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National security or national defence is the
security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...

security
and
defence Defense or defence may refer to: Tactical, martial, and political acts or groups * Defense (military) A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is ty ...
of a
nation state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
, including its
citizens Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its citizens, and th ...

citizens
,
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ...

economy
, and
institutions Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to social mechanism, mechanisms which govern the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community, and are ide ...

institutions
, which is regarded as a duty of
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
. Originally conceived as protection against military attack, national security is now widely understood to include also non-military dimensions, including the security from
terrorism Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...
, minimization of
crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a State (polity), state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Crime, defi ...

crime
,
economic security Economic security or financial security is the condition of having stable income or other resources to support a standard of living Standard of living is the level of income, comforts and services available, generally applied to a society or loca ...
,
energy security Energy security is the association between national security National security or national defence is the security and Defence (military), defence of a sovereign state, nation state, including its Citizenship, citizens, economy, and instit ...
,
environmental securityEnvironmental security examines threats posed by environmental events and trends to individuals, communities or nations. It may focus on the impact of human conflict and international relations on the environment, or on how environmental problems ...
,
food security Food security is the measure of the availability of food and individuals' Economic inequality, ability to access it. According to the United Nations' Committee on World Food Security, food security is defined as meaning that all people, at all ti ...
, cyber-security etc. Similarly, national security risks include, in addition to the actions of other
nation state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
s, action by
violent non-state actor In international relations, violent non-state actors (VNSA), also known as non-state armed actors or non-state armed groups (NSAGs), are individuals and groups that are wholly or partly independent of state government, governments and which threa ...
s, by
narcotic cartel A drug cartel is any Organized crime, criminal organization with the intention of supplying Illegal drug trade, drug trafficking operations. They range from loosely managed agreements among various drug traffickers to formalized commercial enterpri ...
s, and by
multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whethe ...
s, and also the effects of
natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationsh ...
s. Governments rely on a range of measures, including
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...
,
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...
, and
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
power, as well as
diplomacy Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, negotiation, and other nonviolent means. Diplomacy usually refers to international relations carried out through the inte ...

diplomacy
, to safeguard the security of a
nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
. They may also act to build the conditions of security regionally and internationally by reducing transnational causes of insecurity, such as
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...

climate change
,
economic inequality There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably measured using the distribution of incomeIn economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (econom ...
, political exclusion, and
nuclear proliferation Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons A nuclear weapon (also known as an atom bomb, atomic bomb, nuclear bomb or nuclear warhead, and colloquially as an A-bomb or nuke) is an explosive device that derives its destructiv ...

nuclear proliferation
.


Definitions

The concept of national security remains ambiguous, having evolved from simpler definitions which emphasised freedom from military threat and from political coercion. Among the many definitions proposed to date are the following, which show how the concept has evolved to encompass non-military concerns: * "A nation has security when it does not have to sacrifice its legitimate ínterests to avoid war, and is able, if challenged, to maintain them by war." (
Walter Lippmann Walter Lippmann (September 23, 1889 – December 14, 1974) was an American writer, reporter and political commentator. With a career spanning 60 years he is famous for being among the first to introduce the concept of Cold War, coining the ter ...
, 1943). * "The distinctive meaning of national security means freedom from foreign dictation." (
Harold Lasswell Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902December 18, 1978) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of ...
, 1950) * "National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, the absence of fear that such values will be attacked." (
Arnold Wolfers Arnold Oscar Wolfers (June 14, 1892July 16, 1968) was a Swiss-American lawyer, economist, historian, and international relations scholar, most known for his work at Yale University Yale University is a private Ivy League The Ivy Lea ...
, 1960)Quoted in Paleri (2008) ibid. Pg 52. * "National security then is the ability to preserve the nation's physical integrity and territory; to maintain its economic relations with the rest of the world on reasonable terms; to preserve its nature, institution, and governance from disruption from outside; and to control its borders." ( Harold Brown, U.S. Secretary of Defense, 1977–1981)Brown, Harold (1983) ''Thinking about national security: defense and foreign policy in a dangerous world''. As quoted in * "National security... is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy, prosperity, and wellbeing." ( Charles Maier, 1990) ''Peace and security for the 1990s''. Unpublished paper for the MacArthur Fellowship Program, Social Science Research Council, 12 Jun 1990. As quoted in Romm 1993, p.5 * "National security is an appropriate and aggressive blend of political resilience and maturity, human resources, economic structure and capacity, technological competence, industrial base and availability of natural resources and finally the military might." ( National Defence College of India, 1996)Definition from "Proceedings of Seminar on "A Maritime Strategy for India" (1996). National Defence College, Tees January Marg, New Delhi, India. quoted in Paleri 2008 (ibid). * " ational security is themeasurable state of the capability of a nation to overcome the multi-dimensional threats to the apparent well-being of its people and its survival as a nation-state at any given time, by balancing all instruments of state policy through governance... and is extendable to global security by variables external to it." ( Prabhakaran Paleri, 2008) * " ational and international securitymay be understood as shared freedom from fear and want, and the freedom to live in dignity. It implies social and ecological health rather than the absence of risk... nd isa common right." (Ammerdown Group, 2016)


