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The following
outline Outline or outlining may refer to: * Outline (list), a document summary, in hierarchical list format * Code folding, a method of hiding or collapsing code or text to see content in outline form * Outline drawing, a sketch depicting the outer edg ...
is provided as an overview of and topical guide to food preparation: Food preparation – art form and applied science that includes but is not limited to
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...

cooking
.


What is food preparation?

*
Art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...
– an art, one of ''the'' arts, is a creative endeavor or discipline. **
Culinary art Culinary arts, in which ''culinary Culinary arts, in which ''culinary Culinary arts, in which '' culinary'' means "related to cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare ...
– art of preparing and cooking foods. *
Skill A skill is the learned ability to perform an action with determined results with good execution often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into Departmentalization, domain-general and domain-specific skills. ...
– learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time, energy, or both. *
Meal preparation Meal preparation, sometimes called meal prep, is the process of planning and preparing meals. Advance preparation Sometimes meal preparation involves preparing meals ahead of time for a short or period of time. This practice may occur among peopl ...
– the process of planning meals. Includes types of ingredients needed and the correct preparation of the ingredients for the food item being made.


Essence of food preparation

*
Chef A chef is a trained professional cook and tradesman A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refers to a skilled worker who specializes in a particular occupation that requires work experience, on-the-job training, and often formal v ...

Chef
– a person who cooks professionally for other people. Although over time the term has come to describe any person who cooks for a living, traditionally it refers to a highly skilled professional who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation. *
Cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...

Cooking
– act of preparing
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
for
eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous syste ...

eating
. It encompasses a vast range of methods, tools and combinations of
ingredient An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up m ...
s to improve the
flavour Flavor, or flavour, is the perceptual Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area aro ...

flavour
or digestibility of food. It generally requires the selection, measurement and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result. *
Cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, List of cooking techniques, techniques and dish (food), dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region. Regional food preparation traditions ...

Cuisine
– specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. It is often named after the region or place where its underlying culture is present. A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade.


Food preparation techniques


Baking

*
Baking Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "fro ...

Baking
– the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by
convection Convection is single or multiphase fluid flow that occurs Spontaneous process, spontaneously due to the combined effects of material property heterogeneity and body forces on a fluid, most commonly density and gravity (see buoyancy). When t ...
, normally in an
oven upA double oven A ceramic oven An oven is a tool which is used to expose materials to a hot environment. Ovens contain a hollow chamber and provide a means of heating the chamber in a controlled way. In use since Prehistoric technology, antiq ...

oven
, but can also be done in hot ashes or on hot stones. Appliances like
Rotimatic Rotimatic is an automated kitchen appliance that makes flatbread A flatbread is a bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency ...
also allow automatic baking. *
Blind-baking Baking blind (sometimes called pre-baking) is the process of baking a pie crust or other pastry without the filling. Blind baking a pie crust is necessary when it will be filled with an unbaked filling (such as with pudding or cream pies), in whic ...
– baking pastry before adding a filling. *
Boiling Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere. Ther ...
– the rapid
vaporization Vaporization (or vaporisation) of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor. There are two types of vaporization: evaporation and boiling. Evaporation is a surface phenomenon, whereas boiling is a bulk phenomenon. ...
of a
liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects, ...

liquid
, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its
boiling point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure 280px, The ''pistol test tube'' experiment. The tube contains alcohol and is closed with a piece of cork. By heating the alcohol, the vapors fill in the space, inc ...
, the
temperature Temperature ( ) is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can be seen on this hot metalwork. Thermal energy refers to several distinct physical concept ...

temperature
at which the
vapor pressure Vapor pressure (or vapour pressure in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial cod ...

