HOME

TheInfoList




The oat (''Avena sativa''), sometimes called the common oat, is a
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
of
cereal grain A cereal is any grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpos ...

cereal grain
grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and
pseudocereals A pseudocereal or pseudograin is one of any non-grasses that are used in much the same way as cereals (true cereals are grasses). Pseudocereals can be further distinguished from other non-cereal staple crops (such as potatoes) by their being proce ...
). While oats are suitable for human consumption as
oatmeal Oatmeal refers to a Rolled oats, preparation of oats that have been dehusked, Steaming, steamed and flattened, or else a coarse flour made of hulled oat grains (Groat (grain), groats) that have either been mill (grinding), milled (ground) or stee ...

oatmeal
and
rolled oats Rolling is a type of motion that combines rotation A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation. The plane (geometry), geometric plane along which the rotation occurs is called the ''rotation plane' ...

rolled oats
, one of the most common uses is as
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictabl ...
feed.


Origin

The wild ancestor of ''Avena sativa'' and the closely related minor crop, '' A. byzantina'', is the
hexaploid Polyploidy is a condition in which the biological cell, cells of an organism have more than two paired (Homologous chromosome, homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most species whose cells have Cell nucleus, nuclei (eukaryotes) are diploid, meaning ...
wild oat, '' A. sterilis''.
Genetic evidence
Genetic evidence
shows the ancestral forms of ''A. sterilis'' grew in the
Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent is a crescent-shaped region in the Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an establishe ...

Fertile Crescent
of the
Near East The Near East ( ar, الشرق الأدنى, al-Sharq al-'Adnā, he, המזרח הקרוב, arc, ܕܢܚܐ ܩܪܒ, fa, خاور نزدیک, Xāvar-e nazdik, tr, Yakın Doğu) is a geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental ...
. Oats are usually considered a
secondary crop In plant biology, Vavilovian mimicry (also crop mimicry or weed mimicry) is a form of mimicry In evolutionary biology Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolution, evolutionary processes (natural selection, ...
, i.e., derived from a weed of the primary
cereal A cereal is any Poaceae, grass cultivated (grown) for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, cereal germ, germ, and bran. The term may also refer to the resulting grain ...

cereal
domesticates, then spreading westward into cooler, wetter areas favorable for oats, eventually leading to their domestication in regions of the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
and Europe.


Cultivation

Oats are best grown in
temperate In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
regions. They have a lower summer heat requirement and greater tolerance of rain than other cereals, such as wheat,
rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationshi ...

rye
, or barley, so they are particularly important in areas with cool, wet summers, such as Northwest Europe and even Iceland. Oats are an
annual plant An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle Life cycle, life-cycle, or lifecycle may refer to: Science and academia *Biological life cycle, the sequence of life stages that an organism undergoes from birth to reproduction ending w ...
, and can be planted either in autumn (for late summer harvest) or in the spring (for early autumn harvest).


Production

In 2019, global production of oats was , led by
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, each having about 20% of the world total (table). Other substantial producers were
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
,
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, each with over .


Uses

Oats have numerous uses in foods; most commonly, they are or crushed into
oatmeal Oatmeal refers to a Rolled oats, preparation of oats that have been dehusked, Steaming, steamed and flattened, or else a coarse flour made of hulled oat grains (Groat (grain), groats) that have either been mill (grinding), milled (ground) or stee ...

oatmeal
, or ground into fine oat
flour Flour is a powder A powder is a dry, bulk solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecules in a solid are closely packed together and contain the least amount ...

flour
. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as
porridge Porridge is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by heating or boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants, typically grain, in milk. It is often cooked or served with added flavourings such as sugar, honey, (dried) fruit ...

porridge
, but may also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as
oatcake An oatcake is a type of flatbread A flatbread is a bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorl ...