Dimensions of national security

Potential causes of national insecurity include actions by other states (e.g.
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...
or
cyber attack In computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These progra ...
),
violent non-state actor In international relations, violent non-state actors (VNSA), also known as non-state armed actors or non-state armed groups (NSAGs), are individuals and groups that are wholly or partly independent of state government, governments and which threa ...
s (e.g.
terrorist attack Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilianIn gen ...
), organised criminal groups such as
narcotic cartel A drug cartel is any Organized crime, criminal organization with the intention of supplying Illegal drug trade, drug trafficking operations. They range from loosely managed agreements among various drug traffickers to formalized commercial enterpri ...
s, and also the effects of
natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationsh ...
s (e.g. flooding, earthquakes). Systemic drivers of insecurity, which may be transnational, include
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...

climate change
,
economic inequality There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably measured using the distribution of incomeIn economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (econom ...
and marginalisation, political exclusion, and
militarisation Militarization, or militarisation, is the process by which a society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social ter ...
. In view of the wide range of risks, the security of a nation state has several dimensions, including
economic security Economic security or financial security is the condition of having stable income or other resources to support a standard of living Standard of living is the level of income, comforts and services available, generally applied to a society or loca ...
,
energy security Energy security is the association between national security National security or national defence is the security and Defence (military), defence of a sovereign state, nation state, including its Citizenship, citizens, economy, and instit ...
,
physical security Physical security describes security measures that are designed to deny unauthorized access to facilities, equipment and resources and to protect personnel and property from damage or harm (such as espionage, theft, or terrorist attacks). Physical ...
,
environmental securityEnvironmental security examines threats posed by environmental events and trends to individuals, communities or nations. It may focus on the impact of human conflict and international relations on the environment, or on how environmental problems ...
,
food security Food security is the measure of the availability of food and individuals' Economic inequality, ability to access it. According to the United Nations' Committee on World Food Security, food security is defined as meaning that all people, at all ti ...
, border security, and cyber security. These dimensions correlate closely with
elements of national power National Power was formerly an energy In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Mot ...
. Increasingly, governments organise their security policies into a national security strategy (NSS); as of 2017, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States are among the states to have done so. Some states also appoint a National Security Council and/or a National Security Advisor which is an executive government agency, it feeds the head of the state on topics concerning national security and strategic interest. The national security council/advisor strategies long term, short term, contingency national security plans.
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
holds one such system in current, which was established on 19 November 1998. Although states differ in their approach, with some beginning to prioritise non-military action to tackle systemic drivers of insecurity, various forms of coercive power predominate, particularly Military Capabilities. The scope of these capabilities has developed. Traditionally, military capabilities were mainly land- or sea-based, and in smaller countries, they still are. Elsewhere, the domains of potential warfare now include the
air The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (ph ...
,
space Space is the boundless three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Gre ...
,
cyberspace Cyberspace is a concept describing a widespread interconnected digital technology. "The expression dates back from the first decade of the diffusion of the internet. It refers to the online world as a world 'apart', as distinct from everyday rea ...
, and psychological operations. Military capabilities designed for these domains may be used for national security, or equally for offensive purposes, for example to conquer and annex territory and resources.


