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A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of
music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common elements such as pit ...

music
as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from ''
musical form In music, form refers to the structure of a musical composition or performance. In his book, ''Worlds of Music'', Jeff Todd Titon suggests that a number of organizational elements may determine the formal structure of a piece of music, such as "th ...
'' and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Music can be divided into
genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of being, category of literature, m ...

genre
s in varying ways, such as
popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with little or no musical training.Popular Music. (2015). ''Funk & ...
and
art music Art music (alternatively called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music considered to be of high culture, high aesthetic value. It typically implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques ...
, or
religious music Religious music (also sacred music) is any type of music that is performed or composed for religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, ...
and
secular music Non-religious secular music and sacred music were the two main genres of Western music during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fa ...
. The artistic nature of music means that these classifications are often subjective and controversial, and some genres may overlap.


Definitions

In 1965, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between genre and
form Form is the shape, visual appearance, or :wikt:configuration, configuration of an object. In a wider sense, the form is the way something happens. Form also refers to: *Form (document), a document (printed or electronic) with spaces in which to w ...
in his book ''Form in Tonal Music''. He lists
madrigal A madrigal is a secular vocal music composition of the Renaissance (15th–16th c.) and early Baroque (1600–1750) eras. The polyphonic madrigal is unaccompanied, and the number of voices varies from two to eight, but usually features three ...
,
motet In Western classical music, a motet is a mainly vocal musical composition, of highly diverse form and style, from the high medieval music to the present. The motet was one of the pre-eminent polyphonic forms of Renaissance music. According to Marg ...
,
canzona The canzona is an Italian musical form derived from the Franco-Flemish and Parisian chansons , and during Giovanni Gabrieli's lifetime was frequently spelled canzona, though both earlier and later the singular was spelled either canzon or canzone ...
,
ricercar A ricercar (also spelled ricercare, ) is a type of late Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the ...
, and dance as examples of genres from the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...
period. To further clarify the meaning of ''genre'', Green writes "Beethoven's Op. 61" and "Mendelssohn's Op. 64 ". He explains that both are identical in genre and are violin concertos that have different form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, and the ''Agnus Dei'' from his Mass, K. 317, are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form." In 1982,
Franco Fabbri Franco Fabbri (born 1949) is a Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 milli ...
proposed a definition of musical genre that is now considered to be normative: "musical genre is a set of musical events (real or possible) whose course is governed by a definite set of socially accepted rules", where a musical event be defined as "any type of activity performed around any type of event involving sound". A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the
musical technique Musical technique is the ability of instrumental and vocal musicians to exert optimal control of their instruments or vocal cords in order to produce the precise musical effects they desire. Improving one's technique generally entails practicin ...
s, the cultural context, and the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will often include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that, since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an almost ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". The term ''genre'' is generally defined similarly by many authors and musicologists, while the related term ''style'' has different interpretations and definitions. Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms ''genre'' and ''style'' as the same, saying that ''genre'' should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language". Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that ''genre'' and ''style'' are two separate terms, and that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can also differentiate between genres.


Subtypes

A ''
subgenre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes a Category of being, category of literature, m ...
'' is a
subordinate A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarch ...

subordinate
within a genre. In music terms, it is a subcategory of a musical genre that adopts its basic characteristics, but also has its own set of characteristics that clearly distinguish and set it apart within the genre. A subgenre is also often being referred to as a style of the genre. The proliferation of popular music in the 20th century has led to over 1,200 definable subgenres of music. A musical composition may be situated in the intersection of two or more genres, sharing characteristics of every
parent A parent is a caregiver of the offspring in their own species. In humans, a parent is the caretaker of a child (where "child" refers to offspring, not necessarily age). A ''biological parent'' is a person whose gamete resulted in a child, a male ...
genre and therefore belong to each genre of these at the same time, such subgenres are known as ''fusion genres''. Examples of fusion genres include
jazz fusion Jazz fusion (also known as fusion and progressive jazz) is a music genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, Unite ...
, which is a fusion of
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognize ...
and
rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different styles in the mid-1960s and later, particularly in the United States and ...
, and
country rock Country rock is a subgenre of popular music, formed from the fusion of rock and country. It was developed by rock musicians who began to record country-flavored records in the late 1960s and early 1970s. These musicians recorded rock records ...
which is a fusion of
country music Country (also called country and western) is a genre of popular music that originated with blues, church music such as Southern gospel and spirituals, old-time music, old-time, and American folk music forms including Appalachian music, Appalachi ...