oatcake
s,
oatmeal cookie An oatmeal raisin cookie is a type of drop cookie A cookie is a Baked goods, baked or cooked food that is typically small, flat and sweet. It usually contains flour, sugar and some type of Cooking oil, oil or fat. It may include other ingred ...
s, and oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular
muesli Muesli ( ) is a cold oatmeal dish based on rolled oats Rolling is a type of motion that combines rotation A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation. The plane (geometry), geometric plane alo ...

muesli
and
granola Granola is a breakfast and snack food consisting of rolled oats, nut (fruit), nuts, honey or other Sugar substitute, sweeteners such as brown sugar, and sometimes puffed rice, that is usually baked until it is crisp, toasted and golden brown. D ...
. Oats are also used for production of
milk substitute A milk substitute is any substance that resembles milk and can be used in the same ways as milk. Such substances may be variously known as non-dairy beverage, nut milk, grain milk, legume milk, mock milk and alternative milk. For adults, milk ...
s ("
oat milk Oat milk is a plant milk derived from whole oat (''Avena spp.'') grains by extracting the plant material with water. Oat milk has a creamy texture and oatmeal-like flavor, and is manufactured in various flavors, such as sweetened, unsweetened, v ...
"). In Scotland, a dish was made by soaking the husks from oats for a week, so the fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off, boiled, and eaten. Oats are also widely used there as a thickener in soups, as barley or rice might be used in other countries. Oats are also commonly used as feed for horses when extra carbohydrates and the subsequent boost in energy are required. The oat hull may be crushed ("rolled" or "crimped") for the horse to more easily digest the grain, or may be fed whole. They may be given alone or as part of a blended food pellet. Cattle are also fed oats, either whole or ground into a coarse flour using a
roller mill Roller mills are mills Mills is the plural form of mill (disambiguation), mill, but may also refer to: As a name *Mills (surname), a common family name of English or Gaelic origin *Mills (given name) *Mills, a fictional British secret agent in ...
,
burr mill#REDIRECT Burr mill A burr mill, or burr grinder, is a mill used to grind hard, small food products between two revolving abrasive surfaces separated by a distance usually set by the user. When the two surfaces are set far apart, the resulting gr ...
, or
hammermill A hammer mill is a mill Mill may refer to: Science and technology * Mill (grinding) * Milling (machining) * List of types of mill * Mill, the arithmetic unit of the Analytical Engine early computer * Textile manufacturing, Textile mill * Steel ...
. Oat forage is commonly used to feed all kinds of ruminants, as pasture, straw, hay, or silage. Winter oats may be grown as an off-season
groundcover Groundcover or ground cover is any plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular ...

groundcover
and ploughed under in the spring as a green fertilizer, or harvested in early summer. They also can be used for pasture; they can be grazed a while, then allowed to head out for grain production, or grazed continuously until other pastures are ready. Oat
straw Straw is an agricultural byproduct A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing Manufacturing is the Production (economics), production of goods through the use of Work (human activity ...

straw
is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding, due to its soft, relatively dust-free, and absorbent nature. The straw can also be used for making corn dollies. Tied in a muslin bag, oat straw was used to soften bath water. Oats are also occasionally used in several different drinks. In Britain, they are sometimes used for brewing
beer Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewing, brewed from cereal, cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wh ...

beer
.
Oatmeal stout Stout is a dark, top-fermented beer Brewing is the production of beer Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl a ...
is one variety brewed using a percentage of oats for the
wort Wort () is the liquid extracted from the mashing In brewing and distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of grains – typically malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'' ...
. The more rarely used oat malt is produced by the Thomas Fawcett & Sons Maltings and was used in the Maclay Oat Malt Stout before Maclays Brewery ceased independent brewing operations. is a traditional Scottish beverage made by steeping oats in whisky and then blending the resulting "brose" with honey and sometimes cream. A cold, sweet drink, called ''avena'' in Spanish, made of ground oats and milk, is a popular refreshment throughout Latin America. Oatmeal
caudle A caudle (or caudel) was a hot drink that recurred in various guises throughout British cuisine from the Middle Ages into Victorian times. It was thick and sweet, and seen as particularly suitable and sustaining for invalids and new mothers. At ...
, made of ale and oatmeal with spices, was a traditional British drink and a favourite of
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
. Oat extracts can also be used to soothe skin conditions, and are popular for their emollient properties in cosmetics. Oat grass has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, including to help balance the
menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes in hormone A hormone (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country l ...