vapor pressure
of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding environmental pressure. *
Blanching Blanch or blanching may refer to: *Blanch (medical), a temporary whitening of the skin due to transient ischemia *Blanching (cooking), cooking briefly in boiling water *Blanching (coinage), a method used to whiten metal *Blanching (horticulture), g ...
– cooking technique which food substance, usually a vegetable or fruit, is plunged into boiling water, removed after a brief, timed interval, and finally plunged into iced water or placed under cold running water (shocked) to halt the cooking process. *
Braising Image:Braised_Ox_Cheek_in_Star_Anise_and_Soy_Sauce.jpg#file, 250px, Braised ox cheek in star anise and soy sauce Braising (from the French language, French word ''braiser'') is a combination-cooking method that uses both wet and dry heats: typica ...
– combination cooking method using both moist and dry heat; typically the food is first seared at a high temperature and then finished in a covered pot with a variable amount of liquid, resulting in a particular flavour. *
Coddling In cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their rela ...
– food is heated in water kept just below the boiling point. *
Infusion Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and ...

Infusion
– the process of soaking plant matter, such as fruits or tea leaves, in a liquid, such as water or alcohol, so as to impart flavor into the liquid. *
Pressure cooking Pressure cooking is the process of cooking food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living ...
– cooking in a sealed vessel that does not permit air or liquids to escape below a preset pressure, which allows the liquid in the pot to rise to a higher temperature before boiling. *
Simmering Simmering is a food preparation Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism ...

Simmering
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
s are cooked in hot liquids kept at or just below the
boiling point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure 280px, The ''pistol test tube'' experiment. The tube contains alcohol and is closed with a piece of cork. By heating the alcohol, the vapors fill in the space, inc ...
of
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
, but higher than
poaching Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are ...
temperature Temperature ( ) is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can be seen on this hot metalwork. Thermal energy refers to several distinct physical concept ...

temperature
. **
Poaching Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are ...
– process of gently simmering food in liquid, generally milk, stock or wine. *
Steaming Steaming is a method of cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temper ...

Steaming
– boiling water continuously so it vaporizes into steam and carries heat to the food being steamed, thus cooking the food. **
Double steaming Double steaming, sometimes called ''double boiling'', is a Chinese cooking technique to prepare delicate food such as bird's nest soup Edible bird's nests are bird nest A bird nest is the spot in which a bird Birds are a group of ...
– Chinese cooking technique in which food is covered with water and put in a covered ceramic jar and the jar is then steamed for several hours. *
Steeping Steeping is the soaking of an organic solid, such as leaves, in a liquid (usually water) to extract flavours or to soften it. The specific process of tea Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured A c ...
– saturation of a food (such as an herb) in a liquid solvent to extract a soluble ingredient into the solvent. E.g., a cup of tea is made by steeping tea leaves in a cup of hot water. *
Stewing A stew is a combination of solid food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrat ...
– food is cooked in liquid and served in the resultant
gravy Gravy is a sauce In , a sauce is a , , or semi- food, served on or used in preparing other s. Most sauces are not normally consumed by themselves; they add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to a dish. ''Sauce'' is a word taken from the ...

gravy
. *
Vacuum flask cooking A thermal cooker, or a vacuum flask cooker, is a cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodyna ...


Broiling

*
Grilling Grilling is a form of cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynam ...

Grilling
– a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above or below. *
Barbecuing Barbecue or barbeque (informally BBQ in the UK; Barbie in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian contine ...
– method of cooking meat, poultry and occasionally fish with the heat and hot smoke of a fire, smoking wood, or hot coals of charcoal.


Frying

*
Frying Frying is the cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or ...
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...

cooking
food in
oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound ...
or another
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
, a technique that originated in ancient
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...
around 2500 BC.Tannahill, Reay. (1995). ''Food in History''. Three Rivers Press. p. 75 *
Deep frying Deep frying (also referred to as deep fat frying) is a cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mec ...
– food is submerged in hot oil or fat. This is normally performed with a deep fryer or chip pan. *
Gentle frying Gentle frying or low-temperature frying is an oil- or fat-based cooking method used for relatively fragile or starchy foods. While gentle frying is most notably used to cook fried egg A fried egg is a cooked dish made from one or more eggs ...
* Hot salt frying *
Pan frying Pan frying or pan-frying is a form of frying Frying is the cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, b ...

