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In
cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biolog ...
, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a
cell Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology) The cell (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around ...
, that has a specific function. The name ''organelle'' comes from the idea that these structures are parts of cells, as
organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (biology) In biology, an organ is a collection of Tissue (biology), tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. In the biological organization , hierarchy of life, an organ lies betwee ...
s are to the
body Body may refer to: In science * Physical body, an object in physics that represents a large amount, has mass or takes up space * Body (biology), the physical material of an organism * Body plan, the physical features shared by a group of animals ...

body
, hence ''organelle,'' the suffix ''-elle'' being a
diminutive A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix A prefix is an aff ...
. Organelles are either separately enclosed within their own
lipid bilayers The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cell (biology), cells. The cell membranes of almost all organism ...
(also called membrane-bound organelles) or are spatially distinct functional units without a surrounding lipid bilayer (non-membrane bound organelles). Although most organelles are functional units within cells, some functional units that extend outside of cells are often termed organelles, such as
cilia The cilium (; the plural is cilia) is an organelle In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...

cilia
, the
flagellum A flagellum (; ) is a hairlike appendage that protrudes from a wide range of microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and ...
and
archaellum An archaellum (plural: ''archaella'', formerly archaeal flagellum) is a unique whip-like structure on the cell surface of many archaea Archaea ( ; singular archaeon ) constitute a domain Domain may refer to: Mathematics *Domain of a function, ...
, and the
trichocyst A trichocyst is an organelle In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioc ...

trichocyst
. Organelles are identified by
microscopy Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of micr ...

microscopy
, and can also be purified by
cell fractionation Cell fractionation is the process used to separate cell organelle, cellular components while preserving individual functions of each component. This is a method that was originally used to demonstrate the cellular location of various biochemical pro ...
. There are many types of organelles, particularly in
eukaryotic cells Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ...

eukaryotic cells
. They include structures that make up the
endomembrane system The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a Eukaryote, eukaryotic cell. These membranes divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles. In eukaryotes the ...

endomembrane system
(such as the
nuclear envelope The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane A polarized membrane is a lipid bilayer, lipid membrane that has a positive elect ...

nuclear envelope
,
endoplasmic reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is, in essence, the transportation system of the eukaryotic cell, and has many other important functions such as protein folding. It is a type of organelle made up of two subunits – rough endoplasmic reticulum ( ...
, and
Golgi apparatus The Golgi apparatus (), also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that stu ...

Golgi apparatus
), and other structures such as
mitochondria A mitochondrion (; ) is a double-membrane A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or other small particles. Biological membranes include cell membranes ...

mitochondria
and
plastid The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a membrane-bound organelle In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell (biology), cell, that has a specific function. The name ' ...
s. While
prokaryote A prokaryote () is a single-celled organism A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual conti ...
s do not possess eukaryotic organelles, some do contain
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
-shelled
bacterial microcompartment ] Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelle-like structures, consisting of a protein shell that encloses enzymes and other proteins. BMCs are typically about 40–200 nanometers in diameter and are entirely made of proteins. The shell funct ...
s, which are thought to act as primitive #Prokaryotic_organelles, prokaryotic organelles; and there is also evidence of other membrane-bounded structures. Also, the prokaryotic
flagellum A flagellum (; ) is a hairlike appendage that protrudes from a wide range of microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and ...
which protrudes outside the cell, and its motor, as well as the largely extracellular
pilus A pilus (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman R ...
, are often spoken of as organelles.


History and terminology

In biology ''
organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (biology) In biology, an organ is a collection of Tissue (biology), tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. In the biological organization , hierarchy of life, an organ lies betwee ...
s'' are defined as confined functional units within an
organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological ...

organism
. The
analogy Analogy (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximate ...

analogy
of bodily organs to microscopic cellular substructures is obvious, as from even early works, authors of respective textbooks rarely elaborate on the distinction between the two. In the 1830s, Félix Dujardin refuted theory which said that microorganisms have the same organs of multicellular animals, only minor. Credited as the first to use a
diminutive A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix A prefix is an aff ...
of ''organ'' (i.e., little organ) for cellular structures was German zoologist Karl August Möbius (1884), who used the term ''organula'' (plural of ''organulum'', the diminutive of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''organum''). In a footnote, which was published as a correction in the next issue of the journal, he justified his suggestion to call organs of unicellular organisms "organella" since they are only differently formed parts of one cell, in contrast to multicellular organs of multicellular organisms.