menstrual cycle
, treat
dysmenorrhoea Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods or menstrual cramps, is pain Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli. The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as "an unpleasant sensory and ...
, and for
osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low bone massImage:Bone density scanner.jpg, A scanner used to measure bone density using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount ...
and
urinary tract infections A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they produce. An infectious disease, also know ...
.


Health


Nutrient profile

Oats contain diverse
essential nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and ta ...
s (see table). In a serving, oats provide of
food energy Food energy is chemical energy Chemical energy is the energy of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havin ...
and are a rich source (20% or more of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in ...
, DV) of
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...
(34% DV),
dietary fiber Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzyme Digestive may refer to: Biology *Digestion Digestion is the breakdown of large insolub ...
(44% DV), several
B vitamins B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond ...
and numerous
dietary mineral In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, s ...
s, especially
manganese Manganese is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical e ...

manganese
(233% DV) (table). Oats are 66%
carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a ...
s, including 11% dietary fiber and 4%
beta-glucan β-Glucans (beta-glucans A glucan is a polysaccharide Polysaccharides (), or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant found in . They are long chain carbohydrates composed of units bound together by . This carbohydrate can react with wat ...
s, 7%
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
, and 17% protein (table). The established property of their
cholesterol Cholesterol is any of a class of certain organic compound, organic molecules. A cholesterol is a sterol (or chemical modification, modified steroid), a type of lipid. Cholesterol is biosynthesis, biosynthesized by all animal Cell (biology)#Euk ...

cholesterol
-lowering effects has led to acceptance of oats as a
health food A healthy diet is a diet Diet may refer to: Food * Diet (nutrition) In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for #Health, health or #We ...
.


Soluble fiber

Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat. Its daily consumption over weeks lowers
low-density lipoprotein Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water. These groups, from least dense to most dense, are chylomicrons (aka ULDL by the overall den ...
and total
cholesterol Cholesterol is any of a class of certain organic compound, organic molecules. A cholesterol is a sterol (or chemical modification, modified steroid), a type of lipid. Cholesterol is biosynthesis, biosynthesized by all animal Cell (biology)#Euk ...

cholesterol
, possibly reducing the risk of
heart disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina pectoris, angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs inc ...
. One type of soluble fiber contained in oats, beta-glucans, has been proven to lower serum cholesterol. After reports of research findings that dietary oats can help lower cholesterol, the United States
Food and Drug Administration The United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, st ...
(FDA) issued a final rule that allows food companies to make
health claims on food labels A health claim on a food label and in food marketing is a claim by a manufacturer of food products that their food will reduce the health risk, risk of developing a disease or condition. For example, it is claimed by the manufacturers of oat cereals ...
of foods that contain soluble fiber from whole oats (oat bran, oat flour, and rolled oats), noting that of soluble fiber daily from these foods may reduce the risk of
heart disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina pectoris, angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs inc ...
. To qualify for the health claim, the food that contains the oats must provide at least of soluble fiber per serving. Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of indigestible
polysaccharide Polysaccharides (), or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant carbohydrate A carbohydrate () is a biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallograp ...
s widely found in nature in sources such as grains,
yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular ...

yeast
,
bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typ ...

bacteria
,
algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Co ...

algae
, and
mushroom A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore )'', growing on a thinning, thinned hybrid black poplar ''(populus, Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss#Life cycle, moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible befor ...