Physical security

In practice, national security is associated primarily with managing physical threats and with the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
capabilities used for doing so. That is, national security is often understood as the capacity of a nation to mobilise military forces to guarantee its borders and to deter or successfully defend against physical threats including military aggression and attacks by
non-state actors A non-state actor (NSA) are organizations and/or individuals that are not affiliated with, directed by, or funded by any government. The interests, structure, and influence of NSAs vary widely. For example, among NSAs are non-governmental organiza ...
, such as
terrorism Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...
. Most states, such as South Africa and Sweden, configure their military forces mainly for territorial defence; others, such as France, Russia, the UK and the US, invest in higher-cost expeditionary capabilities, which allow their armed forces to project power and sustain
military operation A military operation is the coordinated military action War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and ...
s abroad.


Infrastructure security

Infrastructure security is the
security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...

security
provided to protect
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy An ec ...

infrastructure
, especially
critical infrastructure Critical infrastructure (or critical national infrastructure (CNI) in the UK) is a term used by governments to describe assets that are essential for the functioning of a society and economy – the infrastructure. Most commonly associated with ...
, such as
airport An airport is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval En ...

airport
s,
highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: ...

highway
s,
rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor veh ...

rail transport
,
hospital A hospital is a health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refe ...

hospital
s,
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...

bridge
s,
transport hub in Helsinki, Finland : Port of Szczecin, A6 autostrada (Poland), motorway, Expressway S3 (Poland), expressway and Szczecin Główny railway station, railway connections, an inter-city public transport, a city bus and Tramways in Szczecin, electr ...
s, network communications,
media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...
, the
electricity grid Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its positio ...
,
dam A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water An example of surface water is Lake Kinney. Surface water is water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tas ...

dam
s,
power plant A power station, also referred to as a power plant and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation A generation is "all of the people born and living Living or The Living may refer to: ...

power plant
s,
seaport A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...
s,
oil refineries An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some referenc ...
, and
water system A water supply network or water supply system is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components that provide water supply Water supply is the provision of water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and ...
s. Infrastructure security seeks to limit vulnerability of these structures and systems to
sabotage Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort, or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption, or destruction. One who engages in sabotage is a ''saboteur''. Saboteurs typically try to conceal their identitie ...
,
terrorism Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...
, and
contamination Contamination is the presence of a constituent, impurity Impurities are chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by ...

contamination
. Many countries have established government agencies to directly manage the security of critical infrastructure, usually, through the Ministry of Interior/Home Affairs, dedicated security agencies to protect facilities such as United States Federal Protective Service, and also dedicated transport police such as the
British Transport Police The British Transport Police (BTP) is a national special police force that polices railways and light-rail systems in England, Wales and Scotland, for which it has entered into an agreement to provide such services. The force is funded primarily ...

British Transport Police
. There are also commercial transportation security units such as the Amtrak Police in the United States. Critical infrastructure is vital for the essential functioning of a country. Incidental or deliberate damage can have a serious impact on the economy and essential services. Some of the threats to infrastructure include: *
Terrorism Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...
: person or groups deliberately targeting critical infrastructure for political gain. In the
November 2008 Mumbai attacks The 2008 Mumbai attacks (also referred to as 26/11) were a series of Terrorism, terrorist attacks that took place in November of 2008, when 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islam, Islamic terrorist organisation, carried out 12 coordinated shootin ...
, the Mumbai central station and hospital were deliberately targeted. *
Sabotage Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social r ...
: person or groups such as ex-employees, anti-government groups, environmental groups. Refer to Bangkok's International Airport Seized by Protestors. *
Information warfare Information warfare (IW) is a concept involving the battlespace use and management of information and communication technology (ICT) in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. Information warfare is the manipulation of information ...
: private person hacking for private gain or countries initiating attacks to glean information and damage a country's cyberinfrastructure. Cyberattacks on Estonia and cyberattacks during the 2008 South Ossetia war are examples. *
Natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relations ...
: hurricane or other natural events that damage critical infrastructures such as oil pipelines, water, and power grids. See
Hurricane Ike Hurricane Ike () was a powerful tropical cyclone A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale m ...
and Economic effects of Hurricane Katrina for examples.