country music
and
rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different styles in the mid-1960s and later, particularly in the United States and ...
. A ''
microgenre A microgenre is a specialized or niche genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usage, it normally describes ...
'' is a niche genre, as well as a subcategory within major genres or their subgenres.


History


Categorization and emergence of new genres

The
genealogy of musical genres The genealogy of musical genres is the pattern of music genre, musical genres that have contributed to the development of new genres. Cultural evolution , Evolution in musical instruments in technology and in culture can influence the evolution o ...
expresses, often in the form of a written chart, how new genres have developed under the influence of older ones. New genres of music can arise through the development of new styles of music; in addition to simply creating a new categorization. Although it is conceivable to create a musical style with no relation to existing genres, new styles usually appear under the influence of pre-existing genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomous distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of 'folk', 'art' and 'popular' musics".Tagg, Philip. "Analysing Popular Music: Theory, Method and Practice". ''Popular Music'' 2 (1982): 41. He explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria.


Automatic recognition of genres

Automatic methods of
musical similarityThe notion of musical similarity is particularly complex because there are numerous dimensions of similarity. If similarity takes place between different fragments from one musical piece, a musical similarity implies a repetition (music), repetition ...
detection, based on
data mining Data mining is a process of extracting and discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems. Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science and st ...
and
co-occurrenceIn linguistics, co-occurrence or cooccurrence is an above-chance frequency of occurrence of two terms (also known as coincidence or concurrence) from a text corpus In linguistics, a corpus (plural ''corpora'') or text corpus is a language resourc ...
analysis, have been developed to classify music titles for electronic music distribution. Glenn McDonald, the employee of
The Echo Nest The Echo Nest is a music intelligence and data platform for developers and media companies. Owned by Spotify since 2014, the company is based in Somerville, Massachusetts, Somerville, Massachusetts, MA. The Echo Nest began as a research spin-off f ...
, music intelligence and data platform, owned by
Spotify Spotify (Help:IPA/English, /ˈspɒtɪfaɪ/; Swedish: Help:IPA/Swedish, spɔ̂tːɪfaj, is a Sweden, Swedish Streaming media, audio streaming and media services provider, founded in 2006 by Daniel Ek. Spotify is incorporated in Luxembourg a ...

Spotify
, has created a categorical perception spectrum of genres and subgenres based on "an algorithmically-generated, readability-adjusted scatter-plot of the musical genre-space, based on data tracked and analyzed for 5,315 genre-shaped distinctions by Spotify" called ''Every Noise at Once.''


Alternative approaches

Alternatively, music can be assessed on the three dimensions of "arousal", "valence", and "depth". Arousal reflects physiological processes such as stimulation and relaxation (intense, forceful, abrasive, thrilling vs. gentle, calming, mellow), valence reflects emotion and mood processes (fun, happy, lively, enthusiastic, joyful vs. depressing, sad), and depth reflects cognitive processes (intelligent, sophisticated, inspiring, complex, poetic, deep, emotional, thoughtful vs. party music, danceable). These help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Starting from the end of 1970s, Vincenzo Caporaletti has proposed a more comprehensive distinction of music genres based on the "formative medium" with which a music is created, that is the creative interface (cognitive milieu) employed by the artist. Following this framework, formative media may belong to two different matrixes: visual or audiotactile with regards to the role played in the creative process by the visual rationality or the bodily sensitivity and embodied cognition. The theory developed by Caporaletti, named Audiotactile Music Theory, categorises music in three different branches: 1) written music, like the so-called
classical music Classical music generally refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consis ...