mushroom
s. In oats, barley, and other cereal grains, they are located primarily in the
endosperm The endosperm is a tissue produced inside the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's fir ...
cell wall A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane cell membrane vs. Prokaryotes The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to a ...
. The oat beta-glucan health claim applies to
oat bran 300px, Wheat kernel compartments and macronutrients Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain. It consists of the combined aleurone and pericarp. Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, ...
, rolled oats, whole oat flour, and oatrim, a soluble fraction of
alpha-amylase Alpha-amylase, (α-amylase) is an enzyme Enzymes () are proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrate (chemistry), substrat ...

alpha-amylase
hydrolyzed Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution, elimination, and solvation reactions in which water is the nucleophile In chemistry, a nucleop ...
oat bran, or whole oat flour. Oat beta-glucan is a
viscous The viscosity of a fluid In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, ...
polysaccharide made up of units of the monosaccharide D-
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
, and is composed of mixed-linkage polysaccharides. This means the bonds between the D-glucose or D-glucopyranosyl units are either beta-1, 3 linkages or beta-1, 4 linkages. This type of beta-glucan is also referred to as a mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-beta-D-glucan. The (1→3)-linkages break up the uniform structure of the beta-D-glucan molecule and make it soluble and flexible. In comparison, the indigestible polysaccharide
cellulose Cellulose is an organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior ...

cellulose
is also a beta-glucan, but is not soluble because of its (1→4)-beta-D-linkages. The percentages of beta-glucan in the various whole oat products are: oat bran, having from 5.5% to 23.0%; rolled oats, about 4%; and whole oat flour about 4%.


Protein

Oats are the only cereal containing a
globulin The globulins are a family of globular protein 300px, 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin, a globular protein. Globular proteins or spheroproteins are spherical ("globe-like") protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that ...
or
legume A legume () is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can ...

legume
-like protein, avenalin, as the major (80%) storage protein. Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to
soy protein Soy protein is a protein Proteins are large biomolecules or macromolecules that are comprised of one or more long chains of amino acid residue (biochemistry), residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including Enzym ...
, which
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
research has shown to be equal to meat, milk, and egg protein.


Celiac disease

Avenins present in oats (proteins similar to
gliadin Gliadin (a type of prolamin) is a class of proteins present in wheat and several other cereals within the grass genus ''Triticum''. Gliadins, which are a component of gluten, are essential for giving bread the ability to rise properly during bak ...

gliadin
from
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

wheat
) can trigger
celiac disease Coeliac disease or celiac disease is a long-term autoimmune disorder An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a functioning body part. There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Nearly any bo ...
in a small proportion of people. Also, oat products are frequently contaminated by other , mainly wheat and barley. Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance to certain gluten proteins in genetically predisposed people, having a prevalence of about 1% in the
developed world A developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country) is a sovereign state that has a high quality of life, developed economy and advanced technological infrastructu ...
. Gluten is present in wheat,
barley Barley (''Hordeum vulgare''), a member of the grass family Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recogn ...

barley
,
rye Rye (''Secale cereale'') is a grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationshi ...

rye
, oat, and all their species and hybrids and contains hundreds of proteins, with high contents of
prolamin Prolamins are a group of plant storage proteins having a high proline amino acid content. They are found in plants, mainly in the seeds of cereal grains such as wheat (gliadin), barley (hordein), rye (secalin), maize, corn (zein), sorghum (kafirin), ...
s. Oat prolamins, named avenins, are similar to gliadins found in wheat, hordeins in barley, and secalins in rye, which are collectively named
gluten Gluten is a protein naturally found in some grains including wheat, barley, and rye. Although, strictly speaking, "gluten" pertains only to wheat proteins, in the medical literature it refers to the combination of prolamin Prolamins are a group ...

