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A papal conclave is a gathering of the
College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardina ...
convened to elect a
bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...
, also known as the
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
. Catholics consider the pope to be the apostolic successor of
Saint Peter Saint Peter; he, שמעון בר יונה, Šimʿōn bar Yōnāh; ar, سِمعَان بُطرُس, translit=Simʿa̅n Buṭrus; grc-gre, Πέτρος, Petros; cop, Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ, Petros; lat, Petrus; ar, شمعون الصفـا, Sham ...

Saint Peter
and the earthly head of the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
. Concerns around political interference led to reforms after the interregnum of 1268–1271 and
Pope Gregory X Pope Gregory X ( la, Gregorius X;  – 10 January 1276), born Teobaldo Visconti, was Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted wit ...

Pope Gregory X
's decree during the
Second Council of Lyons:''The First Council of Lyon, the Thirteenth Ecumenical Council, took place in 1245.'' The Second Council of Lyon was the fourteenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic C ...
in 1274 that the
cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of the College of Minor Canons of St. Paul's Cathedral Navigation * Cardina ...
electors should be locked in seclusion (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
for 'with a key') and not permitted to leave until a new pope had been elected. Conclaves are now held in the
Sistine Chapel The Sistine Chapel (; la, Sacellum Sixtinum; it, Cappella Sistina ) is a chapel 300px, schematic rendering of typical "side chapels" in the apse of a cathedral, surrounding the ambulatory. A chapel is a Christian place of prayer and wor ...

Sistine Chapel
of the
Apostolic Palace The Apostolic Palace ( la, Palatium Apostolicum; it, Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence of the pope, the head of the Catholic Church, located in Vatican City. It is also known as the Papal Palace, the Palace of the Vatican and the V ...

Apostolic Palace
in
Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica ...

Vatican City
.John Paul II (22 February 1996)
''Universi Dominici gregis''
. ''
Apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolling, enacting, or promulgating Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a ...
''. Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House.
Since the
Apostolic Age Christianity in the 1st century covers the formative history of Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the pr ...
, the bishop of Rome, like other bishops, was chosen by the consensus of the
clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established s. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's s and practices. Some of the terms used for ind ...
and laity of the
diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
.Baumgartner 2003, p. 4. The body of electors was more precisely defined when, in 1059, the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of electors. Since then, other details of the process have developed. In 1970,
Pope Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the ...
limited the electors to cardinals under 80 years of age in ''
Ingravescentem aetatem ''Ingravescentem aetatem'' () is a document issued by Pope Paul VI, dated 21 November 1970. It is divided into 8 chapters. The Latin title is taken from the incipit, and translates to "advancing age". It established a rule that only cardinals who ...
''. The procedures were established by
Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the and sovereign of the from 1978 until his death in 2005. He was elected by ...

Pope John Paul II
in his
apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolling, enacting, or promulgating Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a ...
''
Universi Dominici gregis ''Universi Dominici gregis'' is an apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is law which has been promulgation, promulgated (or "enactment of a bill, en ...
'' as amended by Pope Benedict XVI in 2007 and 2013."Pope Issues Conclave Motu Proprio"
''
National Catholic Register The ''National Catholic Register'' is a conservative national Catholic The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approx ...
''. 25 February 2013.
A two-thirds
supermajority A supermajority, supra-majority, qualified majority, or special majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a majority A majority, also calle ...
vote is required to elect the new pope.Benedict XVI (11 June 2007)
De aliquibus mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis
(in Latin). ''
Motu proprio In law, ''motu proprio'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...
''. Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House.
"Pope alters voting for successor"
. ''
BBC News BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster Public broadcasting involves radio Radio is the technology of signali ...

BBC News
''. 26 June 2007.
The last papal conclave occurred in 2013, when Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected as
Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State since 2013. Francis is the first pope to be a member ...

Pope Francis
, succeeding
Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; german: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, , on 16 April 1927) is a retired prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ra ...

Benedict XVI
.


Historical development

The procedures for the election of the pope developed over almost two
millennia A millennium (plural millennia or millenniums) is a period of one thousand year A year is the orbital period of a planetary body, for example, the Earth, moving in Earth's orbit, its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the ...

millennia
. Until the College of Cardinals was created in 1059, the bishops of Rome, like those in other areas, were elected by acclamation of the local clergy and people. Procedures similar to the present system were introduced in 1274 when
Gregory X Pope Gregory X ( la, Gregorius X;  – 10 January 1276), born Teobaldo Visconti, was Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted wit ...

Gregory X
promulgated '' Ubi periculum'' following the action of the magistrates of
Viterbo Viterbo (; Viterbese: ; lat-med, Viterbium) is an ancient city and '' comune'' in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the province of Viterbo. It conquered and absorbed the neighboring town of Ferento (see Ferentium) in its ea ...

Viterbo
during the interregnum of 1268–1271. The process was further refined by
Gregory XV Pope Gregory XV ( la, Gregorius XV; 9 January 15548 July 1623), born Alessandro Ludovisi, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by numbe ...
with his 1621 bull ''
Aeterni Patris Filius ''Aeterni Patris Filius'' (English: ''Son of the Eternal Father''), also called ''Aeterni Patris'', was a bull issued by Pope Gregory XV on 15 November 1621 that regulated papal conclaves. Together with the bull ''Decet Romanum pontificem'' of 1 ...
'', which established the requirement of a two-thirds majority of cardinal electors to elect a pope. The
Third Lateran Council The Third Council of the Lateran met in Rome in March 1179. Pope Alexander III Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland ( it, Rolando), was the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member ...
had initially set the requirement that two-thirds of the cardinals were needed to elect a pope in 1179.Baumgartner 2003, pp. 32-33 This requirement has varied since then, depending on whether the winning candidate was allowed to vote for himself, in which cases the required majority was two-thirds plus one vote. ''Aeterni Patris Filius'' prohibited this practice and established two-thirds as the standard needed for election.Baumgartner 2003, p. 146 ''Aeterni Patris Filius'' did not eliminate the possibility of election by acclamation, but did require that a secret ballot take place first before a pope could be elected.


Electorate

As
early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
communities emerged, they elected bishops, chosen by the clergy and
laity In religious organizations, the laity consists of all members who are not part of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presidin ...
with the assistance of the bishops of neighbouring dioceses.
Cyprian Cyprian ( ; la, Thaschus Caecilius Cyprianus; 210 – September 14, 258 AD''The Liturgy of the Hours according to the Roman Rite: Vol. IV.'' New York: Catholic Book Publishing Company, 1975. p. 1406.) was bishop of Carthage Carthage was the c ...

Cyprian
(died 258) says that
Pope Cornelius Pope Cornelius was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orth ...

Pope Cornelius
(in office 251–253) was chosen as Bishop of Rome "by the decree of God and of His Church, by the testimony of nearly all the clergy, by the college of aged bishops 'sacerdotum'' and of good men". As in other dioceses, the clergy of the Diocese of Rome was the electoral body for the Bishop of Rome. Instead of casting votes, the bishop was selected by general
consensus Consensus decision-making or consensus politics (often abbreviated to ''consensus'') is group decision-making processes in which participants develop and decide on proposals with the aim, or requirement, of acceptance by all. The focus on es ...

consensus
or by
acclamation An acclamation is a form of election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office.
. The candidate was then submitted to the people for their general approval or disapproval. This lack of precision in the election procedures occasionally gave rise to rival popes or
antipope An antipope ( la, antipapa) is a person who, in opposition to the lawful , makes a significant attempt to occupy the position of and leader of the . At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by important factions ...
s. The right of the laity to reject the person elected was abolished by a Synod held in the Lateran in 769, but restored to Roman noblemen by
Pope Nicholas I Pope Nicholas I ( la, Nicolaus I; c. 800 – 13 November 867), called Nicholas the Great, was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted ...