Types

While most cell biologists consider the term ''organelle'' to be synonymous with
cell compartment Cellular compartments in cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochem ...
, a space often bound by one or two lipid bilayers, some cell biologists choose to limit the term to include only those cell compartments that contain
deoxyribonucleic acid Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule composed of two polynucleotide chains that coil around each other to form a Nucleic acid double helix, double helix carrying genetics, genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth ...

deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA), having originated from formerly autonomous microscopic organisms acquired via
endosymbiosis An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism most often, though not always, in a mutualism (biology), mutualistic relationship. (The term endosymbiosis is from the Greek language, Greek: ...

endosymbiosis
. Under this definition, there would only be two broad classes of organelles (i.e. those that contain their own DNA, and have originated from endosymbiotic
bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typ ...
): *
mitochondria A mitochondrion (; ) is a double-membrane A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or other small particles. Biological membranes include cell membranes ...

mitochondria
(in almost all eukaryotes) *
plastid The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a membrane-bound organelle In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell (biology), cell, that has a specific function. The name ' ...
s (e.g. in plants, algae, and some protists). Other organelles are also suggested to have endosymbiotic origins, but do not contain their own DNA (notably the flagellum – see
evolution of flagella The evolution Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or se ...
). A second, less restrictive definition of organelles is that they are membrane-bound structures. However, even by using this definition, some parts of the cell that have been shown to be distinct functional units do not qualify as organelles. Therefore, the use of organelle to also refer to non-membrane bound structures such as ribosomes is common and accepted. This has led many texts to delineate between membrane-bound and non-membrane bound organelles. The non-membrane bound organelles, also called large
biomolecular complex A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 3 ...
es, are large assemblies of
macromolecule A macromolecule is a very large molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in ...
s that carry out particular and specialized functions, but they lack membrane boundaries. Many of these are referred to as "proteinaceous organelles" as their main structure is made of proteins. Such cell structures include: * large RNA and protein complexes:
ribosome Ribosomes ( ), also called Palade granules, are molecular machine, macromolecular machines, found within all cell (biology), cells, that perform Translation (biology), biological protein synthesis (mRNA translation). Ribosomes link amino acids ...

ribosome
,
spliceosome A spliceosome is a large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex found primarily within the nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom ...
,
vault Vault may refer to: * Jumping, the act of propelling oneself upwards Architecture * Vault (architecture), an arched form above an enclosed space * Bank vault, a reinforced room or compartment where valuables are stored * Burial vault (enclosure) ...
* large
protein complex A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chain Peptides (from Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of ...
es:
proteasome Proteasomes are protein complex A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chain Peptides (from Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēn ...

proteasome
,
DNA polymerase III holoenzyme DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is the primary enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), ...
,
RNA polymerase II holoenzyme RNA polymerase II holoenzyme is a form of eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chem ...
, symmetric viral
capsid A capsid is the protein shell of a virus A virus is a that only inside the living of an . Viruses infect all , from animals and plants to s, including and . Since 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial infecting tobacco plants ...
s, complex of
GroEL GroEL is a protein which belongs to the family of , and is found in many bacteria. It is required for the proper of many proteins. To function properly, GroEL requires the lid-like cochaperonin protein complex . In the proteins Hsp60 and Hsp1 ...

GroEL
and
GroES Heat shock 10 kDa protein 1 (Hsp10), also known as chaperonin 10 (cpn10) or early-pregnancy factor (EPF), is a protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its s ...
; membrane protein complexes: porosome,
photosystem I Photosystem I (PSI, or plastocyanin–ferredoxin oxidoreductase) is one of two photosystems in the photosynthetic light reactions of algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic ...

photosystem I
,
ATP synthase ATP synthase is a protein that catalyzes the formation of the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi). It is classified under ligases as it changes ADP by the formation of ...