gluten
. Avenins' toxicity in celiac people depends on the oat
cultivar A cultivar is a type of plant that people have bred for desired traits, which are reproduced in each new generation by a method such as grafting, tissue culture or carefully controlled seed production. Most cultivars arise from purposeful human ...
consumed because of prolamin genes, protein amino acid sequences, and immunoreactivities of toxic prolamins, which vary among oat varieties. Also, oat products are frequently cross-contaminated with other gluten-containing cereals during grain harvesting, transport, storage, or processing. Pure oats contain less than 20
parts per million In science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictio ...
of gluten from wheat, barley, rye, or any of their hybrids. Use of pure oats in a
gluten-free diet A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a nutritional plan that strictly excludes gluten Gluten is a protein naturally found in some grains including wheat, barley, and rye. Although, strictly speaking, "gluten" pertains only to wheat proteins, in the ...
offers improved nutritional value from the rich content of oat protein, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and lipids, but remains controversial because a small proportion of people with celiac disease react to pure oats. Some cultivars of pure oats could be a safe part of a gluten-free diet, requiring knowledge of the oat variety used in food products. Determining whether oat consumption is safe is critical because people with poorly controlled celiac disease may develop multiple severe health complications, including
cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biolo ...

cancer
s. Use of pure oat products is an option, with the assessment of a health professional, when the celiac person has been on a gluten-free diet for at least 6 months and all celiac symptoms have disappeared clinically. Celiac disease may relapse in few cases with the consumption of pure oats. Screening with serum antibodies for celiac disease is not sensitive enough to detect people who react to pure oats and the absence of digestive symptoms is not an accurate indicator of intestinal recovery because up to 50% of people with active celiac disease have no digestive symptoms. The lifelong follow-up of celiac people who choose to consume oats may require periodic performance of . The long-term effects of pure oats consumption are still unclear and further well-designed studies identifying the cultivars used are needed before making final recommendations for a gluten-free diet.


Agronomy

Oats are sown in the spring or early summer in colder areas, as soon as the soil can be worked. An early start is crucial to good yields, as oats go dormant in summer heat. In warmer areas, oats are sown in late summer or early fall. Oats are cold-tolerant and are unaffected by late frosts or snow. Oats grow well on sandy loam to heavy clay soils with good drainage. On acid soils, oats perform better than other small-grain cereals. Saline soils are not suitable.


Seeding rates

Typically, about 125 to 175 kg/ha (between 2.75 and 3.25
bushels A bushel (abbreviation: bsh. or bu.) is an Imperial unit, imperial and United States customary units, US customary unit of volume based upon an earlier measure of dry capacity. The old bushel is equal to 2 Kenning (unit), kennings (obsolete), 4 ...
per acre) are sown, either
broadcast Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, are objects that generalize the classical notion of functi ...

broadcast
or
drilled Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross section (geometry), cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is usually a rotary Cutting tool (machining), cutting tool, often multi-point. The bit is Pre ...
. Lower rates are used when interseeding with a legume. Somewhat higher rates can be used on the best soils, or where problems with weeds exist. Excessive sowing rates lead to problems with lodging, and may reduce yields.


Fertilizer requirements

Oats remove substantial amounts of
nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

nitrogen
from the soil. They also remove phosphorus in the form of P2O5 at the rate of 0.25 pound per bushel (1 bushel = 38 pounds at 12% moisture). Phosphate is thus applied at a rate of 30 to 40 kg/ha, or 30 to 40 lb/acre. Oats remove potash (K2O) at a rate of 0.19 pound per bushel, which causes use of 15–30 kg/ha, or 13–27 lb/acre. Usually, 50–100 kg/ha (45–90 lb/ac) of nitrogen in the form of
urea Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the prop ...

urea
or
anhydrous ammonia Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Sche ...

anhydrous ammonia
is sufficient, as oats use about 1 lb per bushel. A sufficient amount of nitrogen is particularly important for plant height and hence, straw quality and yield. When the prior-year crop was a legume, or where ample manure is applied, nitrogen rates can be reduced somewhat.


