Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, ...
, an oligomer () is a molecule
that consists of a few repeating unit
s which could be derived, actually or conceptually, from smaller molecules,
In chemistry, a monomer ( ; ''mono-'', "one" + ''-mer'', "part") is a molecule that can react together with other monomer molecules to form a larger polymer chain or three-dimensional network in a process called polymerization.
[Quote: ''Oligomer molecule: A molecule of intermediate relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises a small plurality of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of lower relative molecular mass.'']
The name is composed of
Greek may refer to:
Anything of, from, or related to Greece, a country in Southern Europe:
*Greeks, an ethnic group.
*Greek language, a branch of the Indo-European language family.
**Proto-Greek language, the assumed last common ancestor ...
elements '' oligo-
'', "a few" and '' -mer
'', "parts". An
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a word that generally modifies a noun or noun phrase or describes its referent. Its semantic role is to change information given by the noun.
Traditionally, adjectives were considered one of the mai ...
form is ''oligomeric''.
The oligomer concept is contrasted to that of a ] polymer
A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part")
is a substance or material consisting of very large molecules called macromolecules, composed of many repeating subunits. Due to their broad spectrum of properties, both synthetic ..., which is usually understood to have a large number of units, possibly thousands or millions. However, there is no sharp distinction between these two concepts. One proposed criterion is whether the molecule's properties vary significantly with the removal of one or a few of the units. [
An oligomer with a specific number of units is referred to by the Greek prefix denoting that number, with the ending ''-mer'': thus dimer, trimer, ] tetramer
A tetramer () ('' tetra-'', "four" + ''-mer'', "parts") is an oligomer formed from four monomers or subunits. The associated property is called ''tetramery''. An example from inorganic chemistry is titanium methoxide with the empirical formula T ..., pentamer
A pentamer is an entity composed of five sub-units.
In chemistry, it applies to molecules made of five monomers.
In biochemistry, it applies to macromolecules, in particular to pentameric proteins, made of five proteic sub-units.
In microbiolo ..., and hexamer refer to molecules with two, three, four, five, and six units, respectively. The units of an oligomer may be arranged in a linear chain (as in melam
Melam is a group of Maddalams and other similar percussion instruments' (Chenda) rhythmic performance. Those who play melam are called 'Melakaar'. In ancient Tamilakam (Tamil country) melam was used for all the occasions in temples (''Kovil Mela ..., a dimer of melamine
Melamine is an organic compound with the formula C3H6N6. This white solid is a trimer of cyanamide, with a 1,3,5-triazine skeleton. Like cyanamide, it contains 67% nitrogen by mass, and its derivatives have fire retardant properties du ...); a closed ring (as in trioxane, a cyclic trimer of formaldehyde
Formaldehyde ( , ) (systematic name methanal) is a naturally occurring organic compound with the formula and structure . The pure compound is a pungent, colourless gas that polymerises spontaneously into paraformaldehyde (refer to section Fo ...); or a more complex structure (as in tellurium tetrabromide
Tellurium tetrabromide ( Te Br4) is an inorganic chemical compound. It has a similar tetrameric structure to TeCl4.''Inorganic Chemistry'',Egon Wiberg, Arnold Frederick Holleman Elsevier 2001 It can be made by reacting bromine and tellurium. In ..., a tetramer of with a cube
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex. Viewed from a corner it is a hexagon and its net is usually depicted as a cross.
The cube is the only ...-like core). If the units are identical, one has a ''homo-oligomer''; otherwise one may use ''hetero-oligomer''. An example of a homo-oligomeric protein is collagen
Collagen () is the main structural protein in the extracellular matrix found in the body's various connective tissues. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up from 25% to 35% of the whole ..., which is composed of three identical protein chains.
Some biologically important oligomers are macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, macromolecules, essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. The two main clas ...; for instance, hemoglobin
Hemoglobin (haemoglobin BrE) (from the Greek word αἷμα, ''haîma'' 'blood' + Latin ''globus'' 'ball, sphere' + ''-in'') (), abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein present in red blood cells (erythrocy ... is a protein tetramer. An oligomer of amino acids is called an oligopeptide or just a peptide
Peptides (, ) are short chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Long chains of amino acids are called proteins. Chains of fewer than twenty amino acids are called oligopeptides, and include dipeptides, tripeptides, and tetrapeptides. .... An oligosaccharide
An oligosaccharide (/ˌɑlɪgoʊˈsækəˌɹaɪd/; from the Greek ὀλίγος ''olígos'', "a few", and σάκχαρ ''sácchar'', "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically two to ten) of monosaccharides (simple suga ... is an oligomer of monosaccharide
Monosaccharides (from Greek '' monos'': single, '' sacchar'': sugar), also called simple sugars, are the simplest forms of sugar and the most basic units (monomers) from which all carbohydrates are built.