ATP synthase
* large DNA and protein complexes:
nucleosome A nucleosome is the basic structural unit of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon ...

nucleosome
*
centriole In cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, ...

centriole
and
microtubule-organizing center The microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) is a structure found in eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical struct ...
(MTOC) *
cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton is a complex, dynamic network of interlinking protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical proces ...

cytoskeleton
*
flagellum A flagellum (; ) is a hairlike appendage that protrudes from a wide range of microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and ...
*
nucleolus The nucleolus (, plural: nucleoli ) is the largest structure in the nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nuc ...

nucleolus
*
stress granule Stress granules are dense aggregations in the cytosol composed of proteins and RNAs that appear when the cell (biology), cell is under stress. The RNA molecules stored are stalled translation (genetics), translation pre-initiation complexes: faile ...
*
germ cell A germ cell is any biological cell The cell (from Latin ''cella'', meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. Cells are the smallest units of life, and hence are often referred to a ...
granule * neuronal transport granule The mechanisms by which such non-membrane bound organelles form and retain their spatial integrity have been likened to liquid-liquid
phase separation Phase separation is the creation of two distinct Phase (matter), phases from a single homogeneous mixture. The most common type of phase separation is between two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Colloids are formed by phase separati ...

phase separation
.


Eukaryotic organelles

Eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interact ...

Eukaryotic
cells are structurally complex, and by definition are organized, in part, by interior compartments that are themselves enclosed by lipid membranes that resemble the outermost
cell membrane The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane A biological membrane, biomembrane or cell membrane is a selectively permeable membra ...

cell membrane
. The larger organelles, such as the
nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic cell, containing most of the cell's DNA ...

nucleus
and
vacuoles A vacuole () is a membrane-bound organelle In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell (biology), cell, that has a specific function. The name ''organelle'' comes from the idea that these structures are parts ...
, are easily visible with the
light microscope The optical microscope, also referred to as a light microscope, is a type of microscope that commonly uses visible spectrum, visible light and a system of lens (optics), lenses to generate magnified images of small objects. Optical microscopes ...
. They were among the first biological discoveries made after the invention of the
microscope A microscope (from grc, μικρός ''mikrós'' 'small' and ''skopeîn'' 'to look (at); examine, inspect') is a laboratory instrument used to examine objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye Naked eye, also called bare ...

microscope
. Not all eukaryotic cells have each of the organelles listed below. Exceptional organisms have cells that do not include some organelles that might otherwise be considered universal to eukaryotes (such as mitochondria). There are also occasional exceptions to the number of membranes surrounding organelles, listed in the tables below (e.g., some that are listed as double-membrane are sometimes found with single or triple membranes). In addition, the number of individual organelles of each type found in a given cell varies depending upon the function of that cell. Mitochondria and plastids, including chloroplasts, have double membranes and their own
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical ...

DNA
. According to the
endosymbiotic theory Symbiogenesis, endosymbiotic theory, or serial endosymbiotic theory, is the leading evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that fun ...

endosymbiotic theory
, they are believed to have originated from incompletely consumed or invading prokaryotic organisms. Other related structures: *
cytosol The cytosol, also known as cytoplasmic matrix or groundplasm, is one of the liquids found inside cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biology), the functional basic unit of life Cell may also refer to: Closed spaces * Monastic cell, a s ...
*
endomembrane system The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a Eukaryote, eukaryotic cell. These membranes divide the cell into functional and structural compartments, or organelles. In eukaryotes the ...

endomembrane system
*
nucleosome A nucleosome is the basic structural unit of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (; DNA) is a molecule File:Pentacene on Ni(111) STM.jpg, A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon ...

nucleosome
*
microtubule Microtubules are polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many Repeat unit, rep ...

microtubule


Prokaryotic organelles

Prokaryote A prokaryote () is a single-celled organism A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual conti ...
s are not as structurally complex as eukaryotes, and were once thought as having little internal organization, and lack
cellular compartment Cellular compartments in cell biology Cell biology (also cellular biology or cytology) is a branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemis ...
s and internal
membranes Image:Schematic size.jpg, up150px, Schematic of size-based membrane exclusion A membrane is a selective barrier; it allows some things to pass through but stops others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or other small particles. Biological membr ...
; but slowly, details are emerging about prokaryotic internal structures that overturn these assumptions. An early false turn was the idea developed in the 1970s that bacteria might contain
cell membrane The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane A biological membrane, biomembrane or cell membrane is a selectively permeable membra ...