Pan frying
– cooking food in a pan using a small amount of cooking oil or fat as a heat transfer agent and to keep the food from sticking. *
Pressure frying In cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relat ...
*
Sautéing Sautéing or sauteing (, ; in reference to tossing while cooking) is a method of cooking that uses a relatively small amount of oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical ...
*
Shallow frying Shallow frying is a hot oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up ...
*
Stir frying Stir frying () is a Chinese cooking technique in which ingredients are fried in a small amount of very hot oil while being stirred or tossed in a wok A wok (; Standard Chinese Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard No ...


Microwaving

*
Microwave oven A microwave oven (commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven upA double oven A ceramic oven An oven is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. ...

Microwave oven
– type of oven that heats foods quickly and efficiently using microwaves. However, unlike conventional
oven upA double oven A ceramic oven An oven is a tool which is used to expose materials to a hot environment. Ovens contain a hollow chamber and provide a means of heating the chamber in a controlled way. In use since Prehistoric technology, antiq ...

oven
s, a
microwave Microwave is a form of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space a ...

microwave
oven does not brown bread or bake food. This makes microwave ovens unsuitable for cooking certain foods and unable to achieve certain culinary effects. Additional kinds of heat sources can be added into microwave ovens or microwave packaging so as to add these additional effects.


Roasting

*
Roasting Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat where hot air covers the food, cooking it evenly on all sides with temperatures of at least from an open flame, oven upA double oven A ceramic oven An oven is a tool A tool is an object ...
– cooking method that uses dry heat, whether an open flame,
oven upA double oven A ceramic oven An oven is a tool which is used to expose materials to a hot environment. Ovens contain a hollow chamber and provide a means of heating the chamber in a controlled way. In use since Prehistoric technology, antiq ...

oven
, or other heat source. Roasting usually causes
caramelization Caramelization is the browning of sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are j ...
or
Maillard browning The Maillard reaction ( ; ) is a chemical reaction between Amino acid, amino acids and Reducing sugar, reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavor. Searing, Seared steaks, fried dumplings, cookies and other kinds of biscuits, b ...
of the surface of the food, which is considered by some as a
flavor Flavor, or flavour, is the perceptual Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area aro ...

flavor
enhancement. *
Grilling Grilling is a form of cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynam ...

Grilling
– applying dry heat to the surface of food, by cooking it on a grill, a grill pan, or griddle. *
Rotisserie Rotisserie, also known as spit-roasting, is a style of roasting Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat where hot air covers the food, cooking it evenly on all sides with temperatures of at least from an open flame, oven, or other ...
– meat is skewered on a spit - a long solid rod used to hold food while it is being cooked over a fire in a fireplace or over a campfire, or while being roasted in an oven. *
Searing Searing (or pan searing) is a technique used in grilling Grilling is a form of cooking that involves dry heat applied to the surface of food, commonly from above, below or from the side. Grilling usually involves a significant amount of ...
– technique used in grilling, baking, braising, roasting, sautéing, etc., in which the surface of the food (usually meat, poultry or fish) is cooked at high temperature so a caramelized crust forms.


Hot Smoking

*
Smoking Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke is typically breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Most commonly, the substance used is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant, which have been ...
– the process of
flavoring Flavor, or flavour, is the perceptual impression of food or other chemical substance, substances as determined primarily by the Chemoreceptor, chemical senses of the gustatory system, gustatory and olfactory system. The "trigeminal nerve, trige ...

flavoring
,
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...

cooking
, or
preserving
preserving
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
by exposing it to the
smoke Smoke is a collection of airborne and es emitted when a material undergoes or , together with the quantity of air that is or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted of fires (including s, s, s, s, and s), but may als ...

smoke
from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often
wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

wood
. Hot smoking will cook and flavor the food, while cold smoking only flavors the food.


