OverviewOverview includes: * s, which use air moving through to produce sounds. Since the 16th century, pipe organs have used various materials for pipes, which can vary widely in timbre and volume. Increasingly hybrid organs are appearing in which pipes are augmented with electric additions. Great economies of space and cost are possible especially when the lowest (and largest) of the pipes can be replaced; * Non-piped organs, which include: ** s, named also or , which like the and s (both Eastern and Western), notably the , which use air to excite free reeds; ** (both analog and digital), notably the , which generate electronically produced sound through one or more s; * s, which include the , , and . These are controlled by mechanical means such as pinned or . Little barrel organs dispense with the hands of an and bigger organs are powered in most cases by an or today by other means such as an .
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PredecessorsPredecessors to the organ include: * Pan flute">Panpipes
Originsfile:Utrechts-Psalter PSALM-149-PSALM-150 organ.jpg, Depiction of an organ in the The organ is a relatively old , dating from the time of (285–222 BC), who invented the . It was played throughout the and world, particularly during races and games.Douglas Bush and Richard Kassel eds.
Early organsEarly organs include: * 3rd century BC: the , ancient Greek water-powered organ played by valves. * 1st century (''at least'') - the ''Ptera'' and the ''Pteron'', ancient Roman organ similar in appearance to the portative organs * 2nd century: the Magrepha, ancient Hebrew organ of ten pipes played by a keyboard * 8th century: ''Pippin's organ of 757'' ( ) was sent as a gift to the West by the emperor * 9th century: the automatic flute player (and possibly automatic hydropowered organ), a by the brothers
Medieval organsMedieval organs include: * : a small portable medieval instrument * : a somewhat larger though still portable instrument * Regal: a portable late-medieval instrument with reed pipes and bellows; forerunner of the and
Pipe organsThe is the largest . These instruments vary greatly in size, ranging from a cubic meter to a height reaching five floors, and are built in churches, synagogues, concert halls, and homes. Small organs are called " " (easily placed in different locations) or " portative" (small enough to carry while playing). The pipes are divided into ranks and controlled by the use of hand stops and combination pistons. Although the keyboard is not expressive as on a piano and does not affect (it is binary; pressing a key only turns the sound on or off), some divisions may be enclosed in a swell box, allowing the dynamics to be controlled by shutters. Some organs are totally enclosed, meaning that all the divisions can be controlled by one set of shutters. Some special registers with free reed pipes are expressive. It has existed in its current form since the 14th century, though similar designs were common in the from the early period (from the 4th century AD) and precursors, such as the hydraulic organ, have been found dating to the late (1st century BC). Along with the , it was considered one of the most complex human-made mechanical creations before the . Pipe organs range in size from a single short keyboard to huge instruments with over 10,000 s. A large modern organ typically has three or four keyboards ( manuals) with five octaves (61 notes) each, and a two-and-a-half octave (32-note) pedal board. called the organ the "King of instruments". Some of the biggest instruments have 64-foot pipes (a foot here means "sonic-foot", a measure quite close to the English measurement unit) and it sounds to an 8 frequency fundamental tone. Perhaps the most distinctive feature is the ability to range from the slightest sound to the most powerful, plein-jeu impressive sonic discharge, which can be sustained in time indefinitely by the organist. For instance, the , located in , USA, has sonic resources comparable with three simultaneous symphony orchestras. Another interesting feature lies in its intrinsic " " approach: each set of pipes can be played simultaneously with others, and the sounds mixed and interspersed in the environment, not in the instrument itself.
Churchleft, ''Organ'' by ">alt= Most organs in Europe, the Americas, and Australasia can be found in Christian churches. The introduction of church organs is traditionally attributed to in the 7th century. Due to its simultaneous ability to provide a musical foundation below the vocal register, support in the vocal register, and increased brightness above the vocal register, the organ is ideally suited to accompany s, whether a , a , or a cantor or soloist. Most services also include solo for independent performance rather than by way of accompaniment, often as a prelude at the beginning the service and a postlude at the conclusion of the service. Today this organ may be a pipe organ (see above), a digital or electronic organ that generates the sound with digital signal processing (DSP) chips, or a combination of pipes and electronics. It may be called a church organ or classical organ to differentiate it from the , which is a different style of instrument. However, as classical was developed for the pipe organ and in turn influenced its development, the line between a church and a concert organ became harder to draw.
Concert hallIn the late 19th century and early 20th century, s flourished in secular venues in the United States and the United Kingdom, designed to replace symphony orchestras by playing transcriptions of orchestral pieces. Symphonic and orchestral organs largely fell out of favor as the '' orgelbewegung'' (organ reform movement) took hold in the middle of the 20th century, and organ builders began to look to historical models for inspiration in constructing new instruments. Today, modern builders construct organs in a variety of styles for both secular and sacred applications.