Computer security

Computer security Computer security, cybersecurity, or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out Sequence, sequences of arithmetic or logical operations ...
, also known as cybersecurity or IT security, refers to the security of computing devices such as
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
s and smartphones, as well as
computer network A computer network is a set of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operati ...
s such as private and public networks, and the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...
. It concerns the protection of hardware, software, data, people, and also the procedures by which systems are accessed, and the field has growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems in most societies. Since unauthorized access to critical civil and military infrastructure is now considered a major threat, cyberspace is now recognised as a domain of warfare. One such example is the use of
Stuxnet Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm Spread of Conficker worm A computer worm is a standalone malware Malware (a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage, us ...

Stuxnet
by the USA and Israel against the
Iranian nuclear programme Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia ...


Political security

Barry Buzan Barry Gordon Buzan (born 28 April 1946) is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at the London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public In public relations and ...
, Ole Wæver, Jaap de Wilde and others have argued that national security depends on political security: the stability of the social order. Others, such as Paul Rogers, have added that the equitability of the international order is equally vital. Hence, political security depends on the rule of international law (including the Law of war, laws of war), the effectiveness of International institutions, international political institutions, as well as
diplomacy Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, negotiation, and other nonviolent means. Diplomacy usually refers to international relations carried out through the inte ...

diplomacy
and negotiation between nations and other security actors. It also depends on, among other factors, effective political inclusion of disaffected groups and the human security of the citizenry.


Economic security

Economic security, in the context of international relations, is the ability of a Nation-state, nation state to maintain and develop the national economy, without which other dimensions of national security cannot be managed. Economic capability largely determines the defense capability of a nation, and thus a sound economic security directly influences the national security of a nation. That is why we see countries with sound economy, happen to have sound security setup too, such as The United States, China,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
among others. In larger countries, strategies for economic security expect to access resources and markets in other countries and to protect their own markets at home. Developing country, Developing countries may be less secure than economically advanced states due to high rates of unemployment and underpaid work.


Ecological security

Ecological security, also known as environmental security, refers to the integrity of ecosystems and the biosphere, particularly in relation to their capacity to sustain a Biodiversity, diversity of life-forms (including human life). The security of ecosystems has attracted greater attention as the impact of ecological damage by humans has grown. The degradation of ecosystems, including Soil erosion, topsoil erosion, deforestation, biodiversity loss, and climate change, affect economic security and can precipitate mass migration, leading to increased pressure on resources elsewhere. Ecological security is also important since most of the countries in the world are developing and dependent on agriculture and agriculture gets affected largely due to climate change. This effect affects the economy of the nation, which in turn affects national security. The scope and nature of environmental threats to national security and strategies to engage them are a subject of debate. Romm (1993) classifies the major impacts of ecological changes on national security as: * ''Transnational environmental problems.'' These include global environmental problems such as climate change due to global warming, deforestation, and Biodiversity loss, loss of biodiversity. * ''Local environmental or resource pressures''. These include resource scarcities leading to local conflict, such as disputes over water scarcity in the Middle East; migration into the United States caused by the failure of agriculture in Mexico; and the impact on the conflict in Syria of erosion of productive land. Environmental insecurity in Rwanda following a rise in population and dwindling availability of farmland, may also have contributed to the genocide there. * ''Environmentally threatening outcomes of warfare.'' These include acts of war that degrade or destroy ecosystems. Examples are the Roman empire, Roman destruction of agriculture in Carthage; Saddam Hussein's burning of oil wells in the Gulf War; the use of Agent Orange by the UK in the Malayan Emergency and the USA in the Vietnam War for Defoliant, defoliating forests; and the high greenhouse gas emissions of Military, military forces.


