint Newsprint is a low-cost, non-archival paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, ...
and other mechanical paper yellows with age. Paper made from bleached kraft process, kraft or sulfite process, sulfite pulps does not contain significant amounts of lignin and is therefore better suited for books, documents and other applications where whiteness of the paper is essential. Paper made from wood pulp is not necessarily less durable than a rag paper. The aging behaviour of a paper is determined by its manufacture, not the original source of the fibres. Furthermore, tests sponsored by the Library of Congress prove that all paper is at risk of acid decay, because cellulose itself produces formic, acetic, lactic and oxalic acids. Mechanical pulping yields almost a tonne of pulp per tonne of dry wood used, which is why mechanical pulps are sometimes referred to as "high yield" pulps. With almost twice the yield as chemical pulping, mechanical pulps is often cheaper. Mass-market paperback books and newspapers tend to use mechanical papers. Book publishers tend to use acid-free paper, made from fully bleached chemical pulps for hardback and Trade paperbacks, trade paperback books.


Environmental impact

The production and use of paper has a number of adverse effects on the environment. Worldwide consumption of paper has risen by 400% in the past 40 years leading to increase in deforestation, with 35% of harvested trees being used for paper manufacture. Most paper companies also plant trees to help regrow forests. Logging of old growth forests accounts for less than 10% of wood pulp, but is one of the most controversial issues. Paper waste accounts for up to 40% of total waste produced in the United States each year, which adds up to 71.6 million tons of paper waste per year in the United States alone. The average office worker in the US prints 31 pages every day. Americans also use in the order of 16 billion paper cups per year. Conventional bleaching of wood pulp using elemental chlorine produces and releases into the environment large amounts of organochloride, chlorinated organic compounds, including chlorinated Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dioxins.Pdf
Dioxins are recognized as a persistent environmental pollutant, regulated internationally by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Dioxins are highly toxic, and health effects on humans include reproductive, developmental, immune and hormonal problems. They are known to be carcinogenic. Over 90% of human exposure is through food, primarily meat, dairy, fish and shellfish, as dioxins accumulate in the food chain in the fatty tissue of animals. The paper pulp and print industries emitted together about 1% of world Greenhouse-gas emissions in 2010 and about 0.9% in 2012, but less than screens: digital technologies emitted approximately 4% of world Greenhouse-gas emissions in the year 2019 and the number can be two times larger by the year 2025.


Future

Some manufacturers have started using a new, significantly more environmentally friendly alternative to expanded plastic packaging. Made out of paper, and known commercially as PaperFoam, the new packaging has mechanical properties very similar to those of some expanded plastic packaging, but is Biodegradation, biodegradable and can also be recycled with ordinary paper. With increasing environmental concerns about synthetic coatings (such as PFOA) and the higher prices of hydrocarbon based petrochemicals, there is a focus on zein (corn protein) as a coating for paper in high grease applications such as popcorn bags. Also, synthetics such as Tyvek and Teslin (material), Teslin have been introduced as printing media as a more durable material than paper.


See also

* Arches paper * Buckypaper * continuous stationery, Continuous form paper (or "continuous stationery") * Deinked pulp * Environmental impact of paper * Fibre crop * Graphene oxide paper * Lokta paper * Mass deacidification * Paper and ink testing * Paper armour * Paper chemicals * Paper clip * Paper craft * Parchment paper, a form of paper made to emulate the texture of animal-based parchment * Roll hardness tester * Seed paper * Stone paper


Citations


General references

* * * "Document Doubles" i
ARCHIVED – Introduction – Detecting the Truth. Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery – Library and Archives Canada
a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada


Further reading

*
"Paper Brightness, Whiteness & Shade: Definitions and Differences"
by David Rogers (June 26, 2015)


External links


Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry
(TAPPI) official website * The hdl:1903.1/8637, Arnold Yates Paper collection at University of Maryland Libraries
"How is paper made?"
at The Straight Dope, 22 November 2005
Thirteen-minute video on modern paper production system
from Sappi {{Authority control Paper, Papermaking Chinese inventions