classical music
, that is created using the visual matrix; 2) oral music (like
folk music Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and ti ...

folk music
or ethnic music before the advent of sound recoring technologies); 3) Audiotactile music, which are process of production and trasmission is pivoted around sound recording technologies (for example
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognize ...
,
pop Pop or POP may refer to: Places * Gregorio Luperón International Airport (IATA code POP), Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic * Pop, a tributary of the river Jijia in eastern Romania * Poppleton railway station (station code), York, England People ...
,
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
,
rap Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backing beat or musi ...

rap
and so on). These last two branches are created by means of the above-mentioned audiotactile matrix in which the formative medium is the Audiotactile Principle.


Major music genres


Art music

Art music primarily includes classical traditions, including both
contemporary Contemporary history, in English-language historiography, is a subset of modern history that describes the historical period from approximately 1945 to the present. Contemporary history is either a subset of the late modern period, or it is on ...
and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world. It emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, and demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered primarily a written musical tradition,Arnold, Denis: "Art Music, Art Song", in ''The New Oxford Companion to Music, Volume 1: A-J'' (Oxford and New York:
Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press 200px, The Pitt Building in Cambridge, which used to be the headquarters of Cambridge University Press, and now serves as a conference centre for the Press. A university press is an academic ...

Oxford University Press
, 1983): 111.
preserved in some form of
music notation Music is the The arts, art of arranging sounds in time through the Elements of music, elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the cultural universal, universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions ...
rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as
popular Popularity or social status is the quality of being well liked, admired or well known to a particular group. Popular may also refer to: In sociology * Mainstream, the quality of being common, well received, in demand, widely understood ** See ...
and
traditional music Folk music is a music genre that includes #Traditional folk music, traditional folk music and the Contemporary folk music, contemporary genre that evolved from the former during the 20th-century folk revival. Some types of folk music may be cal ...

traditional music
usually are. Historically, most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the
Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic poetry, of that era ** Romanticism in science, of that er ...
period. The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is usually defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance and is primarily associated with the composer rather than the performer (though composers may leave performers with some opportunity for interpretation or improvisation). This is so particularly in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognize ...
, though some feel that jazz is primarily a form of popular music. The 1960s saw a wave of avant-garde experimentation in free jazz, represented by artists such as
Ornette Coleman Randolph Denard Ornette Coleman (March 9, 1930 – June 11, 2015) was an American jazz saxophonist, violinist, trumpeter, and composer known as a principal founder of the free jazz genre, a term derived from his 1960 album ''Free Jazz: A Collect ...

Ornette Coleman
,
Sun Ra Le Sony'r Ra (born Herman Poole Blount, May 22, 1914 – May 30, 1993), better known as Sun Ra, was an American jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the ...

Sun Ra
,
Albert Ayler Albert Ayler (; July 13, 1936 – November 25, 1970) was an American avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respe ...
,
Archie Shepp Archie Shepp (born May 24, 1937) is an American jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and r ...

Archie Shepp
and
Don Cherry Donald Stewart Cherry (born February 5, 1934) is a Canadian ice hockey commentator and sports writer. He was previously a professional hockey player and National Hockey League The National Hockey League (NHL; french: Ligue nationale de ho ...
. Additionally, avant-garde rock artists such as
Frank Zappa Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American musician, singer, composer, songwriter and bandleader. His work is characterized by wikt:nonconformity, nonconformity, Free improvisation, free-form improvisation, ...

Frank Zappa
,
Captain Beefheart Don Van Vliet (; born Don Glen Vliet; January 15, 1941 – December 17, 2010) was an American singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and visual artist best known by the stage name Captain Beefheart. He conducted a rotating ensemble called the ...