Security of energy and natural resources

Resources include water, sources of energy, land, and minerals. Availability of adequate natural resources is important for a nation to develop its industry and economic power. For example, in the Persian Gulf War of 1991, Iraq captured Kuwait partly in order to secure access to its oil wells, and one reason for the US counter-invasion was the value of the same wells to its own economy. Water resources are subject to disputes between many nations, including
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
and Pakistan, and in the Middle East. The interrelations between security, energy, natural resources, and their sustainability is increasingly acknowledged in national security strategies and resource security is now included among the Sustainable Development Goals, UN Sustainable Development Goals. In the US, for example, the military has installed solar photovoltaic microgrids on their bases in case of power outage.


Issues in national security


Consistency of approach

The dimensions of national security outlined above are frequently in tension with one another. For example: * The high cost of maintaining large Military, military forces can place a burden on the economic security of a nation And annual defense spending as percent of GDP varies significantly by country. Conversely, economic constraints can limit the scale of expenditure on Military, military capabilities. * Unilateral security action by states can undermine political security at an international level if it erodes the rule of law and undermines the authority of International organization, international institutions. The 2003 invasion of Iraq, invasion of Iraq in 2003 and the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, annexation of Crimea in 2014 have been cited as examples. * The pursuit of economic security in competition with other nation states can undermine the ecological security of all when the impact includes widespread Soil erosion, topsoil erosion, biodiversity loss, and climate change. Conversely, expenditure on mitigating or adapting to ecological change places a burden on the national economy. If tensions such as these are not managed effectively, national security policies and actions may be ineffective or counterproductive.


National versus transnational security

Increasingly, national security strategies have begun to recognise that nations cannot provide for their own security without also developing the security of their regional and international context. For example, Sweden's national security strategy of 2017 declared:
"Wider security measures must also now encompass protection against epidemics and infectious diseases, combating terrorism and organised crime, ensuring safe transport and reliable food supplies, protecting against energy supply interruptions, countering devastating climate change, initiatives for peace and global development, and much more."
The extent to which this matters, and how it should be done, is the subject of debate. Some argue that the principal beneficiary of national security policy should be the nation state itself, which should centre its strategy on protective and coercive capabilities in order to safeguard itself in a hostile environment (and potentially to project that power into its environment, and dominate it to the point of Full-spectrum dominance, strategic supremacy). Others argue that security depends principally on building the conditions in which equitable relationships between nations can develop, partly by reducing antagonism between actors, ensuring that fundamental needs can be met, and also that differences of interest can be negotiated effectively. In the UK, for example, Malcolm Chalmers argued in 2015 that the heart of the UK's approach should be support for the Western strategic military alliance led through NATO by the United States, as "the key anchor around which international order is maintained". The Ammerdown Group argued in 2016 that the UK should shift its primary focus to building international cooperation to tackle the systemic drivers of insecurity, including climate change,
economic inequality There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably measured using the distribution of incomeIn economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (econom ...
,
militarisation Militarization, or militarisation, is the process by which a society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social ter ...
and the political exclusion of the world's poorest people.


Impact on civil liberties and human rights

Approaches to national security can have a complex impact on human rights and civil liberties. For example, the rights and liberties of citizens are affected by the use of military personnel and Militarization of police, militarised police forces to control public behaviour; the use of surveillance, including mass surveillance in cyberspace, which has implications for privacy; military recruitment and conscription practices; and the effects of warfare on civilians and civil infrastructure. This has led to a Hegelian dialectic, dialectical struggle, particularly in liberal democracy, liberal democracies, between government authority and the rights and freedoms of the general public. Even where the exercise of national security is subject to good governance, and the rule of law, a risk remains that the term ''national security'' may become a pretext for suppressing political dissent, unfavorable political and social views. In the US, for example, the controversial USA Patriot Act of 2001, and the revelation by Edward Snowden in 2013 that the National Security Agency Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present), harvests the personal data of the general public, brought these issues to wide public attention. Among the questions raised are whether and how national security considerations at times of war should lead to the suppression of individual rights and freedoms, and whether such restrictions are necessary when a state is not at war.


