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An oblast (; ;
Cyrillic The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
(in most languages, including
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
and
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
): ,
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
: ) is a type of
administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular ...

administrative division
of
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislach and the now subterranean Nyamiha, Niam ...

Belarus
,
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
,
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = " ...

Kyrgyzstan
,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
, as well as the former
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
and the
Kingdom of Yugoslavia The Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( sh, Kraljevina Jugoslavija / Краљевина Југославија; sl, Kraljevina Jugoslavija) was a state in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1941. From 1918 to 1929 ...
. Official terms in
successor states Succession of states is a theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with such processes a ...
of the Soviet Union differ, but some still use a
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
of the Russian term, e.g., ''vobłasć'' (''voblasts'', ''voblasts'', official ortography: ,
Taraškievica Taraškievica or Belarusian Classical Orthography (, be, тарашкевіца / клясычны правапіс) is a variant of orthography of the Belarusian language Belarusian (; in Belarusian: , , ) is an East Slavic language spoken b ...
: , ) is used for
regions of Belarus At the top level of administration, Belarus is divided into six ''oblasts'' (''voblasts'' or regions) and the city of Minsk, which has a special status as the capital of Belarus. Minsk is also the capital of Minsk Region.regions of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan is divided into 14 region, regions ( kz, облыстар/''oblystar''; singular: облыс/''oblys''; russian: области/''oblasti''; singular: область/''oblast' ''). The regions are further subdivided into Districts of Ka ...
, and ''oblusu'' (') for
regions of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto ...
. The term is often translated as "area", "
zone Zone or The Zone may refer to: Places Climate and altitude zones * Death zone (originally the lethal zone), altitudes above a certain point where the amount of oxygen is insufficient to sustain human life for an extended time span * Frigid zone, ...

zone
", "
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
" or "
region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The ...

region
". The last translation may lead to confusion, because "
raion A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast). The term is from the French "''rayon''" (meaning "honeycomb, department"), which is both a type of a subnational entity Adminis ...
" may be used for other kinds of administrative division, which may be translated as "region", "
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipal ...

district
" or "
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
" depending on the context.


Bulgaria

Since 1999, Bulgaria has been divided into 28 ''oblasts'', usually translated as "provinces". Before, the country was divided into just nine units, also called ''oblast''.


Russian Empire

In the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
, oblasts were considered to be administrative units and were included as parts of
Governorates General A governorate, or a guberniya ( rus, губе́рния, p=ɡʊˈbʲɛrnʲɪjə, also romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of eve ...
or
krai A krai or kray (; russian: край, , ''kraya'') is one of the types of federal subjects of Russia, federal subjects of Krais of Russia, modern Russia, and was a type of geographical administrative division in the Krais of the Russian Empire, R ...

krai
s. The majority of then-existing oblasts were on the periphery of the country (e.g.
Kars Oblast The Kars Oblast (russian: Карсская область; hy, Կարսի մարզ) was one of the ''oblasts'' of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical ...

Kars Oblast
or
Transcaspian Oblast The Transcaspian Oblast (russian: Закаспійская область), or just simply Transcaspia (russian: Закаспія), was the section of Russian Empire and early RSFSR, Soviet Russia to the east of the Caspian Sea during the second h ...
) or covered the areas where
Cossacks The Cossacks * russian: казаки́ or * be, казакi * pl, Kozacy * cs, kozáci * sk, kozáci * hu, kozákok, cazacii * fi, Kasakat, cazacii * et, Kasakad, cazacii are a group of predominantly East Slavic languages, East Slav ...

Cossacks
lived.