Theatre and cinemaleft, Theatre organ in State Cinema, Grays. (Compton Organ) The or cinema organ was designed to accompany s. Like a symphonic organ, it is made to replace an orchestra. However, it includes many more gadgets, such as mechanical percussion accessories and other imitative sounds useful in creating movie sound accompaniments such as auto horns, doorbells, and bird whistles. It typically features the Tibia pipe family as its foundation stops and the regular use of a tremulant possessing a depth greater than that on a classical organ. Theatre organs tend not to take nearly as much space as standard organs, relying on extension (sometimes called unification) and higher wind pressures to produce a greater variety of tone and larger volume of sound from fewer pipes. Unification gives a smaller instrument the capability of a much larger one, and works well for monophonic styles of playing (chordal, or chords with solo voice). The sound is, however, thicker and more homogeneous than a classically designed organ. In the USA the American Theater Organ Society (ATOS) has been instrumental in programs to preserve examples of such instruments.
Chamber organupChamber organ by Pascoal Caetano Oldovini (1762). A chamber organ is a small pipe organ, often with only one manual, and sometimes without separate pedal pipes that is placed in a small room, that this diminutive organ can fill with sound. It is often confined to chamber organ repertoire, as often the organs have too few voice capabilities to rival the grand pipe organs in the performance of the classics. The sound and touch are unique to the instrument, sounding nothing like a large organ with few stops drawn out, but rather much more intimate. They are usually tracker instruments, although the modern builders are often building electropneumatic chamber organs. Pre-Beethoven keyboard music may usually be as easily played on a chamber organ as on a piano or harpsichord, and a chamber organ is sometimes preferable to a harpsichord for continuo playing as it is more suitable for producing a sustained tone.
Reed or pump organfile:Footpropelled organ.jpg , thumb , right , A . Operation of the two large pedals at the bottom of the case supplies wind to the reeds. The pump organ, reed organ or harmonium, was the other main type of organ before the development of the electronic organ. It generated its sounds using reeds similar to those of an . Smaller, cheaper and more portable than the corresponding pipe instrument, these were widely used in smaller churches and in private homes, but their volume and tonal range was extremely limited. They were generally limited to one or two manuals; they seldom had a pedalboard. * or parlor organ: a reed instrument, usually with several stops and two foot-operated bellows. * : similar to the Harmonium, but that works on negative pressure, sucking air through the reeds. * Melodeon (organ), Melodeon: a reed instrument with an air reservoir and a foot-operated bellows. It was popular in the US in the mid-19th century. (This should not to be confused with the diatonic button accordion which is also known as the melodeon.) The chord organ was invented by Laurens Hammond in 1950.Laurens Hammond
Electronic organsSince the 1930s, pipeless electric instruments have been available to produce similar sounds and perform similar roles to pipe organs. Many of these have been bought both by houses of worship and other potential pipe organ customers, and also by many musicians both professional and amateur for whom a pipe organ would not be a possibility. Far smaller and cheaper to buy than a corresponding pipe instrument, and in many cases portable, they have taken organ music into private homes and into dance bands and other new environments, and have almost completely replaced the reed organ. ;Hammond file:Hammond b3 con leslie 122.jpg, left, Hammond organ, Hammond B3 organ,
Other typess include: * Barrel organ: made famous by s in its portable form, the larger form often equipped with keyboards for human performance * Organette: small, accordion-like instrument manufactured in New York in the late 1800s * Novelty instruments or various types that operate on the same principles. These pipe organs use a ''piano roll'' player or other mechanical means instead of a keyboard to play a prepared song: ** ** Fairground organ (or band organ in the USA) ** Dutch street organ ** Dance organ The wind can also be created by using pressurized steam instead of air. The steam organ, or calliope (music), calliope, was invented in the United States in the 19th century. Calliopes usually have very loud and clean sound. Calliopes are used as outdoors instruments, and many have been built on wheeled platforms.