Perspectives


Africa

Conceptualizing and understanding the National Security choices and challenges of African States is a difficult task. This is due to the fact that it is often not rooted in the understanding of their (mostly disrupted) state formation and their often imported process of state-building. Although Post-Cold War conceptualisations of Security have broadened, the policies and practices of many African states still privilege national security as being synonymous with state security and, even more narrowly- regime security. The problem with the above is that a number of African states (be specific) have been unable to govern their security in meaningful ways. Often failing to be able to claim the monopoly of force in their territories. The hybridity of security ‘governance’ or ‘providers’ thus exists.Luckham, R., & Kirk, T. (2012)
Security in hybrid political contexts: An end-user approach
States that have not been able to capture this reality in official National Security strategies and policies often find their claim over having the monopoly of force and thus being the Sovereign challenged. This often leads to the weakening of the state. Examples of such states are South Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan and Somali Civil War, Somalia.


Argentina and Brazil

National Security ideology as taught by the US Army School of the Americas to military personnel was vital in causing the military coup of 1964 in Brazil and the 1976 one in Argentina. The military dictatorships were installed on the claim by the military that Leftists were an existential threat to the national interests.


China

China's Armed Forces are known as the People's Liberation Army (PLA). The military is the largest in the world, with 2.3 million active troops in 2005. The Ministry of State Security (China), Ministry of State Security was established in 1983 to ensure "the security of the state through effective measures against enemy agents, spies, and counterrevolutionary activities designed to sabotage or overthrow China's socialist system."


India

The state of the Republic of India's national security is determined by its internal stability and geopolitical interests. While Islamic upsurge in Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir demanding secession and far left-wing terrorism in India's red corridor remain some key issues in India's internal security, Pakistan and state-sponsored terrorism, terrorism from Pakistan based militant groups has been emerging as a major concern for New Delhi. The National Security Advisor (India), National Security Advisor of India heads the National Security Council (India), National Security Council of India, receives all kinds of intelligence reports, and is chief advisor to the Prime Minister of India over national and international security policy. The National Security Council has India's Minister of Defence (India), defence, Minister of External Affairs (India), foreign, Minister of Home Affairs (India), home, Minister of Finance (India), finance ministers and deputy chairman of NITI Aayog as its members and is responsible for shaping strategies for India's security in all aspects. Illegal immigration to India, most of whom are Muslims from Bangladesh and Myanmar (Rohingya muslims) are a national security risk. There is an organised influx of nearly 40,000 illegal Bangladeshi and Rohingya Muslim immigrants in Delhi who pose a #India, national security risk, threaten the national integration, and alter the demographics. A lawyer Ashwini Upadhyay filed a Public interest litigation in India, Public interest litigation (PIL) in the "Supreme Court of India" (SC) to identify and deport these. Responding to this PIL, Delhi Police told the SC in July 2019 that nearly 500 illegal Bangladeshi immigrants have been deported in the preceding 28 months.Nearly 500 illegal Bangladesh nationals detained, deported: Delhi police to SC
Times of India, 31 July 2019.
There are estimated 600,000 to 700,000 illegal Bangladeshi and Rohingya immigrants in National Capital Region (India), National Capital Region (NCR) region specially in the districts of Gurugram, Faridabad, and Nuh district, Nuh (Mewat region), as well as interior villages of Bhiwani district, Bhiwani and Hisar district, Hisar. Most of them are Muslims who have acquired fake Hindu identity, and under questioning, they pretend to be from West Bengal. In September 2019, the Chief Minister of Haryana, Manohar Lal Khattar announced the implementation of National Register of Citizens of India, NRC for Haryana by setting up a legal framework under the former judge of the Punjab and Haryana High Court, Justice HS Bhalla for updating NRC which will help in weeding out these illegal immigrants.Rohingyas, Bangladeshi refugees likely target of Khattar govt’s updated NRC
Hindustan Times, 16 September 2019.