cell membrane
folds termed
mesosome Mesosomes or chondrioids are folded invagination In developmental biology, invagination is a mechanism that takes place during gastrulation. This mechanism or cell movement happens mostly in the vegetal pole. Invagination consists of the foldin ...
s, but these were later shown to be artifacts produced by the chemicals used to prepare the cells for
electron microscopy An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a hig ...

electron microscopy
. However, there is increasing evidence of compartmentalization in at least some prokaryotes. Recent research has revealed that at least some prokaryotes have microcompartments, such as
carboxysome Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) consisting of polyhedral protein shells filled with the enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO)—the predominant enzyme in carbon fixation and the Rate-determining ...

carboxysome
s. These subcellular compartments are 100–200 nm in diameter and are enclosed by a shell of proteins. Even more striking is the description of membrane-bound
magnetosome Magnetosomes are membranous structures present in magnetotactic bacteria Magnetotactic bacteria (or MTB) are a polyphyletic File:Monophyly, paraphyly, polyphyly.png, 300px, Cladogram of the primates, showing a monophyly (the simians, in yellow), ...
s in bacteria, reported in 2006. The bacterial phylum
Planctomycetes The Planctomycetes are a phylum of widely distributed bacteria, occurring in both water, aquatic and terrestrial habitats. They play a considerable role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles, with many species of this phylum capable of anaerobic amm ...
has revealed a number of compartmentalization features. The Planctomycetes cell plan includes intracytoplasmic membranes that separates the cytoplasm into paryphoplasm (an outer ribosome-free space) and pirellulosome (or riboplasm, an inner ribosome-containing space). Membrane-bound anammoxosomes have been discovered in five Planctomycetes "anammox" genera, which perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In the Planctomycetes species ''
Gemmata obscuriglobus ''Gemmata obscuriglobus'' is a species of Gram-negative, aerobic organism, aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, bacteria of the phylum Planctomycetes. ''G. obscuriglobus'' occur in freshwater habitats and was first described in 1984, and is the only ...
'', a nucleus-like structure surrounded by lipid membranes has been reported. Compartmentalization is a feature of prokaryotic
photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Conversion (Doctor Who audio), "Conversion" (''Doctor Who'' audio), an episode of the audio drama ' ...
structures.
Purple bacteria Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-negative proteobacteria that are phototrophic, capable of producing their own food via photosynthesis. They are pigmented with bacteriochlorophyll ''a'' or ''b'', ...
have "chromatophores", which are reaction centers found in
invagination In developmental biology Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, l ...

invagination
s of the cell membrane.
Green sulfur bacteria The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being ...
have
chlorosome A chlorosome is a photosynthetic antenna complex found in green sulfur bacteria (GSB) and some green filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAP) (Chloroflexaceae, Oscillochloridaceae; both members of Chloroflexi (class), Chloroflexia). They differ fro ...

chlorosome
s, which are photosynthetic antenna complexes found bonded to cell membranes.
Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria (), also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical ...

Cyanobacteria
have internal
thylakoid Thylakoids are membrane-bound compartments inside chloroplast A chloroplast is a type of membrane-bound organelle In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit, usually within a cell (biology), cell, that has a specific functi ...

thylakoid
membranes for light-dependent photosynthesis; studies have revealed that the cell membrane and the thylakoid membranes are not continuous with each other.


See also

*
CoRR hypothesis The CoRR hypothesis states that the location of genetic information in cytoplasmic organelles permits regulation of its expression by the reduction-oxidation ("redox") state of its gene products. CoRR is short for "co-location for redox regulation" ...
* Ejectosome *
Endosymbiotic theory Symbiogenesis, endosymbiotic theory, or serial endosymbiotic theory, is the leading evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that fun ...

Endosymbiotic theory
* Organelle biogenesis *
Membrane vesicle trafficking Membrane vesicle (biology and chemistry), vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic animal cells involves movement of biochemical signal molecules from synthesis-and-packaging locations in the Golgi_apparatus, Golgi body to specific release locations on th ...
* Host-pathogen interface


References


External links

*
Tree of Life project: EukaryotesOrganelle Databases
{{Authority control Cell anatomy