Pope Nicholas I
during a Synod of Rome in 862. The pope was also subjected to oaths of loyalty to the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
, who had the duty of providing security and public peace in Rome. A major change came in 1059, when
Pope Nicholas II Pope Nicholas II ( la, Nicholaus II; c. 990/995 – 27 July 1061), otherwise known as Gerard of Burgundy, was the head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 24 January 1059 until his death. At the time of his election, he was ...

Pope Nicholas II
decreed in '' In Nomine Domini'' that the cardinals were to elect a candidate to take office after receiving the assent of the clergy and laity. The
cardinal bishop Cardinals ( la, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") are the most senior members of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in diffe ...
s were to meet first and discuss the candidates before summoning the
cardinal priest Cardinals ( la, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") are the most senior members of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in diffe ...
s and
cardinal deacon Cardinals ( la, Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally "cardinal of the Holy Roman Church") are the most senior members of the clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established religions. Their roles and functions vary in diffe ...
s for the actual vote. The
Second Council of the Lateran The Second Council of the Lateran was the 10th ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest ...
in 1139 removed the requirement for obtaining the assent of the lower clergy and the laity, while the
Third Council of the Lateran The Third Council of the Lateran met in Rome in March 1179. Pope Alexander III Pope Alexander III (c. 1100/1105 – 30 August 1181), born Roland ( it, Rolando), was the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member ...
in 1179 gave equal rights to the entire College of Cardinals when electing a new pope.Guruge 2010, p. 49. Through much of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
and
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
the Catholic Church had only a small number of cardinals at any one time, as few as seven under either
Pope Alexander IV Pope Alexander IV (1199 or 1185 – 25 May 1261) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with ...

Pope Alexander IV
(1254–1261) or
Pope John XXI Pope John XXI ( la, Ioannes XXI;  – 20 May 1277), born Peter Juliani ( la, Petrus Iulianus; pt, Pedro Julião), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 September 1276 to his death. Apart from Pope Damasus I, ...

Pope John XXI
(1276–1277).Miranda, Salvador
"Election of May 30 – November 25, 1277 (Nicholas III)"
.
The difficulty of travel further reduced the number arriving at conclaves. The small electorate magnified the significance of each vote and made it all but impossible to displace familial or political allegiances. Conclaves lasted months and even years. In his 1274 decree requiring the electors be locked in seclusion, Gregory X also limited each cardinal elector to two servants and rationed their food progressively when a conclave reached its fourth and ninth days. The cardinals disliked these rules;
Pope Adrian V Pope Adrian V (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...

Pope Adrian V
temporarily suspended them in 1276 and John XXI's '' Licet felicis recordationis'' revoked them later that same year. Lengthy elections resumed and continued to be the norm until 1294, when
Pope Celestine V Pope Celestine V ( la, Caelestinus V; 1215 – 19 May 1296), born Pietro Angelerio (according to some sources ''Angelario'', ''Angelieri'', ''Angelliero'', or ''Angeleri''), also known as Pietro da Morrone, Peter of Morrone, and Peter Celes ...

Pope Celestine V
reinstated the 1274 rules. Long interregna followed: in 1314–1316 during the
Avignon Papacy The Avignon Papacy, also known as the Babylonian Captivity, was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () o ...
, where the original conclaves were dispersed by besieging mercenaries and not reconvened for almost two years; and in 1415–1417, as a result of the
Western Schism The Western Schism, also known as the Papal Schism, the Vatican Standoff, the Great Occidental Schism, or the Schism of 1378 (), was a split within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is ...
. It is noteworthy that until 1899, it was a regular practice to generally include a few lay members in the Sacred College. These were often prominent nobility, or monks who were not priests, and in all cases, celibacy was required. With the death of Teodolfo Mertel in 1899, this practice was ended. In 1917, the Code of Canon Law promulgated that year, explicitly stated that all cardinals must be priests. Since 1962, all cardinals have been bishops, with the exception of a few priests who were made cardinals after 1975 and being 80 years of age or older, were dispensed from the requirement of episcopal ordination. It was in 1975, that Paul VI decreed that those 80 years of age or older, were not allowed to vote in papal conclaves. In 1587
Pope Sixtus V Pope Sixtus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Piergentile, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's old ...

Pope Sixtus V
limited the number of cardinals to 70, following the precedent of
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
who was assisted by 70 elders in governing the
Children of Israel The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was p ...
: six cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests, and 14 cardinal deacons. Beginning with the attempts of
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
(1958–1963) to broaden the representation of nations in the College of Cardinals, that number has increased. In 1970
Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the Li ...
ruled that cardinals who reach the age of eighty before the start of a conclave are ineligible to participate. In 1975 he limited the number of cardinal electors to 120. Though this remains the theoretical limit, all of his successors have exceeded it for short periods of time.
John Paul II Pope John Paul II ( la, Ioannes Paulus II; it, Giovanni Paolo II; pl, Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; 18 May 19202 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Ca ...

John Paul II
(in office 1978–2005) also changed the age limit slightly, so that cardinals who turn 80 before a papal vacancy (not before conclave start) can not serve as electors; this eliminated the idea of scheduling the conclave to include or exclude a cardinal who is very close to the age limit (and in 2013, Cardinal
Walter Kasper Walter Kasper (born 5 March 1933) is a German Roman Catholic Cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardinal (Church of England), two members of t ...

Walter Kasper
, 79 when the papacy became vacant, participated in the conclave at age 80).


Choice of electors and of candidates

Originally, lay status did not bar election to the See of Rome. Bishops of dioceses were sometimes elected while still catechumens, such as the case of St. Ambrose, who became Bishop of Milan in 374. In the wake of the violent dispute over the 767 election of
Antipope Constantine II Antipope Constantine II (died 769?) was a Roman prelate who claimed the papacy from 28 June 767 to 6 August 768. He was overthrown through the intervention of the Lombards and tortured before he was condemned and expelled from the Catholic Church, ...
,
Pope Stephen III Pope Stephen III ( la, Stephanus III; died 1 February 772) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority ...

Pope Stephen III
held the synod of 769, which decreed that only a cardinal priest or cardinal deacon could be elected, specifically excluding those that are already bishops. Church practice deviated from this rule as early as 817 and fully ignored it from 882 with the election of
Pope Marinus I Pope Marinus I (; died 15 May 884) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the ...