Musicfile:Organ, St Giles cathedral.jpg, Organ in St Giles' Cathedral
Classical musicThe organ has had an important place in European classical music, classical music, particularly since the 16th century. Spain's Antonio de Cabezón, the Netherlands' Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck, and Italy's Girolamo Frescobaldi were three of the most important organist-composers before 1650. Influenced in part by Sweelinck and Frescobaldi, the North German school rose from the mid-17th century onwards to great prominence, with leading members of this school having included Dieterich Buxtehude, Buxtehude, Franz Tunder, Georg Böhm, Georg Philipp Telemann, and above all Johann Sebastian Bach, whose contributions to organ music continue to reign supreme. During this time, the French organ mass, French Classical school also flourished. François Couperin, Nicolas Lebègue, André Raison, and Nicolas de Grigny were French organist-composers of the period. Bach knew Grigny's organ output well, and admired it. In England, Handel was famous for his organ-playing no less than for his composing; several of his organ concertos, intended for his own use, are still frequently performed. After Bach's death in 1750, the organ's prominence gradually shrank, as the instrument itself increasingly lost ground to the piano. Nevertheless, Felix Mendelssohn, César Franck, and the less famous Alexandre Pierre François Boëly, A.P.F. Boëly (all of whom were themselves expert organists) led, independently of one another, a resurgence of valuable organ writing during the 19th century. This resurgence, much of it informed by Bach's example, achieved particularly impressive things in France (even though Franck himself was of Belgian birth). Major names in French Romantic organ composition are Charles-Marie Widor, Louis Vierne, Alexandre Guilmant, Charles Tournemire, and Eugène Gigout. Of these, Vierne and Tournemire were Franck pupils. In Germany, Max Reger (late 19th century) owes much to the harmonic daring of Liszt (himself an organ composer) and of Wagner. Paul Hindemith produced three organ sonatas and several works combining organ with chamber groups. Sigfrid Karg-Elert specialized in smaller organ pieces, mostly chorale-preludes. Among French organist-composers, Marcel Dupré, Maurice Duruflé, Olivier Messiaen and Jean Langlais made significant contributions to the 20th-century organ repertoire. Organ was also used a lot for Musical_improvisation#Organ_improvisation_and_church_music, improvisation, with organists such as Charles Tournemire, Marcel Dupré, Pierre Cochereau, Pierre Pincemaille and Thierry Escaich. Some composers incorporated the instrument in symphonic works for its dramatic effect, notably Gustav Mahler, Mahler, Gustav Holst, Holst, Edward Elgar, Elgar, Alexander Scriabin, Scriabin, Ottorino Respighi, Respighi, and Richard Strauss. Camille Saint-Saëns, Saint-Saëns's ''Organ Symphony'' employs the organ more as an equitable orchestral instrument than for purely dramatic effect. Francis Poulenc, Poulenc wrote the sole organ concerto since Handel's to have achieved mainstream popularity. Because the organ has both manuals and pedals, organ music has come to be notated on three musical staff, staves. The music played on the manuals is laid out like music for other keyboard instruments on the top two staves, and the music for the pedals is notated on the third stave or sometimes, to save space, added to the bottom of the second stave as was the early practice. To aid the eye in reading three staves at once, the Bar (music), bar lines are broken between the lowest two staves; the brace surrounds only the upper two staves. Because music racks are often built quite low to preserve sightlines over the console, organ music is usually published in oblong or landscape format.
JazzElectronic organs and electromechanical organs such as the have an established role in a number of popular-music genres, such as blues, jazz, gospel, and 1960s and 1970s rock music. Electronic and electromechanical organs were originally designed as lower-cost substitutes for pipe organs. Despite this intended role as a sacred music instrument, electronic and electromechanical organs' distinctive tone-often modified with electronic effects such as vibrato, rotating Leslie speakers, and overdrive-became an important part of the sound of popular music. The electric organ, especially the Hammond organ, Hammond B-3, has occupied a significant role in jazz ever since Jimmy Smith (musician), Jimmy Smith made it popular in the 1950s. It can function as a replacement for both piano and bass in the standard jazz combo. The Hammond organ is the centrepiece of the organ trio, a small ensemble which typically includes an organist (playing melodies, chords and basslines), a drummer and a third instrumentalist (either jazz guitar or saxophone). In the 2000s, many performers use electronic or digital organs, called clonewheel organs, as they are much lighter and easier to transport than the heavy, bulky B-3.
Popular musicfile:Los Potatos w Lizard King (1).jpg, A modern digital Hammond organ in use Performers of 20th century popular organ music include William Rowland who composed "Piano Rags"; George Wright (organist), George Wright (1920–1998) and Virgil Fox (1912–1980), who bridged both the classical and religious areas of music. Church-style pipe organs are sometimes used in rock music. Examples include Tangerine Dream, Rick Wakeman (with Yes (band), Yes and solo), Keith Emerson (with The Nice and Emerson, Lake and Palmer), George Duke (with Frank Zappa), Dennis DeYoung (with Styx (band), Styx), Arcade Fire, Muse (band), Muse, Roger Hodgson (formerly of Supertramp), Natalie Merchant (with 10,000 Maniacs), Billy Preston and Iron Butterfly. Artists using the Hammond organ include Bob Dylan, Counting Crows, Pink Floyd, Hootie & the Blowfish, Sheryl Crow, Vulfpeck, Sly Stone and Deep Purple.
Sportfile:Nancy Faust in Cellular Field organ booth 2010-09-27 1.jpg, Nancy Faust playing at Guaranteed Rate Field, home of the Chicago White Sox In the United States and Canada, organ music is commonly associated with several sports, most notably baseball, basketball, and ice hockey. The baseball organ has been referred to as "an accessory to the overall auditory experience of the ballpark." The first team to introduce an organ was the Chicago Cubs, who put an organ in Wrigley Field as an experiment in 1941 for two games. Ebbets Field, home of the Brooklyn Dodgers, hired baseball's first full-time organist, Gladys Goodding. Over the years, many ballparks caught on to the trend, and many organists became well-known and associated with their parks or signature tunes.
See also* List of organ builders * List of organ composers * List of organists * Residence organ * Street organ