Russia

In the years 1997 and 2000, Russia adopted documents titled "National Security Concept" that described Russia's global position, the country's interests, listed threats to national security, and described the means to counter those threats. In 2009, these documents were superseded by the "''National Security Strategy to 2020''". The key body responsible for coordinating policies related to Russia's national security is the Security Council of Russia. According to provision 6 of the ''National Security Strategy to 2020'', national security is "the situation in which the individual, the society and the state enjoy protection from foreign and domestic threats to the degree that ensures constitutional rights and freedoms, decent quality of life for citizens, as well as sovereignty, territorial integrity and stable development of the Russian Federation, the defense and security of the state."


Singapore

Total Defence is Singapore’s whole-of-society national defence concept based on the premise that the strongest defence of a nation is collective defence – when every aspect of society stays united for the defence of the country. Adopted from the national defence strategies of Sweden and Switzerland, Total Defence was introduced in Singapore in 1984. Then, it was recognised that military threats to a nation can affect the psyche and social fabric of its people. Therefore, the defence and progress of Singapore were dependent on all its citizens and their resolve, not just the government or the armed forces. Total Defence has since evolved to take into consideration threats and challenges outside of the conventional military domain.


Ukraine

National security of Ukraine is defined in Ukrainian law as "a set of legislative and organisational measures aimed at permanent protection of vital interests of man and citizen, society and the state, which ensure sustainable development of society, timely detection, prevention and neutralisation of real and potential threats to national interests in areas of law enforcement, fight against corruption, border activities and defense, migration policy, health care, education and science, technology and innovation policy, cultural development of the population, freedom of speech and information security, social policy and pension provision, housing and communal services, financial services market, protection of property rights, stock markets and circulation of securities, fiscal and customs policy, trade and business, banking services, investment policy, auditing, monetary and exchange rate policy, information security, licensing, industry and agriculture, transport and communications, information technology, energy and energy saving, functioning of natural monopolies, use of subsoil, land and water resources, minerals, protection of ecology and environment and other areas of public administration, in the event of emergence of negative trends towards the creation of potential or real threats to national interests.". The primary body responsible for coordinating national security policy in Ukraine is the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine. It is an advisory state agency to the President of Ukraine, tasked with developing a policy of national security on domestic and international matters. All sessions of the council take place in the Presidential Administration Building (Kiev), Presidential Administration Building. The council was created by the provision of Supreme Council of Ukraine #1658-12 on October 11, 1991. It was defined as the highest state body of collegiate governing on matters of defense and security of Ukraine with the following goals: * Protecting sovereignty * Constitutional order * Territorial integrity and inviolability of the republic * Developing strategies and continuous improvement of policy in the sphere of defense and state security * Comprehensive scientific assessment of the military threat nature * Determining position toward modern warfare * Effective control over the execution of the tasks of the state and its institutions keeping defense capabilities of Ukraine at the level of defense sufficiency


United Kingdom

The primary body responsible for coordinating national security policy in the UK is the National Security Council (United Kingdom) which helps produce and enact the National Security Strategy (United Kingdom), UK's National Security Strategy. It was created in May 2010 by the new coalition government of the Conservative Party (UK) and Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats. The National Security Council is a committee of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom and was created as part of a wider reform of the national security apparatus. This reform also included the creation of a National Security Adviser (United Kingdom), National Security Adviser and a National Security Council (United Kingdom)#National Security Secretariat, National Security Secretariat to support the National Security Council.


