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The newton-metre (also newton metre or newton meter; symbol N⋅m
/ref> or N m) is a
unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action, a discrete piece of action (or beat) in a theatrical presentation Music * Unit (album), ...
of
torque In physics and mechanics, torque is the rotational equivalent of linear force. It is also referred to as the moment, moment of force, rotational force or turning effect, depending on the field of study. The concept originated with the studies ...

torque
(also called ) in the SI system. One newton-metre is equal to the torque resulting from a
force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a Newton's first law, state of rest), i.e., to acce ...

force
of one
newton Newton most commonly refers to: * Isaac Newton (1642–1726/1727), English scientist * Newton (unit), SI unit of force named after Isaac Newton Newton may also refer to: Arts and entertainment * Newton (film), ''Newton'' (film), a 2017 Indian fil ...
applied perpendicularly to the end of a
moment arm In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force ...

moment arm
that is one
metre The metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter (American spelling Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English ...
long. The nonstandard notation ''Nm'' occurs in some fields. The unit is also used less commonly as a unit of
work Work may refer to: * Work (human activity), intentional activity people perform to support themselves, others, or the community ** Manual labour, physical work done by humans ** House work, housework, or homemaking * Work (physics), the product of ...

work
, or
energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regula ...

energy
, in which case it is equivalent to the more common and standard SI unit of energy, the
joule The joule ( ; symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates ...

joule
.For example: Eshbach's handbook of engineering fundamentals - 10.4 Engineering Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer "In SI units the basic unit of energy is newton-metre". In this usage the metre term represents the distance travelled or displacement of the force, and not the from a fulcrum as it does when used to express torque. This usage is generally discouraged, since it can lead to confusion as to whether a given quantity expressed in newton-metres is a torque or a quantity of energy. However, since torque represents energy transferred or expended per angle of revolution, one newton-metre of torque is equivalent to one joule per
radian The radian, denoted by the symbol \text, is the SI unit The International System of Units, known by the international abbreviation SI in all languages and sometimes pleonastically as the SI system, is the modern form of the metric sy ...

radian
.BIPM - special names
/ref> Newton-metres and joules are dimensionally equivalent in the sense that they have the same expression in
SI base unit The SI base units are the standard units of measurement A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude Magnitude may refer to: Mathematics *Euclidean vector, a quantity defined by both its magnitude and its direction *Magnitude (mat ...

SI base unit
s, ::1 \, \text \mathrm = 1 \, \frac \quad , \quad 1 \, \mathrm = 1 \, \frac but are distinguished to avoid misunderstandings when a torque is mistaken for an energy or vice versa. Similar examples of dimensionally equivalent units include Pa versus J/m3, Bq versus , and
ohm The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit SI derived units are units of measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, ...

ohm
versus .


Conversion factors

*1
kilogram-force The kilogram-force (kgf or kgF), or kilopond (kp, from la, pondus, lit=weight), is a non-standard Gravitational Metric unit of force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, ...
metre = 9.80665 N⋅m''Concise encyclopedia of plastics'', by Donald V. Rosato, Marlene G. Rosato, Dominick V. Rosato, p621
/ref> *1 newton-metre ≈ 0.73756215
pound-force The pound of force or pound-force (symbol: lbf, sometimes lbf,) is a Units of measurement, unit of force used in some System of measurement, systems of measurement, including English Engineering units and the foot–pound–second system. Pound ...
-feet *1
pound-foot A pound-foot (lbf⋅ft) is a unit of torque In physics and mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects, more specifically the relationships among force, matter, and mo ...
≡ 1
pound-force The pound of force or pound-force (symbol: lbf, sometimes lbf,) is a Units of measurement, unit of force used in some System of measurement, systems of measurement, including English Engineering units and the foot–pound–second system. Pound ...
-foot ≈ 1.35581795 N⋅m *1 ounce-inch ≡ 1
ounce-force The pound of force or pound-force (symbol: lbf, sometimes lbf,) is a unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action, a discrete p ...
-inch ≈ 7.06155181 mN⋅m (millinewton-metres) *1
dyne The dyne (symbol dyn, from grc, δύναμις, dynamis, power, force) is a derived unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of acti ...
-centimetre = 10−7 N⋅m


See also

* Bending moment *
Spring scale A spring scale or spring balance or newton meter is a type of mechanical force gauge A force gauge (also called a force meter) is a measuring instrument used to measure forces. Applications exist in research and development, laboratory, quality, ...
* Torque tester *
Newton-second The newton-second (also newton second; symbol: N⋅s or N s) is the derived SI unit of impulse (physics), impulse. It is dimensional analysis, dimensionally equivalent to the momentum unit kilogram-metre per second (kg⋅m/s). One new ...
, the derived unit of impulse


References

{{SI units Units of torque SI derived units