A neologism (; from Greek
νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language. Neologisms are often driven by changes in culture and technology. In the process of language formation, neologisms are more mature than protologism
s. A word whose development stage is between that of the protologism
(freshly coined) and neologism (new word) is a ''prelogism''.
Popular examples of neologisms can be found in science, fiction (notably science fiction
), films and television, branding, literature, jargon
, linguistic and popular culture.
Examples include ''laser
'' (1960) from Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation; ''robotics
'' (1941) from Czech
writer Karel Čapek
's play ''R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots)
'' (1930) (a portmanteau
of "agitation" and "propaganda").
Neologisms are often formed by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective
) or by giving words new and unique suffix
es or prefix
es. Neologisms can also be formed by blending
words, for example, "brunch" is a blend of the words "breakfast" and "lunch", or through abbreviation
, by intentionally rhyming
with existing words or simply through playing with sounds.
Neologisms can become popular through memetics
, through mass media
, the Internet
, and word of mouth
, including academic discourse in many fields renowned for their use of distinctive jargon
, and often become accepted parts of the language. Other times, they disappear from common use just as readily as they appeared. Whether a neologism continues as part of the language depends on many factors, probably the most important of which is acceptance by the public. It is unusual for a word to gain popularity if it does not clearly resemble other words.
History and meaning
The term ''neologism'' is first attested in English in 1772, borrowed from French ''néologisme'' (1734). being called the "neologist-in-chief". In an academic sense, there is no professional Neologist, because the study of such things (cultural or ethnic vernacular, for example) is interdisciplinary
. Anyone such as a lexicographer
or an etymologist
might study neologisms, how their uses span the scope of human expression, and how, due to science and technology, they spread more rapidly than ever before in the present times.
The term ''neologism'' has a broader meaning which also includes "a word which has gained a new meaning".
Sometimes, the latter process is called ''semantic shifting'',
or ''semantic extension''. Neologisms are distinct from a person's ''idiolect
'', one's unique patterns of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.
Neologisms are usually introduced when it is found that a specific notion is lacking a term, or when the existing vocabulary lacks detail, or when a speaker is unaware of the existing vocabulary. The law, governmental bodies, and technology have a relatively high frequency of acquiring neologisms. Another trigger that motivates the coining of a neologism is to disambiguate a term which may be unclear due to having many meanings.
Neologisms may come from a word used in the narrative of fiction such as novels and short stories. Examples include "grok
" (to intuitively understand) from the science fiction novel about a Martian, entitled ''Stranger in a Strange Land
'' by Robert A. Heinlein
" ( precarious, poorly-paid employment) from ''Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture
'' by Douglas Coupland
" (widespread, interconnected digital technology) from ''Neuromancer
'' by William Gibson
" (Slavic slang for "rubbish"; German for a type of dairy product
) from James Joyce
's ''Finnegans Wake
The title of a book may become a neologism, for instance, ''Catch-22
'' (from the title of Joseph Heller
's novel). Alternatively, the author's name may give rise to the neologism, although the term is sometimes based on only one work of that author. This includes such words as "Orwellian
" (from George Orwell
, referring to his dystopian novel ''Nineteen Eighty-Four
'') and "Kafkaesque" (from Franz Kafka
), which refers to arbitrary, complex bureaucratic systems.
Names of famous characters are another source of literary neologisms, e.g. ''quixotic
'' (referring to the romantic and misguided title character
in ''Don Quixote
'' by Miguel de Cervantes
'' (from the avaricious main character in Charles Dickens
' ''A Christmas Carol
'') and ''pollyanna
'' (from the unfailingly optimistic character in Eleanor H. Porter
's book of the same name).
is a cant used by some actors, circus performers, and the gay subculture
to communicate without outsiders understanding. Some Polari terms have crossed over into mainstream slang, in part through their usage in pop song lyrics and other works. Example include: ''acdc'', ''barney'', ''blag'', ''butch
'', ''khazi'', ''cottaging'', ''hoofer'', ''mince'', ''ogle'', ''scarper'', ''slap'', ''strides'', ''tod'', ''ough
trade'' (rough trade
(), (''verlan'' is the reverse of the expression "l'envers") is a type of argot
in the French language
, featuring inversion of syllable
s in a word, and is common in slang
and youth language. It rests on a long French tradition of transposing syllables of individual words to create slang words.