Pope Marinus I
, the
Bishop of Caere : Caere (also Caisra and Cisra) is the Latin name given by the Ancient Rome, Romans to one of the larger cities of southern Etruria, the modern Cerveteri, approximately 50-60 kilometres north-northwest of Rome. To the Etruscans it was known as Ci ...
. Nicholas II, in the synod of 1059, formally codified existing practice by decreeing that preference was to be given to the clergy of Rome, but leaving the cardinal bishops free to select a cleric from elsewhere if they so decided.Baumgartner 2003, p. 21-23. The Council of 1179 rescinded these restrictions on eligibility. On 15 February 1559,
Paul IV Pope Paul IV, C.R. ( la, Paulus IV; 28 June 1476 – 18 August 1559), born Gian Pietro Carafa, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations ...
issued the Papal Bull '' Cum ex apostolatus officio'', a codification of the ancient Catholic law that only Catholics can be elected Popes, to the exclusion of non-Catholics, including former Catholics who have become public and manifest heretics.
Pope Urban VI Pope Urban VI ( la, Urbanus VI; c. 1318 – 15 October 1389), born Bartolomeo Prignano (), was the Roman claimant to the headship of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3&nb ...

Pope Urban VI
in 1378 became the last pope elected from outside the College of Cardinals. The last person elected as pope who was not already an ordained priest or deacon was the cardinal-deacon Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, elected as
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family ...

Pope Leo X
in 1513. His successor,
Pope Adrian VI Pope Adrian VI ( la, Hadrianus VI; nl, Adrianus/Adriaan VI), born Adriaan Florensz Boeyens (2 March 1459 – 14 September 1523), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 January 1522 until his death on 14 Septemb ...

Pope Adrian VI
, was the last to be elected (1522) ''in absentia''. Archbishop Giovanni Montini of
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...
received several votes in the 1958 conclave though not yet a cardinal.Baumgartner 2003, p. 215. As the Catholic Church holds that women cannot be validly ordained, women are not eligible for the papacy. Though the pope is the Bishop of Rome, he need not be of
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
background. , the three most recent conclaves have elected a Pole (1978), a German (2005), and an Argentinian (2013). A simple majority vote sufficed until 1179, when the Third Council of the Lateran increased the required majority to two-thirds. As cardinals were not allowed to vote for themselves (after 1621), the ballots were designed to ensure secrecy while at the same time preventing self-voting. In 1945
Pope Pius XII Pope Pius XII ( it, Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (; 2 March 18769 October 1958), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, ...
removed the prohibition on a cardinal voting for himself, increasing the requisite majority to two-thirds plus one at all times.Pius XII (8 December 1945)
''Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis''
(in Latin). ''Apostolic constitution''. Vatican City.
He eliminated as well the need for signed ballots. His successor John XXIII immediately reinstated the two-thirds majority if the number of cardinal electors voting is divisible by three, with a rounding up to two-thirds plus one otherwise. Paul VI reinstated Pius XII's procedure thirteen years later, but John Paul II overturned it again. In 1996, John Paul II's constitution allowed election by
absolute majority A supermajority, supra-majority, qualified majority, or special majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a majority. Supermajority rules in ...
if
deadlock File:Deadlock at a four-way-stop.gif, thumbnail, Four processes (blue lines) compete for one resource (grey circle), following a right-before-left policy. A deadlock occurs when all processes lock the resource simultaneously (black lines). The ...

deadlock
prevailed after thirty-three or thirty-four ballots (thirty-four ballots if a ballot took place on the first afternoon of the conclave). In 2007
Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; german: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, , on 16 April 1927) is a retired prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ra ...

Benedict XVI
rescinded John Paul II's change (which effectively abolished the two-thirds majority requirement, as any majority suffices to block the election until a simple majority is enough to elect the next pope), reaffirming the requirement of a two-thirds majority. Electors formerly made choices by accessus,
acclamation An acclamation is a form of election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office. Elections have been the usual mec ...
(''per inspirationem''), adoration, compromise (''per compromissum'') or scrutiny (''per scrutinium''). * Accessus was a method for cardinals to change their most recent vote to accede to another candidate in an attempt to reach the requisite two-thirds majority and end the conclave. This method was first disallowed by the Cardinal Dean at the 1903 conclave. * With acclamation, the cardinals unanimously declared the new pope ''quasi afflati Spiritu Sancto'' (as if inspired by the
Holy Spirit In Abrahamic religions, the Holy Spirit is an aspect or agent of God in Abrahamic religions, God, by means of which God communicates with people or acts on them. In Judaism, it refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of God over the ...

Holy Spirit
). If this took place before any formal ballot has taken place, the method was called adoration, but
Pope Gregory XV Pope Gregory XV ( la, Gregorius XV; 9 January 15548 July 1623), born Alessandro Ludovisi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 February 1621 to his death in 1623. Biography Early life Alessandro Ludovisi was bor ...

Pope Gregory XV
excluded this method in 1621. * To elect by compromise, a deadlocked College unanimously delegates the election to a committee of cardinals whose choice they all agree to abide by. * Scrutiny is election via the casting of secret ballots. The last election by compromise is considered to be that of
Pope John XXII Pope John XXII ( la, Ioannes PP. XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by ...

Pope John XXII
in 1316, and the last election by acclamation that of
Pope Innocent XI Pope Innocent XI ( la, Innocentius XI; 16 May 1611 – 12 August 1689), born Benedetto Odescalchi, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations ...

Pope Innocent XI
in the 1676 conclave. ''Universi Dominici gregis'' formally abolished the long unused methods of acclamation and compromise in 1996, making scrutiny now the only approved method for the election of a new pope.


Secular influence

For a significant part of the Church's history, powerful
monarchs A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority a ...

monarchs
and
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
s influenced the choice of its leaders. For example, the
Roman emperors The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Republican period of ancient Rom ...
once held considerable sway in the elections of popes. In 418, Emperor Honorius settled a controversial election, upholding
Pope Boniface I Pope Boniface I ( la, Bonifatius I) was the bishop of Rome from 28 December 418 to his death on 4 September 422. His papal selection before 1059, election was disputed by the supporters of Antipope Eulalius, Eulalius until the dispute was settled ...

Pope Boniface I
over the challenger Antipope Eulalius. On the request of Boniface I, Honorius ordered that in future cases, any disputed election would be settled by a fresh election. After the demise of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican ...

Western Roman Empire
, influence passed to the
Ostrogoth The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: P ...
ic
Kings of Italy Kings or King's may refer to: *Monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. A mona ...
and in 533,
Pope John II Pope John II ( la, Ioannes II; died 8 May 535), born Mercurius, was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authori ...

Pope John II
formally recognised the right of the Ostrogothic monarchs to ratify elections. By 537 the Ostrogothic monarchy had been overthrown, and power passed to the Byzantine emperors. A procedure was adopted whereby officials were required to notify the
Exarch of Ravenna The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy ( la, Exarchatus Ravennatis) was a lordship of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the R ...
upon the death of a pope before proceeding with the election. Once the electors arrived at a choice, they were required to send a delegation to
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
requesting the emperor's consent, which was necessary before the individual elected could take office. Travel to and from Constantinople caused lengthy delays. When
Pope Benedict II Pope Benedict II ( la, Benedictus II) was the bishop of Rome from June 26, 684 to his death. Pope Benedict II's feast day is May 7. Early life Benedict was born in Rome. It is possible that he was a member of the Savelli family, though this is ...