Harvesting

Harvest techniques are a matter of available equipment, local tradition, and priorities. Farmers seeking the highest yield from their crops time their harvest so the kernels have reached 35% moisture, or when the greenest kernels are just turning cream-coloured. They then harvest by , cutting the plants about above ground, and putting the swathed plants into windrows with the grain all oriented the same way. They leave the windrows to dry in the sun for several days before combining them using a pickup header. Finally, they bale the straw. Oats can also be left standing until completely ripe and then
combined Combined may refer to: * Alpine combined (skiing), the combination of slalom and downhill skiing as a single event ** super combined (skiing) * Nordic combined (skiing), the combination of cross country skiing and ski jumping as a single event * Th ...

combined
with a grain head. This causes greater field losses as the grain falls from the heads, and harvesting losses, as the grain is threshed out by the reel. Without a draper head, more damage to the straw also occurs, since it is not properly oriented as it enters the combine's throat. Overall yield loss is 10–15% compared to proper swathing. Historical harvest methods involved cutting with a scythe or sickle, and threshing under the feet of cattle. Late 19th- and early 20th-century harvesting was performed using a Reaper-binder, binder. Oats were gathered into shocks, and then collected and run through a stationary threshing machine.


Storage

After combining, the oats are transported to the farmyard using a grain truck, tractor-trailer, or road train, where they are Screw conveyor, augered or conveyor, conveyed into a grain bin, bin for storage. Sometimes, when there is not enough bin space, they are augered into portable grain rings, or piled on the ground. Oats can be safely stored at 12–14% moisture; at higher moisture levels, they must be aerated or dried.


Yield and quality

In the United States, No.1 oats weigh ; No. 2 oats must weigh . No.3 oats must weigh at least . If , they are graded as No.4, and oats under are graded as "light weight". In Canada, No.1 oats weigh ; No.2 oats must weigh ; No.3 oats must weigh at least and if oats are lighter than they do not make No.4 oats and have no grade. Oats are bought and sold and yields on the basis of a bushel equal to or ) in the United States, and a bushel equal to or ) in Canada. "Bright oats" were sold on the basis of a bushel equal to or ) in the United States. Yields range from on marginal land, to on high-producing land. The average production is 100 bushels per acre, or 3.5 tonnes per hectare. Straw yields are variable, ranging from one to three tonnes per hectare, mainly due to available nutrients and the variety used (some are short-strawed, meant specifically for straight combining).


Genetics and breeding

''Avena sativa'' is an Polyploidy#Allopolyploidy, allohexaploid plant with 3 ancestral genomes ("A", "C" and "D"). The hexaploid genome is challenging to sequence and th
oat genome seqencing project
is focusing on diploid species at first. Species within Avena can Hybridisation (biology), hybridize and genes introgression, introgressed from other "A" genome species has contributed with many valuable traits, like Rust_(fungus), crown rust resistance. It is also possible to do introgression of traits in oats from very wide Hybrid_(biology)#Taxonomy, intergeneric hybridization. In contrast to
wheat Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus ''Triticum''; the most widely grown is common wheat Common wheat (''Triticum aestivum'' ...

wheat
, oats sometimes retain chromosomes from maize or pearl millet. These wide crosses are typically made in order to generate doubled haploid breeding material where the rapid loss of the alien chromosomes from the unrelated pollen donor results in a plant with only a single set of chromosomes (a haploid). The addition lines with alien chromosomes can be used as a source for novel traits in oats, for example has research on Oat-Maize-Addition lines (OMAs) been used to map genes involved in C4 photosynthesis. In order to obtain mendelian inheritance of these novel traits, Radiation_hybrid_mapping, radiation hybrid lines have been established, where maize chromosome segments have been introgressed in the oat genome. Interestingly, these techniques which potentially transfers thousands of genes from a species that is very distantly related is not considered a GMO according to the European Union definition, since sexual hybridization and radiation-induced introgression are explicitly excluded from the definition.


Diseases

Oats are subject to several fungal, bacterial, viral, nematode and other diseases. The most important disease likely to affect a crop depends on the environment and region of world where the crop is being grown. Some oat varieties are resistant to some diseases. See this list of oat diseases for the most significant causal agents.