They are usually colorless, water- s ...s (simple sugars). An oligonucleotide
Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics. Commonly made in the laboratory by solid-phase chemical synthesis, these small bits of nucleic acid ... is a short single-stranded fragment of nucleic acid
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, macromolecules, essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. The two main ... such as DNA or RNA
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes. RNA and deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA) are nucleic acids. Along with lipids, proteins, and carbohydr ..., or similar fragments of analogs of nucleic acids such as peptide nucleic acid or Morpholino
A Morpholino, also known as a Morpholino oligomer and as a phosphorodiamidate Morpholino oligomer (PMO), is a type of oligomer molecule (colloquially, an oligo) used in molecular biology to modify gene expression. Its molecular structure contai ...s.
The units of an oligomer may be connected by covalent bond
A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electrons to form electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms ...s, which may result from bond rearrangement or condensation reactions, or by weaker forces such as hydrogen bonds.
The term multimer () is used in biochemistry for oligomers of proteins that are not covalently bound. The major capsid protein VP1 that comprises the shell of the polio virus is a self-assembling multimer of 72 pentamers held together by local electric charges.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is composed primarily of hydrocarbons and is hydrophobic (does not mix with water) & lipophilic (mixes with other oils). Oils are usually flammable and surface active. Most oils are unsatura ...s are oligomeric, such as liquid paraffin. Plasticizers
A plasticizer ( UK: plasticiser) is a substance that is added to a material to make it softer and more flexible, to increase its plasticity, to decrease its viscosity, and/or to decrease friction during its handling in manufacture.
Plastici ... are oligomeric esters widely used to soften thermoplastics
A thermoplastic, or thermosoft plastic, is any plastic polymer material that becomes pliable or moldable at a certain elevated temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
Most thermoplastics have a high molecular weight. The polymer chains associate ... such as PVC. They may be made from monomers by linking them together, or by separation from the higher fractions of crude oil
Petroleum, also known as crude oil, or simply oil, is a naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations. The name ''petroleum'' covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude .... Polybutene Polybutene is an organic polymer made from a mixture of 1-butene, 2-butene, and isobutylene. Ethylene steam cracker C4s are also used as supplemental feed for polybutene. It is similar to polyisobutylene (PIB), which is produced from essential ... is an oligomeric oil used to make putty
Putty is a material with high plasticity, similar in texture to clay or dough, typically used in domestic construction and repair as a sealant or filler. Although some types of putty (typically those using linseed oil) slowly polymerise and bec ....
Oligomerization is a chemical process that converts monomers to macromolecular complexes through a finite degree of polymerization
The degree of polymerization, or DP, is the number of monomeric units in a macromolecule or polymer or oligomer molecule.
For a homopolymer, there is only one type of monomeric unit and the ''number-average'' degree of polymerization is given by .... [ ] Telomerization
Telomerization is a reaction that produces a particular kind of oligomer with two distinct end groups. The oligomer is called a telomer. Some telomerizations proceed by radical pathways, many do not. A generic equation is:
: A-B + n M -> A-M_ ... is an oligomerization carried out under conditions that result in chain transfer
Chain transfer is a polymerization reaction by which the activity of a growing polymer chain is transferred to another molecule.
:P• + XR' → PX + R'•
Chain transfer reactions reduce the average molecular weight of the final polymer. Chai ..., limiting the size of the oligomers. (This concept is not to be confused with the formation of a telomere
A telomere (; ) is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences associated with specialized proteins at the ends of linear chromosomes. Although there are different architectures, telomeres, in a broad sense, are a widespread genetic feature mos ..., a region of highly repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome.)
In the oil and gas industry, green oil refers to oligomers formed in all C2, C3, and C4 hydrogenation reactors of ethylene plants and other petrochemical production facilities; it is a mixture of C4 to C20 unsaturated and reactive components with about 90%
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons ( compounds composed solely of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (; G. ''aleiphar'', fat, oil). Aliphatic compounds can be saturated, like hexane, o ... dienes Dienes may refer to:
* Dienes (surname), including a list of people with the name
* the plural of diene
In organic chemistry
Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry
Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties ... and 10% of alkanes plus alkenes. Different heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts are operative in producing green oils via the oligomerization of alkenes.
* GPCR oligomer
* Oligomery (botany)
* Protein oligomer