Soviet Union

In the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, oblasts were one of the types of administrative divisions of the
union republics The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Union Republics ( rus, Сою́зные Респу́блики, r=Soyúznye Respúbliki) were ethnically based administrative units of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ...
. As any administrative units of this level, oblasts were composed of districts (''
raion A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast). The term is from the French "''rayon''" (meaning "honeycomb, department"), which is both a type of a subnational entity Adminis ...
s'') and cities/towns directly under oblasts' jurisdiction. Some oblasts also included autonomous entities called
autonomous okrug Autonomous okrug ( rus, автономный округ, t=avtonomny okrug), occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrativ ...
s. Because of the Soviet Union electrification program under the
GOELRO plan Image:1967 CPA 3553 cancelled.jpg, 300px, Postage stamp (1967) of the painting “Lenin by the GOELRO map” (1957) GOELRO (russian: link=no, ГОЭЛРО) was the first Russian Soviet Republic, Soviet plan for national economic recovery and develop ...
, Ivan Alexandrov, as director of the Regionalisation Committee of
Gosplan The State Planning Committee, commonly known as Gosplan ( rus, Госплан, , ɡosˈpɫan), was the agency responsible for economic planning, central economic planning in the Soviet Union. Established in 1921 and remaining in existence until ...
, divided the Soviet Union into thirteen European and eight Asiatic oblasts, using rational economic planning rather than "the vestiges of lost sovereign rights".''Ekonomicheskoe raionirovanie Rossii'', Gosplan, Moscow 1921 The names of oblasts did not usually correspond to the names of the respective historical regions, as they were created as purely administrative units. With a few exceptions, Soviet oblasts were named after their administrative centers.


Post-Soviet countries

The oblasts in other post-Soviet countries are officially called: ''Viloyat'' and ''welaýat'' are derived from the
Turkish language Turkish ( , ), also referred to as Istanbul Turkish (''İstanbul Türkçesi'') or Turkey Turkish (''Türkiye Türkçesi''), is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 70 to 80 million speakers. It is the national language o ...

Turkish language
term ''
vilayet A vilayet (; french: vilaïet or () * bg, област (); or () * el, επαρχία (), eparchy; or (), nomarchy * lad, provinsiya or , group=note) was a first-order administrative division, or province of the later Ottoman Empire, intr ...

vilayet
'', itself derived from the
Arabic language Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Khan, Michael P. Streck, Janet C. E.Watson; Walter de G ...

Arabic language
term '' wilāya'' ()


Yugoslavia

In 1922, the
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts a ...
was divided into 33 administrative divisions called oblasts. In 1929, oblasts were replaced with larger administrative units known as banovinas. During the
Yugoslav Wars The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate but related Naimark (2003), p. xvii. ethnic conflict A refugee camp for displaced Rwandans in Zaire following the Rwandan genocide of 1994 An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more con ...
, several Serb Autonomous Oblasts were formed in
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
, and
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
. These oblasts were later merged into the
Republic of Serbian Krajina The Republic of Serbian Krajina or Serb Republic of Krajina ( sh, Република Српска Крајина, italics=no / or РСК / ''RSK'', ), known as the Serbian Krajina ( / ) or simply Krajina, was a self-proclaimed Serbs of Croatia, ...
and the
Republika Srpska Republika Srpska ( sr-cyr, Република Српска, ) is one of the two entities Entity may refer to: Computing * Character entity reference, replacement text for a character in HTML or XML * Entity class, a thing of interest within ...

Republika Srpska
.


See also

*
Autonomous oblastAn autonomous oblast is an autonomous entity An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, ad ...
* Guberniya, an administrative unit, comparable to an oblast, of the Russian Empire, early Russian SFSR, and the Soviet Union *
Krai A krai or kray (; russian: край, , ''kraya'') is one of the types of federal subjects of Russia, federal subjects of Krais of Russia, modern Russia, and was a type of geographical administrative division in the Krais of the Russian Empire, R ...

Krai
*
Okrug An okrug, ; russian: о́круг, ókrug; sr, округ, okrug, ; uk, о́круг, о́kruh; be, акруга, akruha; pl, okręg Okręg (plural ''okręgi'') is a term used in Polish to denote regions and jurisdictions of various types, i ...
*
Political divisions of Russia Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering and encomp ...


References

{{Navboxes , list = {{Slavic terms for administrative divisions {{Types of administrative division Types of administrative division Russian-language designations of territorial entities