Processing

Oats processing is a relatively simple process:


Cleaning and sizing

Upon delivery to the milling plant, the oats are cleaned, removing the chaff and items such as rocks, metal, oversized materials, and other grains. Oats of different sizes de-hull at differing velocities. So, once impurities have been removed, the raw oats are separated by width and length into different classifications before de-hulling.


Dehulling

Centrifugal acceleration is used to separate the outer hull from the inner oat groat. Oats are fed by gravity onto the centre of a horizontally spinning impeller, which accelerates them towards an outer mill ring. Groats and hulls are separated on impact. The lighter oat hulls are then aspirated away, while the denser oat groats are taken to the next step of processing. Oat hulls can be used as feed or as a biomass fuel and are often used within the oat processing line to power solid fuel boilers for steam and power generation. Excess oat hulls are generally pelletised before being provided as feed.


Kilning

The unsized oat groats pass through a heat and moisture treatment to balance moisture for optimal storage conditions and to deactivate self catalyzing enzyme activity. Oat groats are high in fat (lipids) and once removed from their protective hulls and exposed to air, enzymatic (lipase) activity begins to break down the fat into free fatty acids, ultimately causing an Off-flavours, off-flavor or rancidity. Depending on temperature, humidity and moisture content, de-hulled oats can begin to show signs of enzymatic rancidity rapidly if not stabilized. This process is primarily done in food-grade plants, not in feed-grade plants. Groats are not considered raw if they have gone through this process; the heat disrupts the germ and they cannot sprout.


Sizing of groats

Many whole oat groats break during the dehulling process, leaving the following types of groats to be sized and separated for further processing: whole oat groats, coarse steel cut groats, steel cut groats, and fine steel cut groats. Groats are sized and separated using screens, shakers and indent screens. After the whole oat groats are separated, the remaining broken groats get sized again into the three groups (coarse, regular, fine), and then stored. "Steel cut" refers to all sized or cut groats. When not enough broken groats are available to size for further processing, whole oat groats are sent to a cutting unit with steel blades that evenly cut groats into the three sizes above.


Final processing

Three methods are used to make the finished product:


Flaking

This process uses two large smooth or corrugated rolls spinning at the same speed in opposite directions at a controlled distance, before which the cut groats are conditioned for flaking via steam injection. After flaking, the oats are then dried to a sufficient moisture for storage and transport. Oat flake thickness is a key control point dependant of the type of oat flakes to be produced. Typically, the flakes produced are either instant, quick or traditional whole rolled oats and range in size from .


Oat bran milling

This process takes the oat groats through several roll stands to flatten and separate the bran from the flour (endosperm). The two separate products (flour and bran) get sifted through a gyrating sifter screen to further separate them. The final products are oat bran and debranned oat flour.


Whole flour milling

This process takes oat groats straight to a grinding unit (stone or hammer mill) and then over sifter screens to separate the coarse flour and final whole oat flour. The coarser flour is sent back to the grinding unit until it is ground fine enough to be whole oat flour. This method is used often in India and other countries. In India, whole grain oat flour (jai) is used to make Indian bread known as jarobra in Himachal Pradesh.


Preparation at home

Oat flour can be ground for small scale use by pulsing
rolled oats Rolling is a type of motion that combines rotation A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation. The plane (geometry), geometric plane along which the rotation occurs is called the ''rotation plane' ...

rolled oats
or old-fashioned (not quick) oats in a food processor or spice mill."What is oat flour?"
wiseGeek.com. Retrieved 7 July 2013.


See also


Oat products and derivatives

* Export hay * Muesli * Oat bread * Oat milk * Oatcake * Oatmeal * Parkin (cake) * Porridge * Rolled oats * Steel-cut oats


References


External links

{{Taxonbar, from=Q12104 Oats, Avena Cereals Demulcents Fodder Medicinal plants Plants described in 1753 Staple foods