Pope Benedict II
(684-685) complained about them, Emperor
Constantine IV Constantine IV ( el, Κωνσταντῖνος, translit=Kōnstantinos; c. 650-685), called the Younger (Greek: ὁ νέος, ''ho neos'') and sometimes incorrectly Pogonatos (Greek: Πωγωνᾶτος, "the Bearded") out of confusion with hi ...
(in office 654-685) acquiesced, ending the requirement for emperors to confirm elections. Thereafter, the Emperor was only required to be notified. The last pope to notify a Byzantine emperor was
Pope Zachary Pope Zachary ( la, Zacharias; 679 – March 752) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversi ...

Pope Zachary
in 741. In the 9th century, the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
came to exert control over papal elections. While
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
(Emperor from 800 to 814) and
Louis the Pious Louis the Pious (16 April 778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Ro ...

Louis the Pious
(Emperor from 813 to 840) did not interfere with the Church,
Lothair I Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" ...
(Emperor from 817 to 855) claimed that an election could only take place in the presence of imperial ambassadors. In 898 riots forced
Pope John IX Pope John IX ( la, Ioannes IX; died January 900) was the bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from January 898 to his death. Early life Little is known about John IX before he became pope. Born in Tivoli, Italy, Tivoli to a man named Ramp ...

Pope John IX
to recognise the superintendence of the Holy Roman Emperor. At the same time, the Roman nobility also continued to exert great influence, especially during the tenth-century period known as ''
saeculum obscurum ''Saeculum obscurum'' (, "the dark age/century"), was a period in the history of the Papacy during the first two-thirds of the 10th century, beginning with the installation of Pope Sergius III Pope Sergius III (c. 860 − 14 April 911) was th ...
'' (Latin for "the dark age"). In 1059 the same
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden Seal (emblem), seal (''bulla (seal), bulla'') that was traditionally appended to the end in order to auth ...
that restricted suffrage to the cardinals also recognised the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor (at the time
Henry IVHenry IV may refer to: People * Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1050–1106), King of The Romans and Holy Roman Emperor * Henry IV, Duke of Limburg (1195–1247) * Henry IV, Duke of Brabant (1251/1252–1272) * Henryk IV Probus (c. 1258–1290), Duke ...

Henry IV
), but only as a concession made by the pope, declaring that the Holy Roman Emperor had no authority to intervene in elections except where permitted to do so by papal agreements.
Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory VII ( la, Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana ( it, Ildebrando da Soana), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian d ...

Pope Gregory VII
(in office 1073-1085) was the last Pope to submit to the interference of the Holy Roman Emperors. The breach between him and the Holy Roman Empire caused by the
Investiture Controversy#REDIRECT Investiture Controversy The Investiture Controversy, also called Investiture Contest, was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to choose and install bishops ( investiture) and abbots of monasteries a ...
led to the abolition of the Emperor's role. In 1122 the Holy Roman Empire acceded to the
Concordat of Worms The Investiture Controversy, also called Investiture Contest, was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to choose and install bishops (investiture) and abbots of monasteries and the pope himself. A series of po ...
, accepting the papal decision. From about 1600, certain Catholic monarchs claimed a ''
jus exclusivae ''Jus exclusivae'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
'' (right of exclusion), i.e. a veto over papal elections, exercised through a
crown-cardinal was both a cardinal and King of Portugal. A crown-cardinal ( it, cardinale della corona) was a cardinal protector of a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8 ...
. By an informal convention, each state claiming the veto could exercise the right once per conclave. Therefore, a crown-cardinal did not announce his veto until the very last moment when the candidate in question seemed likely to get elected. No vetoes could be employed after an election. After the Holy Roman Empire dissolved in 1806, its veto power devolved upon the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It compr ...
. The last exercise of the veto occurred in 1903, when Prince Jan Puzyna de Kosielsko informed the College of Cardinals that Austria opposed the election of
Mariano Rampolla Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro (17 August 1843 – 16 December 1913) was an Italian Cardinal (Catholicism), Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church, and the last man to have his candidacy for papal election vetoed through jus exclusivae by a Catholic ...
. Consequently, the College elected Giuseppe Sarto as
Pope Pius X Pope Pius X ( it, Pio X; born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; 2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church as Pope from August 1903 to his death in 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing Modernism in the Catholic Churc ...

Pope Pius X
, who issued the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
'' Commissum nobis'' six months later, declaring that any cardinal who communicated his government's veto in the future would suffer excommunication ''latae sententiae''.


Seclusion and resolution

To resolve prolonged deadlocks in papal elections in the earlier years, local authorities often resorted to the forced seclusion of the cardinal electors, such as first in the city of Rome in Papal election, 1241, 1241, and possibly before that in Perugia in Papal election, 1216, 1216. In 1268–71 papal election, 1269, when the forced seclusion of the cardinals alone failed to produce a pope, the city of Viterbo refused to send in any materials except bread and water. When even this failed to produce a result, the townspeople removed the roof of the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo, Palazzo dei Papi in their attempt to speed up the election. In an attempt to avoid future lengthy elections, Gregory X introduced stringent rules with the 1274 promulgation of ''Ubi periculum''. Cardinals were to be secluded in a closed area and not accorded individual rooms. No cardinal was allowed, unless ill, to be attended by more than two servants. Food was supplied through a window to avoid outside contact. After three days of the conclave, the cardinals were to receive only one dish a day; after another five days, they were to receive just bread and water. During the conclave, no cardinal was to receive any ecclesiastical revenue. Pope Adrian V, Adrian V abolished Gregory X's strict regulations in 1276, but Pope Celestine V, Celestine V, elected in 1294 following a two-year vacancy, restored them. In 1562 Pope Pius IV, Pius IV issued a papal bull that introduced regulations relating to the enclosure of the conclave and other procedures. Gregory XV issued two bulls that covered the most minute of details relating to the election; the first, in 1621, concerned electoral processes, while the other, in 1622, fixed the ceremonies to be observed. In December 1904
Pope Pius X Pope Pius X ( it, Pio X; born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto; 2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church as Pope from August 1903 to his death in 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing Modernism in the Catholic Churc ...

Pope Pius X
issued an apostolic constitution consolidating almost all the previous rules, making some changes, ''Vacante sede apostolica''. John Paul II instituted several reforms in 1996. The location of the conclaves became fixed in the fourteenth century. Since the end of the
Western Schism The Western Schism, also known as the Papal Schism, the Vatican Standoff, the Great Occidental Schism, or the Schism of 1378 (), was a split within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is ...
in 1417, they have taken place in Rome (except in 1799–1800, when France, French troops occupying Rome forced the election to be held in Venice), and normally in what, since the Lateran Treaties of 1929, has become the independent
Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatica ...

Vatican City
State. Since 1846, when the Quirinal Palace was used, the
Sistine Chapel The Sistine Chapel (; la, Sacellum Sixtinum; it, Cappella Sistina ) is a chapel 300px, schematic rendering of typical "side chapels" in the apse of a cathedral, surrounding the ambulatory. A chapel is a Christian place of prayer and wor ...

Sistine Chapel
in the Vatican has served as the location of the election. Popes have often fine-tuned the rules for the election of their successors:
Pope Pius XII Pope Pius XII ( it, Pio XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (; 2 March 18769 October 1958), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, ...
's ''Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis'' (1945) governed the conclave of 1958,
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
's ''Summi Pontificis electio'' (1962) that of 1963,
Pope Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the ...
's ''Romano Pontifici eligendo'' (1975) the two conclaves of 1978, John Paul II's ''Universi Dominici Gregis'' (1996) that of 2005, and Papal election reforms of Pope Benedict XVI, two amendments by Benedict XVI (2007, 2013) that of 2013.