Chemical techniques

*
Brining In food processing Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of che ...
–Brining is a process similar to marination in which meat or poultry is soaked in brine before cooking *
Ceviche Ceviche, also cebiche, seviche, or sebiche () is a South American seafood dish that originated in Peru, typically made from fresh raw fish Curing (food preservation), cured in fresh citrus juices, most commonly lemon or Lime (fruit), lime, but ...

Ceviche
– *
Drying Drying is a mass transfer Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning stream, phase, fraction or component, to another. Mass transfer occurs in many processes, such as absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemi ...
– *
Fermentation Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signalin ...
– * Marinating – :* Saikyoyaki *
Pickling Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains ess ...
– * Salting – *
Seasoning Seasoning is the process of adding herbs In general use, herbs are a widely distributed and widespread group of plants, excluding vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The origina ...

Seasoning
– *
Souring Souring is a cooking technique that uses exposure to an acid An acid is a or capable of donating a (hydrogen ion H+) (a ), or, alternatively, capable of forming a with an (a ). The first category of acids are the proton donors, or s. I ...
– *
Sprouting Sprouting is the natural process by which seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's fi ...
– *
Sugaring Sugaring is a food preservation method similar to pickling Pickling is the process of preserving or extending the shelf life of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usuall ...


Mechanical techniques

* Basting – *
Cutting Cutting is the separation or opening of a physical object, into two or more portions, through the application of an acutely directed force. Implements commonly used for wikt:cut, cutting are the knife and saw, or in medicine and science the scal ...

Cutting
**
Dicing Dicing is a culinary knife cut in which the food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as ...
–cutting into cubes **
Grating A grating is any regularly spaced collection of essentially identical, parallel Parallel may refer to: Computing * Parallel algorithm In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms ...

Grating
– The use of a grater to mash vegetables. **
Julienning Julienne, allumette, or french cut, is a culinary knife cut in which the food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains ...
–cutting into very thin pieces such as the thin carrots in store bought salad mix **
Mincing Mincing is a food Preparation (principle), preparation technique in which food ingredients are finely divided into uniform pieces. Minced food is in smaller pieces than Dicing, diced or chopped foods, and is often prepared with a chef's knife or f ...
–cutting into very small pieces ** Peeling –to take the outer skin/covering off of a fruit or vegetable **
Shaving Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a razor A razor is a blade A blade is the portion of a tool, weapon, or machine with an edge that is designed to wikt:puncture, puncture, wikt:chop, chop, Cutting, slice or scraper (archaeology), ...

Shaving
– **
chiffonadeChiffonade () is a slicing technique in which Leaf vegetable, leafy green vegetables such as spinach, sorrel, or Swiss chard, or a flat-leaved herb like basil, are cut into long, thin strips. This is accomplished by stacking leaves, rolling them tigh ...
; cutting in a ribbon like way *
Kneading In cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their rel ...

Kneading
– *
Milling Milling may refer to: * Milling (grinding), breaking solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting in a mill * Milling (machining), a process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a workpiece * Milling (military tra ...
– *
Mixing
Mixing
; incorporating different ingredients to make something new; such as how mixing water, sugar, and lemon juice makes lemonade **
Blending
Blending
; using a machine called blender to grind ingredients * Vacuum Filling


History of food preparation

* History of Indian cuisine


International cuisine

A sample of some cuisines around the world: *
African cuisine Traditionally, the various cuisines of Africa use a combination of locally available fruits, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products, and do not usually have food imported. In some parts of the continent, the traditional di ...