United States


National Security Act of 1947

The concept of national security became an official guiding principle of Foreign relations of the United States, foreign policy in the United States when the National Security Act of 1947 was signed on July 26, 1947, by President of the United States, U.S. President Harry S. Truman. As amended in 1949, this Act: :* created important components of American national security, such as the precursor to the United States Department of Defense, Department of Defense; :* subordinated the military branches to the new cabinet-level position of United States Secretary of Defense, Secretary of Defense; :* established the United States National Security Council, National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency; Notably, the Act did ''not'' define national security, which was conceivably advantageous, as its ambiguity made it a powerful phrase to invoke against diverse threats to interests of the state, such as domestic concerns. The notion that national security encompasses more than just military security was present, though understated, from the beginning. The Act established the National Security Council so as to "advise the President on the integration of domestic, military and foreign policies relating to national security". While not defining the "interests" of national security, the Act does establish, within the National Security Council, the "Committee on Foreign Intelligence", whose duty is to conduct an annual review "identifying the intelligence required to address the national security interests of the United States ''as specified by the President''" (emphasis added). In Gen. Maxwell Taylor's 1974 essay "The Legitimate Claims of National Security", Taylor states:


National security state

To reflect on the institutionalisation of new bureaucratic infrastructures and governmental practices in the post-World War II period in the U.S., when a culture of semi-permanent military mobilisation brought around the National Security Council, the CIA, the Department of Defense, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, national-security researchers apply a notion of a ''national security state'':


Obama administration

The U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff defines national security of the United States in the following manner : In 2010, the White House included an all-encompassing world-view in a national security strategy which identified "security" as one of the country's "four enduring national interests" that were "inexorably intertwined":


Empowerment of women

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has said that, "The countries that threaten regional and global peace are the very places where women and girls are deprived of dignity and opportunity". She has noted that countries, where women are oppressed, are places where the "rule of law and democracy are struggling to take root", and that, when women's rights as equals in society are upheld, the society as a whole changes and improves, which in turn enhances stability in that society, which in turn contributes to global society.


Cyber

The Bush Administration in January 2008, initiated the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative (CNCI). It introduced a differentiated approach, such as: identifying existing and emerging cybersecurity threats, finding and plugging existing cyber vulnerabilities, and apprehending actors that trying to gain access to secure federal information systems. President Obama issued a declaration that the "cyber threat is one of the most serious economic and national security challenges we face as a nation" and that "America's economic prosperity in the 21st century will depend on cybersecurity."


See also

* Deep state in the United States, Deep state * Fourth branch of government * Homeland security * Human security * International security * Military–industrial complex * Security


References


Further reading

* Bhadauria, Sanjeev. ''National Security''. Allahabad: Dept. of Defence and Strategic Studies, University of Allahabad, 2002. * Zbigniew Brzezinski, Brzezinski, Zbigniew. ''Power and Principle: Memoirs of the National Security Adviser, 1977–1981''. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1983. * Chen, Hsinchun. ''National Security''. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2007. * Cordesman, Anthony H.
Saudi Arabia: National Security in a Troubled Region
'. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger Security International, 2009. * Devanny, Joe, and Josh Harris,
The National Security Council: national security at the centre of government
'. London: Institute for Government/King's College London, 2014. * * Jordan, Amos A., William J. Taylor, Michael J. Mazarr, and Suzanne C. Nielsen. ''American National Security''. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. * MccGwire, Michael.
Perestroika and Soviet National Security
'. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1991. * Mueller, Karl P.
Striking First: Preemptive and Preventive Attack in U.S. National Security Policy
'. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Project Air Force, 2006. * National Research Council (U.S.).
Beyond "Fortress America": National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World
'. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2009. * Neal, Andrew. ''Security in a Small Nation: Scotland, Democracy, Politics''. Open Book Publishers, 2017. * Rothkopf, David J.
Running the World: The Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power
'. New York: PublicAffairs, 2005. * Ripsman, Norrin M., and T. V. Paul. ''Globalization and the National Security State''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. * Tal, Israel.
National Security: The Israeli Experience
'. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2000. * Tan, Andrew. ''Malaysia's security perspectives''. Canberra : Strategic and Defence Studies Centre, Australian National University, 2002 * Scherer, Lauri S. ''National Security''. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010.


External links


National Security Internet Archive (NSIA)
at the Internet Archive {{DEFAULTSORT:National Security National security, Political terminology