Modern practice

In 1996, John Paul II promulgated a new
apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolling, enacting, or promulgating Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a ...
, ''
Universi Dominici gregis ''Universi Dominici gregis'' is an apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is law which has been promulgation, promulgated (or "enactment of a bill, en ...
'', which with Papal election reforms of Pope Benedict XVI, slight modifications by Pope Benedict XVI now governs the election of the pope, abolishing all previous constitutions on the matter, but preserving many procedures that date to much earlier times. Under ''Universi Dominici gregis'', the cardinals are to be lodged in a purpose-built edifice in Vatican City, the Domus Sanctae Marthae, but are to continue to vote in the Sistine Chapel. Several duties are performed by the dean of the College of Cardinals, who is always a cardinal bishop. If the dean is not entitled to participate in the conclave owing to age, his place is taken by the sub-dean, who is also always a cardinal bishop. If the sub-dean also cannot participate, the senior cardinal bishop participating performs the functions. Since the College of Cardinals is a small body, there have been proposals that the electorate should be expanded. Proposed reforms include a plan to replace the College of Cardinals as the electoral body with the Synod of Bishops in the Catholic Church, Synod of Bishops, which includes many more members. Under present procedure, the synod may only meet when called by the pope. ''Universi Dominici gregis'' explicitly provides that even if a synod or an ecumenical council is in session at the time of a pope's death, it may not perform the election. Upon the pope's death, either body's proceedings are suspended, to be resumed only upon the order of the new pope. It is considered poor form to campaign for the position of pope. There is always much outside speculation about which cardinals have serious prospects of being elected. Speculation tends to mount when a pope is ill or aged and shortlists of potential candidates appear in the media. A cardinal who is considered to be a prospect for the papacy is described informally as a ''papabile'' (an adjective used substantively: the plural form is ''papabili''), a term coined by Italian-speaking Vatican watchers in the mid-20th century, literally meaning "pope-able".


Death of a pope

The death of the pope is verified by the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, cardinal camerlengo, or chamberlain, who traditionally performed the task by calling out his baptismal (not papal) name three times in the presence of the master of papal liturgical celebrations, and of the cleric prelates, secretary and chancellor of the Apostolic Camera. The camerlengo takes possession of the Ring of the Fisherman worn by the pope; the ring, along with the papal seal, is later destroyed before the College of Cardinals. The tradition originated to avoid forgery of documents, but today merely is a symbol of the end of the pope's reign. During the ''sede vacante'', as the papal vacancy is known, certain limited powers pass to the College of Cardinals, which is convoked by the dean of the College of Cardinals. All cardinals are obliged to attend the general congregation of cardinals, except those whose health does not permit, or who are over eighty (but those cardinals may choose to attend if they please). The particular congregation, which deals with the day-to-day matters of the Church, includes the cardinal camerlengo and the three cardinal assistants—one cardinal bishop, one cardinal priest and one cardinal deacon—chosen by lot. Every three days, new cardinal assistants are chosen by lot. The camerlengo and assistants are responsible, among other things, for maintaining the election's secrecy. The congregations must make certain arrangements in respect of the pope's burial, which by tradition takes place within four to six days of the pope's death, leaving time for pilgrims to see the dead pontiff, and occurs within a nine-day period of mourning known as the , . The congregations also fix the date and time of the commencement of the conclave. The conclave normally takes place fifteen days after the death of the pope, but the Congregations may extend the period to a maximum of twenty days in order to permit other cardinals to arrive in the Vatican City.


Resignation of a pope

A vacancy in the papal office may also result from a papal resignation. Until the resignation of Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, no pope had abdicated since Pope Gregory XII, Gregory XII in 1415. In 1996 Pope John Paul II, in his Apostolic Constitution ''
Universi Dominici gregis ''Universi Dominici gregis'' is an apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is law which has been promulgation, promulgated (or "enactment of a bill, en ...
'', anticipated the possibility of resignation when he specified that the procedures he set out in that document should be observed "even if the vacancy of the Apostolic See should occur as a result of the resignation of the Supreme Pontiff". In the case of a papal resignation, the Ring of the Fisherman is placed in the custody of the Cardinal Camerlengo; in the presence of the
College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Church * Cardina ...
, the Cardinal Camerlengo marks an X (for the cross) with a small silver hammer and chisel into the Ring, disfiguring it so it may no longer be used for signing and sealing official papal documents. In his book, ''Light Of The World: The Pope, The Church and The Signs Of The Times'',
Benedict XVI Pope Benedict XVI ( la, Benedictus XVI; it, Benedetto XVI; german: Benedikt XVI.; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger, , on 16 April 1927) is a retired prelate A prelate () is a high-ranking member of the clergy who is an ordinary or who ra ...

Benedict XVI
espoused the idea of abdication on health grounds, which already had some theological respectability.


Before the sealing of the Sistine Chapel

The cardinals hear two sermons before the election: one before actually entering the conclave, and one once they are settled in the Sistine Chapel. In both cases, the sermons are meant to lay out the current state of the Church, and to suggest the qualities necessary for a pope to possess in that specific time. The first preacher in the 2005 conclave was Fr. Raniero Cantalamessa, the preacher of the papal household and a member of the Capuchin Franciscan order, who spoke at one of the meetings of the cardinals held before the actual day when the conclave began. Cardinal Tomáš Špidlík, a former professor at the Pontifical Oriental Institute and a non-voting member (due to age) of the College of Cardinals, spoke just before the doors were finally closed for the conclave. On the morning of the day designated by the congregations of cardinals, the cardinal electors assemble in Saint Peter's Basilica to celebrate Mass (liturgy), Mass. Then they gather in the afternoon in the Cappella Paolina, Pauline Chapel in the
Apostolic Palace The Apostolic Palace ( la, Palatium Apostolicum; it, Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence of the pope, the head of the Catholic Church, located in Vatican City. It is also known as the Papal Palace, the Palace of the Vatican and the V ...

Apostolic Palace
and procession, process to the Sistine Chapel while singing the Litany of the Saints. The cardinals will also sing the "Veni Creator Spiritus", invoking the Holy Spirit in Christianity, Holy Spirit, then take an oath to observe the procedures set down by the apostolic constitutions; to, if elected, defend the liberty of the Holy See; to maintain secrecy; and to disregard the instructions of secular authorities on voting. The senior cardinal reads the oath aloud in full; in Order of precedence in the Catholic Church, order of precedence (where their rank is the same, their seniority is taken as precedence), the other cardinal electors repeat the oath, while touching the Gospels. The oath is:


Expelling the outsiders

After all the cardinals present have taken the oath, the master of papal liturgical celebrations orders all individuals other than the cardinal electors and conclave participants to leave the Chapel. Traditionally, he stands at the door of the Sistine Chapel and calls out: "" (). He then closes the door. In modern practice, the master of papal liturgical celebrations does not have to stand at the door of the Sistine Chapel—during the papal conclave, 2013, 2013 conclave, the Master Guido Marini stood in front of the altar and gave the command through a microphone and only went to the chapel doors to close them after the outsiders had left. The master himself may remain, as may one ecclesiastic designated by the congregations prior to the commencement of the election. The ecclesiastic makes a speech concerning the problems facing the Church and on the qualities the new pope needs to have. After the speech concludes, the ecclesiastic leaves. Following the recitation of prayers, the senior cardinal asks if any doubts relating to procedure remain. After the clarification of the doubts, the election may commence. Cardinals who arrive after the conclave has begun are admitted nevertheless. A sick cardinal or a cardinal who has to use the lavatory may leave the conclave and later be readmitted; a cardinal who leaves for any reason other than illness may not return to the conclave. Although in the past cardinal electors could be accompanied by attendants ("conclavists"), now only a nurse may accompany a cardinal who for reasons of ill-health, as confirmed by the Congregation of Cardinals, needs such assistance. The Secretary of the College of Cardinals, the master of papal liturgical celebrations, two Master of ceremonies, masters of ceremonies, two officers of the Papal Sacristy and an ecclesiastic assisting the dean of the College of Cardinals are also admitted to the conclave. Priests are available to hear Sacrament of Penance, confessions in different languages; two doctors are also admitted. Finally, a strictly limited number of servant staff are permitted for housekeeping and the preparing and serving of meals. Secrecy is maintained during the conclave; the cardinals as well as the conclavists and staff are forbidden to disclose any information relating to the election. Cardinal electors may not correspond or converse with anyone outside the conclave, by post, radio, telephone, internet, social media or otherwise, and eavesdropping is an offense punishable by excommunication ''latae sententiae''. Only three cardinal electors are permitted to communicate with the outside world under grave circumstances, prior to approval of the College, to fulfill their duties: the Major Penitentiary, the Cardinal Vicar for the Diocese of Rome, and the Vicar General for the Vatican City State. Before the conclave that elected Pope Francis, the Sistine Chapel was "swept" using the latest electronic devices to detect any hidden "covert listening device, bugs" or surveillance devices (there were no reports that any were found, but in previous conclaves press reporters who had disguised themselves as conclave servants were discovered). ''Universi Dominici gregis'' specifically prohibits media such as newspapers, the radio, and television. Wi-Fi access is blocked in Vatican City and wireless signal jammers are deployed at the Sistine Chapel to prevent any form of electronic communications to or from the cardinal electors.


Voting

On the afternoon of the first day, one ballot (referred to as a "scrutiny") may be held, but is not required. If a ballot takes place on the afternoon of the first day and no-one is elected, or no ballot had taken place, a maximum of four ballots are held on each successive day: two in each morning and two in each afternoon. Before voting in the morning and again before voting in the afternoon, the electors take an oath to obey the rules of the conclave. If no result is obtained after three vote days of balloting, the process is suspended for a maximum of one day for prayer and an address by the senior cardinal deacon. After seven further ballots, the process may again be similarly suspended, with the address now being delivered by the senior cardinal priest. If, after another seven ballots, no result is achieved, voting is suspended once more, the address being delivered by the senior cardinal bishop. After a further seven ballots, there shall be a day of prayer, reflection and dialogue. In the following ballots, only the two names who received the most votes in the last ballot shall be eligible in a runoff election where a two-thirds majority is still required. The two people voted on, if cardinal electors, shall not themselves have the right to vote. The process of voting comprises three phases: the "pre-scrutiny", the "scrutiny", and the "post-scrutiny".


Pre-scrutiny

During the pre-scrutiny, the masters of ceremonies prepare ballot papers bearing the words ("I elect as Supreme Pontiff") and provide at least two to each cardinal elector. As the cardinals begin to write down their votes, the secretary of the College of Cardinals, the master of papal liturgical celebrations and the masters of ceremonies exit; the junior cardinal deacon then closes the door. The junior cardinal deacon then draws by lot nine names; the first three become scrutineers, the second three ''infirmarii'' and the last three revisers. New scrutineers, ''infirmarii'' and revisers are not selected again after the first scrutiny; the same nine cardinals perform the same task for the second scrutiny. After lunch, the election resumes with the oath to obey the rules of the conclave taken anew when the cardinals again assemble in the Sistine Chapel. Nine names are chosen for new scrutineers, ''infirmarii'', and revisers. The third scrutiny then commences, and if necessary, a fourth immediately follows. No changes in these rules were made by Benedict XVI in 2007. These rules were followed (so far as is known, given the secrecy of a conclave) in electing Pope Francis in March 2013.


Scrutiny

The scrutiny phase of the election is as follows: The cardinal electors proceed, in order of precedence, to take their completed ballots (which bear only the name of the individual voted for) to the altar, where the scrutineers stand. Before casting the ballot, each cardinal elector takes the following Latin oath: If any cardinal elector is in the chapel, but cannot proceed to the altar due to infirmity, the last scrutineer may go to him and take his ballot after the oath is recited. If any cardinal elector is by reason of infirmity confined to his room, the ''infirmarii'' go to their rooms with ballot papers and a box. Any such sick cardinals complete the ballot papers and then take the oath and drop the ballot papers into the box. When the ''infirmarii'' return to the chapel, the ballots are counted to ensure that their number matches with the number of ill cardinals; thereafter, they are deposited in the appropriate receptacle. This oath is taken by all cardinals as they cast their ballots. If no one is chosen on the first scrutiny, then a second scrutiny immediately follows. A maximum total of four scrutinies can be taken each day, two in the morning and two in the afternoon. The oath when casting one's vote is anonymous, since the name of the elector is no longer signed on the ballot with that of the candidate. (Previously, the ballot was signed by the elector, who included his motif [unique identification code]. Then he folded it over at two places to cover his signature and motif. After this, it was sealed with wax to result in a semi-secret ballot.) This was the procedure prior to 1945. The example above is a copy of the old three section semi-secret ballot, which was last used in the conclave of 1939. There was no oath taken when actually casting ballots, prior to 1621. Completely secret ballots (at the option of the cardinals present and voting) were sometimes used prior to 1621, but these secret ballots had no oath taken when the vote was actually cast. At some conclaves prior to 1621, the cardinals verbally voted and sometimes stood in groups to facilitate counting the votes cast. The signature and motif of the elector covered by two folded-over parts of the ballot paper was added by Gregory XV in 1621, to prevent anyone from casting the deciding vote for himself. Reginald Pole, Cardinal Pole of England refused to cast the deciding vote for himself in 1549 (and was not elected), but in 1492 Cardinal Borgia (Pope Alexander VI) did cast the deciding vote for himself. Faced by the mortal challenge to the papacy emanating from Protestantism, and fearing schism due to several stormy conclaves in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Gregory XV established this procedure to prevent any cardinal from casting the deciding vote for himself. Since 1945, a cardinal can again cast the deciding vote for himself, though the two-thirds majority rule has always been continued, except when John Paul II had modified that rule in 1996 (after 33 ballots, a simple majority was sufficient), with the two-thirds majority rule restored in 2007 by Benedict XVI.Benedict XVI (11 June 2007
" De aliquibus mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis"
Apostolic letter.
Prior to 1621, the only oath taken was that of obedience to the rules of the conclave in force at that time, when the cardinals entered the conclave and the doors were locked, and each morning and afternoon as they entered the Sistine Chapel to vote. Gregory XV added the additional oath, taken when each cardinal casts his ballot, to prevent cardinals wasting time in casting "courtesy votes" and instead narrowing the number of realistic candidates for the papal throne to perhaps only two or three. Speed in electing a pope was important, and that meant using an oath so as to get the cardinals down to the serious business of electing a new pope and narrowing the number of potentially electable candidates. The reforms of Gregory XV in 1621 and reaffirmed in 1622 created the written detailed step-by-step procedure used in choosing a pope; a procedure that was essentially the same as that which was used in 2013 to elect Pope Francis. The biggest change since 1621 was the elimination of the rule that required the electors to sign their ballots resulting in the detailed voting procedure of scrutiny making use of anonymous oaths. Beginning in 1945, an elector could vote for himself and then call on God via the oath taken when the vote is dropped into the receptacle, to declare himself to be the best one qualified for the papacy. Once all votes have been cast, the first scrutineer chosen shakes the container, and the last scrutineer removes and counts the ballots. If the number of ballots does not correspond to the number of cardinal electors present (including sick cardinals in their rooms), the ballots are burnt, unread, and the vote is repeated. If no irregularities are observed, the ballots may be opened and the votes counted. Each ballot is unfolded by the first scrutineer; all three scrutineers separately write down the name indicated on the ballot. The last of the scrutineers reads the name aloud. Once all of the ballots have been opened, the final post-scrutiny phase begins.