African cuisine
  ''( see list)'' **
Mediterranean cuisine Mediterranean cuisine is the food and methods of preparation used by the people of the Mediterranean Basin. The idea of a Mediterranean cuisine originates with the cookery writer Elizabeth David's book, ''A Book of Mediterranean Food'' (1950) ...
**
Ethiopian cuisine Ethiopian cuisine ( om, Nyaata Etiyoophiyaa; am, የኢትዮጵያ ምግብ) characteristically consists of vegetable and often very spicy meat dishes. This is usually in the form of ''wat A wat ( km, វត្ត, ; lo, ວັດ, ; ...
*
Asian cuisine Asian cuisine includes several major regional cuisines: Central Asian Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere ...
  ''( see list)'' **
Korean cuisine Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of social and political change. Originating from ancient agricultural and nomadic traditions in Korea Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1945, it has been divided between two countries at ...

Korean cuisine
**
Chinese cuisine Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture and includes cuisines originating from China. Because of the Overseas Chinese, Chinese diaspora and historical power of the country, Chinese cuisine has influenced many other cuisines in ...

Chinese cuisine
**
Japanese cuisine Japanese cuisine encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan, which have developed through centuries of political, economic, and social changes. The traditional cuisine of Japan (Japanese: ) is based on rice with miso soup and othe ...
**
Indian cuisine Indian cuisine consists of a variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent. Given the diversity in soil, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially and use locally avai ...

Indian cuisine
**
Thai cuisine Thai cuisine ( th, อาหารไทย, , ) is the national cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Coo ...

Thai cuisine
**
Vietnamese cuisine Vietnamese cuisine encompasses the foods and beverages of Vietnam, and features a combination of five fundamental tastes ( vi, ngũ vị) in overall meals. Each Vietnamese dish has a distinctive flavor which reflects one or more of these ele ...
*
European cuisine European cuisine comprises the cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients var ...
  ''( see list)'' **
Mediterranean cuisine Mediterranean cuisine is the food and methods of preparation used by the people of the Mediterranean Basin. The idea of a Mediterranean cuisine originates with the cookery writer Elizabeth David's book, ''A Book of Mediterranean Food'' (1950) ...
**
Eastern European cuisine Eastern European cuisine encompasses many different cultures, ethnicities, languages, and histories of Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landma ...
***
Russian cuisine Russian cuisine is a collection of the different dishes and cooking traditions of the Russians, Russian people as well as a list of culinary products popular in Russia, with most names being known since pre-Soviet times, coming from all kinds o ...
**
English cuisine English cuisine encompasses the cooking styles, traditions and recipes associated with England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and ...
**
French cuisine French cuisine () consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France. French cuisine developed throughout the centuries influenced by the many surrounding cultures of Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and Belgium, in addition to ...
**
Italian cuisine Italian cuisine (, ) is a Mediterranean cuisine Mediterranean cuisine is the food and methods of preparation used by the people of the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean r ...
* Oceanian cuisine   ''( see list)'' **
Australian cuisine Australian cuisine is the food and cooking practices of Australia and its inhabitants. As a modern nation of large-scale immigration, Australia has absorbed culinary contributions and adaptations from various cultures around the world, including ...
**
New Zealand cuisine New Zealand cuisine is largely driven by local ingredients and seasonal variations. An island nation with a primarily agricultural economy, New Zealand yields produce from land and sea. Similar to the Australian cuisine, cuisine of Australia, the c ...
* Cuisine of the Americas   ''( see list)'' **
Canadian cuisine Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of ...
**
American cuisine American cuisine reflects the history of the United States, blending the culinary contributions of various groups of people from around the world, including Native Americans in the United States, indigenous American Indians, African Ameri ...
***
Cajun cuisine Cajun cuisine (french: Cuisine cadienne, ), ( es, Cocina acadia) is a style of cooking developed by the Cajun The Cajuns (; Louisiana French: ''les Cadiens''), also known as ''Acadians'' (Louisiana French: ''les Acadiens''), are an ethnic g ...