Some ''verlan'' words, such as ''meuf'' ("femme", which means "woman" roughly backwards), have become so commonplace that they have been included in the ''Petit Larousse
''. Like any slang, the purpose of ''verlan'' is to create a somewhat secret language that only its speakers can understand. Words becoming mainstream is counterproductive. As a result, such newly common words are re-verlanised: reversed a second time. The common ''meuf'' became ''feumeu''.
Neologism development may be spurred, or at least spread, by popular culture. Examples of pop-culture neologisms include the American Alt-right
(2010s), the Canadian portmanteau
" (2009), the Russian parody
" (ca. 2004), Santorum (c. 2003).
Neologisms spread mainly through their exposure in mass media
. The genericizing
of brand names
, such as "coke" for Coca-Cola
, "kleenex" for Kleenex
facial tissue, and "xerox" for Xerox photocopying
, all spread through their popular use being enhanced by mass media.
However, in some limited cases, words break out of their original communities and spread through social media
. "Doggo-Lingo", a term still below the threshold of a neologism according to Merriam-Webster
is an example of the latter which has specifically spread primarily through Facebook
group and Twitter
[Boddy, Jessica (April 23, 2017)]
"Dogs Are Doggos: An Internet Language Built Around Love For The Puppers"
''National Public Radio''.
The suspected origin of this way of referring to dogs stems from a Facebook group founded in 2008 and gaining popularity in 2014 in Australia. In Australian English it is common to use diminutives
, often ending in –o, which could be where doggo-lingo was first used.
The term has grown so that Merriam-Webster has acknowledged its use but notes the term needs to be found in published, edited work for a longer period of time before it can be deemed a new word, making it the perfect example of a neologism.
Because neologisms originate in one language, translations between languages can be difficult.
In the scientific community, where English is the predominant language for published research and studies, like-sounding translations (referred to as 'naturalization') are sometimes used.
Alternatively, the English word is used along with a brief explanation of meaning.
The four translation methods are emphasized in order to translate neologisms: transliteration
, the use of analogues, calque
or loan translation.
When translating from English to other languages, the naturalization method is most often used. The most common way that professional translators translate neologisms is through the Think aloud protocol
(TAP), wherein translators find the most appropriate and natural sounding word through speech. As such, translators can use potential translations in sentences and test them with different structures and syntax. Correct translations from English for specific purposes
into other languages is crucial in various industries and legal systems.
Inaccurate translations can lead to 'translation asymmetry' or misunderstandings and miscommunication.
Many technical glossaries of English translations exist to combat this issue in the medical, judicial, and technological fields.
, the term ''neologism'' is used to describe words that have meaning only to the person who uses them, independent of their common meaning. This can be seen in schizophrenia
, where a person may replace a word with a nonsensical one of their own invention, e.g. “I got so angry I picked up a dish and threw it at the geshinker.” The use of neologisms may also be due to aphasia
acquired after brain damage
resulting from a stroke
or head injury
[B Butterworth, Hesitation and the production of verbal paraphasias and neologisms in jargon aphasia. Brain Lang, 1979]
* Blend word
* Language planning
* Nonce word
* Morphology (linguistics)
* Phono-semantic matching
* Syllabic abbreviations
* Word formation
Neologisms in Journalistic TextInterpretation of the Formation of Internet Neologisms
*ttps://books.google.com/books?id=3x-umCIwEYQC Algeo, John. ''Fifty Years among the New Words: A Dictionary of Neologisms, 1941–1991''WordspyRice University Neologisms DatabaseNeologisms from the Internet – with Esther Dyson, Jimmy Wales and more...