Post-scrutiny

The scrutineers add up all of the votes, and the revisers check the ballots and the names on the scrutineers' lists to ensure that no error was made. The ballots are then all burned by the scrutineers with the assistance of the secretary of the College of Cardinals and the masters of ceremonies. If the first scrutiny held in any given morning or afternoon does not result in an election, the cardinals proceed to the next scrutiny immediately. The papers from both scrutinies are then burned together at the end of the second scrutiny.


Fumata

Beginning in the early 1800s, the ballots used by cardinals were burned after each ballot to indicate a failed election. The lack of smoke instead signalled a successful election. Since 1914, black smoke (''fumata nera'') emerging from a temporary chimney installed on the roof of the Sistine Chapel indicates that the ballot did not result in an election, while white smoke (''fumata bianca'') announces that a new pope has been chosen. Prior to 1945 (when Pius XII changed the form of ballot to use anonymous oaths, first carried out in 1958), the sealing wax on the complex type ballots illustrated above had the effect of making the smoke from burning the ballots either black or white, depending on whether or not damp straw was added. Until the 20th century, sealing wax customarily had beeswax mixed into its composition. The use of wax made solely from animal fat does not give as much white colored smoke, as does wax that includes beeswax. In the 1939 papal conclave, 1939 conclave there was some confusion over the smoke color, which was even more apparent in the 1958 papal conclave, 1958 conclave. The lack of sealing wax on the ballots explains the confusion over the color of the smoke in the 1958 conclave. The Siri thesis was based on the confusion over the smoke color on the first day of that conclave. Since 1963, chemicals have been added to the burning process to augment the smoke's black or white color. Beginning in 2005, a successful election is also accentuated by bells ringing at the appearance of the white smoke. During the 2013 conclave, the Vatican disclosed the chemicals used to color the smoke: * Black smoke: potassium perchlorate, anthracene, sulfur * White smoke: potassium chlorate, lactose, rosin, pine rosin


Acceptance and proclamation

Once the election concludes, the cardinal dean summons the secretary of the College of Cardinals and the master of papal liturgical celebrations into the hall. The dean then asks the pope-elect if he assents to the election, saying in Latin: ('Do you accept your canonical election as Supreme Pontiff?') There is no requirement that the pope-elect do so, and he is free to respond ('I do not accept'). In practice, any cardinal who intends not to accept will explicitly state this ''before'' he receives a sufficient number of votes to become pope, as Giovanni Colombo did in October 1978 papal conclave, October 1978. If he accepts, and is already a bishop, he immediately takes office. If he is not a bishop, he must be first consecrated as one before he can assume office. If a priest is elected, the dean of the College of Cardinals consecrates him bishop; if a layman is elected, then the dean first ordains him deacon, then priest, and only then consecrates him as bishop. Only after becoming a bishop does the pope-elect take office. These functions of the dean are assumed, if necessary, by the sub-dean, and if the sub-dean is also impeded, they are assumed by the senior cardinal bishop in attendance. In 2005, the dean himself—Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger—was elected pope, thus impeding him from the stated duties. In 2013, the dean and sub-dean were not in attendance (being over the age limit), and these functions were assumed by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re. Since 533, the new pope has also decided on his regnal name.
Pope John II Pope John II ( la, Ioannes II; died 8 May 535), born Mercurius, was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authori ...

Pope John II
was the first to adopt a new papal name; he felt that his original name, Mercurius, was inappropriate, as it was also the name of a Mercury (mythology), Roman god. In most cases, even if such considerations are absent, popes tend to choose papal names different from their baptismal names; the last pope to reign under his baptismal name was Pope Marcellus II (1555). After the newly elected pope accepts his election, the dean asks him about his papal name, saying in Latin: ('By what name do you wish to be called?') After the papal name is chosen, the officials are readmitted to the conclave, and the master of papal liturgical celebrations writes a document recording the acceptance and the new name of the pope. In the past, when the cardinals voted during a conclave, they sat on canopied thrones symbolizing the cardinals' collective governance of the church during the period of ''sede vacante''. Upon the acceptance by the new pope of his election, all other cardinals in attendance each pulled a cord and lowered the canopies above their respective thrones, signifying an end to the period of collective governance, and only the newly elected pope's canopy remained unlowered. The last time canopied thrones were used was during the papal conclave, 1963, 1963 conclave.Conclave A.D. 1963 – Election of Pope Paul VI
. YouTube video. Accessed 19 October 2013
Beginning with the Papal conclave, August 1978, 1978 August conclave, canopied thrones were no longer used due to the lack of space resulting from the large increase in the number of cardinal electors (two rows of seats needed). At the end of the conclave, the new pope could give his cardinalitial zucchetto or skull cap to the secretary of the conclave, indicating the secretary would be made cardinal at the next consistory to create cardinals. Prior to the 2013 conclave, this tradition was last followed at the 1958 conclave by the newly elected
Pope John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Giuseppe Angelo Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian deno ...
, who bestowed his cardinal's skull cap on Alberto di Jorio and created him a cardinal at the consistory on 15 December of that year. In 2013, the Portuguese section of Vatican Radio reported that at the conclusion of the 2013 conclave, the newly elected Pope Francis bestowed his cardinalitial zucchetto on Archbishop Lorenzo Baldisseri, the secretary of that conclave, and on 22 February 2014 at Pope Francis' first consistory, Baldisseri was formally made a cardinal with the title of Cardinal-Deacon of Sant'Anselmo all'Aventino. Then, the new pope goes to the Room of Tears, a small red room next to the Sistine Chapel; the room carries the nickname because of the strong emotions experienced by the new pope. The new pope dresses by himself, choosing a set of pontifical robes—consisting of a white cassock, rochet, and red mozzetta—from three sizes provided. He then dons a gold corded pectoral cross, a red and gold embroidered Stole (vestment), stole, and then the white papal zucchetto on his head. In 2013,
Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State since 2013. Francis is the first pope to be a member ...