Cajun cuisine
**
Latin American cuisine Latin American cuisine is the typical foods, beverages, and cooking styles common to many of the countries and cultures in Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic ...
***
Mexican cuisine Mexican cuisine consists of the cooking cuisines and traditions of the modern country of . Its roots lie in . Its ingredients and methods begin with the first agricultural communities such as the who domesticated , created the standard proces ...

Mexican cuisine
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South American cuisine South American cuisine has many influences, due to the ethnic fusion of South America. The most characteristic are Native American, African, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, and Indian cuisine, Indian-South Asian cuisine, South Asian. However, ther ...
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Argentine cuisine Argentine cuisine is described as a cultural blending of Mediterranean cuisine, Mediterranean influences brought by the Spaniards, Spanish during the colonial period and, later, by Italian Argentine, Italian and Spanish Argentine, Spanish imm ...
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Peruvian cuisine Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients including influences mainly from the indigenous population, including the Inca, and cuisines brought by immigrants from Europe ( Spanish cuisine, Italian cuisine, German cuisine); Asia (J ...


General ingredients

*
Cereal A cereal is any Poaceae, grass cultivated (grown) for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, cereal germ, germ, and bran. The term may also refer to the resulting grain ...

Cereal
s – **
Maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

Maize
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Rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was relea ...

Rice
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Wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

Wheat
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Bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history, it has been a prominent food in large parts of the world. It is one of the oldest man-made foods, having been of significant impor ...

Bread
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Noodle Noodles are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organism ...

Noodle
s – * Cooking fats and oils **
Butter Butter is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contai ...

Butter
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Canola Canola oil is a vegetable oil Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science th ...
(
Rapeseed Rapeseed (''Brassica napus ''subsp.'' napus''), also known as rape, or oilseed rape, is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae Brassicaceae () or Cruciferae () is a medium-sized and economically important family ...

Rapeseed
) oil – **
Coconut oil Coconut oil (or coconut butter) is an edible oil derived from the wick, meat, and milk of the coconut palm The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree The Arecaceae is a family (biology), family of Perennial pla ...

Coconut oil
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Corn oil #REDIRECT corn oil #REDIRECT corn oil#REDIRECT corn oil Corn oil (maize oil) is oil extracted from the germ of corn ( maize). Its main use is in cooking, where its high smoke point makes refined corn oil a valuable frying oil. It is also a ke ...

Corn oil
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Rice bran oil Rice bran oil is the vegetable oil, oil extracted from the hard outer brown layer of rice called chaff (rice husk). It is known for its high smoke point of and mild flavor, making it suitable for high-temperature cooking methods such as stir fryin ...
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Flaxseed oil Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil or flax oil (in its edible form), is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, ''Linum usitatissimu ...
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Lard Lard is a semi-solid white fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and ...
– **
Margarine Margarine (, also , ) is a spread used for flavoring, baking and cooking. It is most often used as a substitute for butter. Although originally made from animal fats, most margarine consumed today is made from vegetable oil. The foodstuff was or ...

Margarine
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Olive oil Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomi ...

Olive oil
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Palm oil Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substa ...

Palm oil
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Peanut oil Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a vegetable oil Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and ...
– **
Sesame oil Sesame oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from sesame seeds. The oil is one of the earliest-known crop-based oils. Worldwide mass modern production is limited due to the inefficient manual harvesting process required to extract the oil. Sesa ...

Sesame oil
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Soybean oil Soybean oil is a vegetable oil Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are oil An oil is any nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that c ...
– **
Sunflower oil Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil pressed from the seeds The Seeds were an American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1965. The group became known for psychedelic rock music and is considered a prototype for garage punk ...

Sunflower oil
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Tallow Tallow is a rendering (industrial), rendered form of beef or mutton fat, primarily made up of triglycerides. In industry, tallow is not strictly defined as beef or mutton fat. In this context, tallow is animal fat that conforms to certain techni ...

Tallow
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Dairy A dairy is a business enterprise Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profi ...