Pope Francis
dispensed with the red mozzetta, rochet, and gold pectoral cross, wearing only the white cassock and his own pectoral cross when he appeared on the central balcony. He also did not emerge wearing the stole, vesting in it only to impart the Apostolic Blessing, and removing it shortly after. Next, the protodeacon of the College of Cardinals (the senior cardinal deacon) appears at the loggia of the basilica to proclaim the new pope. He usually proceeds with the following traditional Latin formula (assuming that a cardinal has been elected): [given name] [surname] [papal name] I announce to you with great joy;
we have a Pope:
The most eminent and most reverend Lord,
Lord [given name]
Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church [surname]
who has taken the name [papal name]. During the announcement for Pope Benedict XVI's election, the protodeacon, Cardinal Jorge Medina, first greeted the crowds with "Dear brothers and sisters" in several different languages before proceeding to the Latin announcement. This was not done when Pope Francis was elected. In the past, the protodeacon has himself been elected pope. In such an event, the announcement is made by the next senior deacon, who has thus succeeded as protodeacon. The last time the cardinal protodeacon was elected was in 1513, when Giovanni de Medici was elected as
Pope Leo X Pope Leo X (born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, 11 December 14751 December 1521) was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521. Born into the prominent political and banking Medici family ...

Pope Leo X
and the next senior cardinal deacon Pope Paul III, Alessandro Farnese (the future Pope Paul III) made the announcement. After the election of Pope Leo XIII in 1878, Protodeacon Prospero Caterini appeared and started to make the announcement but was Stage fphysically incapable of completing it, so another made it for him. Following the announcement, the senior cardinal deacon retreats, and papal aides unfurl a large, maroon banner that out of practicality often bears the late pope's arms in the centre, draping it onto the railing of the basilica's loggia. During Pope Francis' announcement, there was no image of his predecessor's arms (indicating that the previous pope was still alive), and during Pope Pius XI's first appearance following his election at the Papal conclave, 1922, 1922 conclave, the banner showed the arms of Pope Pius IX instead of the arms of his immediate predecessor Pope Benedict XV. The new pope then emerges onto the balcony to the adulation of the crowd, while a brass band in the forecourt below plays the Pontifical Anthem. He then imparts the Urbi et Orbi blessing. The Pope may on this occasion choose to give the shorter episcopal blessing as his first Apostolic Blessing instead of the traditional Urbi et Orbi blessing, this happened most recently with
Pope Paul VI Pope Paul VI ( la, Paulus VI; it, Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, ; 26 September 18976 August 1978) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the ...
after his election at the Papal conclave, 1963, 1963 conclave. Beginning with Pope John Paul II, the last three popes elected including Pope Francis, have chosen to address the crowds first before imparting the Urbi et Orbi blessing. Also, at Pope Francis' first appearance, he led the faithful first in prayers for his predecessor and asked them for prayers for himself before imparting the Urbi et Orbi blessing. Formerly, the popes were crowned by the ''Papal Tiara, triregnum'', or triple tiara, at the Papal Coronation. All popes since Pope John Paul I, John Paul I have refused an elaborate coronation, choosing instead to have a simpler papal inauguration ceremony.5 – New pope announced
, Choosing a Pope, BBC


Relevant papal documents

* ''In nomine Domini'' (1059) * ''Quia propter'' (1215) * '' Ubi periculum'' (1274) * ''Ne Romani'' (1312) * ''
Aeterni Patris Filius ''Aeterni Patris Filius'' (English: ''Son of the Eternal Father''), also called ''Aeterni Patris'', was a bull issued by Pope Gregory XV on 15 November 1621 that regulated papal conclaves. Together with the bull ''Decet Romanum pontificem'' of 1 ...
'' (1621) * ''Commissum Nobis'' (1904) * ''Vacante Sede Apostolica'' (1904) * ''Cum proxime'' (1922) * ''Papal conclave, 1939#Change in conclave procedure, Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis'' (1945) * ''Papal conclave, 1958#Conclave reform, Summi Pontificis electio'' (1962) * ''
Ingravescentem aetatem ''Ingravescentem aetatem'' () is a document issued by Pope Paul VI, dated 21 November 1970. It is divided into 8 chapters. The Latin title is taken from the incipit, and translates to "advancing age". It established a rule that only cardinals who ...
'' (1970) * ''Romano Pontifici eligendo'' (1975) * ''
Universi Dominici gregis ''Universi Dominici gregis'' is an apostolic constitution An apostolic constitution ( la, constitutio apostolica) is the most solemn form of legislation Legislation is law which has been promulgation, promulgated (or "enactment of a bill, en ...
'' (1996) * ''Ordo Rituum Conclavis'' (2000) * ''De aliquis mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis'' (2007) * ''Normas nonnullas'' (2013)


See also

* Conclave capitulation * Elective monarchy * Index of Vatican City-related articles * List of papal elections * Papal appointment


Notes


Direct citations


References

* Pius X (25 December 1904). "''Vacante Sede Apostolica''". Apostolic constitution. ''Pii X Pontificis Maximi Acta''. 3. (1908) pp. 239–288. * Pius XI (1 March 1922). "''Cum Proxime''". Motu proprio. ''AAS''. 14. (1922) pp. 145–146. * Pius XI (25 March 1935). "''Quae Divinitus''". Apostolic constitution. ''AAS''. 27 (1935) pp. 97–113. * Paul VI (15 August 1967)
''Regimini Ecclesiae Universae''
(in Latin). Apostolic constitution. ''AAS''. 59. (1967) pp. 885–928. Vatican City. * John Paul II (28 June 1988)

''Apostolic constitution''. Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House. * Benedict XVI (11 June 2007)

''Apostolic letter''. Vatican City: Vatican Publishing House. * Beal, John P.; Coriden, James A.; Green, Thomas J., eds. (2000). ''New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law''. Mahwah, New Jersey: Paulist Press International. . * Burkle-Young, Francis A. (1999). ''Passing the Keys: Modern Cardinals, Conclaves, and the Election of the Next Pope''. New York: The Derrydale Press. . * Kurtz, Johann Heinrich (1889)
''Church History''
1. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. . * Levillain, Philippe; O'Malley, John W., eds. (2002). "The Papacy: An Encyclopedia". Routledge. . * Baumgartner, Frederic J. (2003). ''Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections''. Palgrave Macmillan. . * Colomer, Josep M.; McLean, Iain (1998)
"Electing Popes. Approval Balloting with Qualified-Majority Rule"
. Journal of Interdisciplinary History (MIT Press) 29 (1): 1–22. * Duffy, Eamon (2006). ''Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes'' (3rd ed.). Connecticut: Yale University Press. . * Guruge, Anura (2010). ''The Next Pope After Pope Benedict XVI''. WOWNH LLC. . * Ludwig von Pastor, Pastor, Ludwig von. "History of the Papacy, Conclaves in the 16th century; Reforms of Pope Gregory XV, papal bulls: ''Aeterni Patris'' (1621) and ''Decet Romanum Pontificem'' (1622)". * Reese, T. J. (1996). "Revolution in Papal Elections". America 174 (12): 4. * Wintle, W. J. (June 1903)
"How the Pope is Elected"
The London Magazine.
"Papal Conclave"
''Catholic Almanac'' (2012). Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor.

''National Geographic Channel''. 8 April 2004.
"How the Pope is Elected"
ReligionFacts.com * {{Authority control Election of the Pope History of the papacy Holy See Lists of papal conclaves Papal conclaves, Papal elections Catholic Church legal terminology