Dairy
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Buttermilk Buttermilk is a Fermented milk products, fermented dairy drink. Traditionally, it was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of Microbial food cultures, cultured cream. As most modern butter is not made with cultured cream but uncult ...

Buttermilk
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Cheese Cheese is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and conta ...

Cheese
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Cream Cream is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains e ...

Cream
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Milk Milk is a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, any ...

Milk
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Yogurt Yogurt (; , from tr, yoğurt) also spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell ...

Yogurt
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Eggs Egg An egg is the organic vessel containing the in which an develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from of an . Most s, (excluding s), and lay eggs, although some, such as s, do ...
– *
Fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

Fruit
s – **
Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...

Apple
s – **
Cherries A cherry is the fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. ...

Cherries
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Pear Pears are fruits produced and consumed around the world, growing on a tree and harvested in the Northern Hemisphere in late summer into October. The pear tree and shrub are a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological ...

Pear
s – *
Legume A legume () is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can ...

Legume
s – **
Bean A bean is the seed of one of several of the , which are used as vegetables for human or animal food. They can be cooked in many different ways, including boiling, frying, and baking, and are used in many traditional dishes throughout th ...

Bean
s – **
Lentil The lentil (''Lens culinaris'' or ''Lens esculenta'') is an edible legume A legume () is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, co ...
s – **
Soy The soybean or soya bean (''Glycine max'') is a species of legume native to East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, ...
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Miso is a traditional Japanese cuisine, Japanese seasoning produced by fermentation (food), fermenting soybeans with salt and ''kōji'' (the fungus ''Aspergillus oryzae'') and sometimes rice, barley, seaweed, or other ingredients. The result is a ...

Miso
– *** Soy cheese – ***
Soy milk Soya milk (simplified Chinese Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation o ...

Soy milk
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Soy sauce Soy sauce (also called simply soy in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native ...

Soy sauce
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Soy yogurt Soy yogurt, also referred to as soya yogurt, soygurt or yofu (a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and contain ...
– *** Textured soy protein – *** Tofu – * Meat – ** Beef – ** Fish (food), Fish – ** Mutton – ** Poultry – ** Pork – * Mushrooms – ** Champignon – *
Seasoning Seasoning is the process of adding herbs In general use, herbs are a widely distributed and widespread group of plants, excluding vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The origina ...

Seasoning
s ** Herbs – ** Parsley – ** Spices – *** Black pepper, Pepper – *** Salt – * Sweeteners – ** Agave nectar – ** Fructose – ** Glucose – ** Honey – ** Stevia – ** Sugar – * Vegetables – ** Cucumber – ** Eggplants – ** Garlic – ** Onions – ** Potatoes – ** Squash (plant), Squash – ** Tomatoes –


General food preparation concepts

* Cookbook – * Cooking oil – * Cooking weights and measures (includes conversions and equivalences common in cooking) * Kitchen stove, Cooker or stove – *
Cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, List of cooking techniques, techniques and dish (food), dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region. Regional food preparation traditions ...

Cuisine
– * Cutting board – * Eating – * Flavor – * Food – * Food and cooking hygiene – * Foodborne illness – * Food preservation – * Ingredients * International food terms (useful when reading about food and recipes from different countries) * Maillard reaction – * Oven – * Recipe – * Restaurant – * Staple food – a
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
that is "eaten regularly and in such quantities as to constitute the dominant part of the diet and supply a major proportion of energy and nutrient needs".


See also

* :Cookbooks, Cookbooks * Culinary profession * Food writing * Junk food * List of cocktails * List of food preparation utensils * List of soups * List of twice-baked foods * Natural food * Nutrition * Organic food * Whole food


References


External links

* wikiHow:Cook, How to Cook * {{DEFAULTSORT:Cooking Outlines of society, Food preparation Wikipedia outlines, Food preparation Cooking, Articles containing video clips Food- and drink-related lists