Captain Beefheart
, and
The Residents The Residents are an American art collective best known for their avant-garde music and multimedia works. Since their first official release, ''Meet the Residents'' (1974), they have released over 60 albums, numerous music videos and short films ...
released art music albums.


Popular music

Popular music is any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the
mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for ...
. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects:
Popular music, unlike art music, is (1) conceived for mass distribution to large and often socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners, (2) stored and distributed in non-written form, (3) only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and (4) in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of 'free' enterprise ... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and
public service A public service is a service Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administrative service, a required part of the workload of university faculty * Civil service The civil service is a col ...

public service
radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, and movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the '' Billboard'' charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do. The distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as
minimalist music In visual arts, music, and other media, minimalism is an art movement that began in post–World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 ...
and light classics. Background music for films/movies often draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which likewise draws a distinction between
literary fiction Literary fiction is a term used in the book-trade to distinguish novels that are regarded as having literary merit, from most commercial or "genre" fiction. However, the boundaries are not fixed, and major literary figures have employed the genre ...
and
popular fiction Genre fiction, also known as popular fiction, is a term used in the book-trade for fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determin ...
that is not always precise.


Country music

Country music, also known as country and western (or simply country) and hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the
southern United States The Southern United States, also referred to as the Southern States, the American South, Dixie, the Southland, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally " ...
in the early 1920s.


Electronic music

Electronic music is
music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common elements such as pit ...

music
that employs
electronic musical instrument An electronic musical instrument or electrophone is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it ...
s, digital instruments, or circuitry-based
music technology Music technology is the study or the use of any device, mechanism, machine or tool by a musician or composer to make or perform music; to musical composition, compose, music notation, notate, play back or record songs or pieces; or to Music inform ...
in its creation. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music (EDM).


Funk

Funk is a music genre that originated in
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that ...
communities in the mid-1960s when musicians created a rhythmic,
dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be categorized and described by its ...

dance
able new form of music through a mixture of soul, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).


Hip hop music

Hip Hop music, also referred to as ''hip hop'' or ''rap music'', is a genre of music that was started in the United States, specifically the South Bronx in the New York City by African-American youth from the inner cities during the 1970s. It can be broadly defined as a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies
rapping Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backing beat or musi ...
, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. Hip hop music derives from the hip hop culture itself, including four key elements: emceeing ( MCing)/
rapping Rapping (also rhyming, spitting, emceeing or MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backing beat or musi ...
, Disc jockeying (
DJing A disc jockey, more commonly abbreviated as DJ, is a person who plays recorded music for an audience. Most common types of DJs include radio DJs, club DJs (who work at a nightclub A nightclub, music club, or simply club, is an enterta ...
) with
turntablism Turntablism is the art of manipulating sounds and creating new music, sound effects, mixes and other creative sounds and beats, typically by using two or more Phonograph, turntables and a cross fader-equipped DJ mixer. The mixer is plugged into ...
,
breakdancing Breakdancing, also called breaking or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance from the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Cont ...

breakdancing
and
graffiti art Graffiti (both singular and plural; the singular ''graffito'' is rarely used except in archeology) is writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface, usually without permission and within public view. Graffiti ranges from simple written ...

graffiti art
.


Jazz

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime.


Latin music


Pop music

Pop is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form during the mid-1950s in the United States and the United Kingdom. The terms popular music and pop music are often used interchangeably, although the former describes all music that is popular and includes many disparate styles.


Punk

The aggressiveness of the musical and performative style, based on structural simplicity and the vigorous rhythms of rock'n'roll style, reinforced the challenging and provocative character, within the universe of modern music.


Reggae

Reggae music, originating from the late 1960s
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or c ...

Jamaica
, is a genre of music that was originally used by Jamaicans to define themselves with their lifestyle and social aspects. The meaning behind reggae songs tend to be about love, faith or a higher power, and freedom. Reggae music is important to Jamaican culture as it has been used as inspiration for many third world liberation movements.
Bob Marley Robert Nesta "Bob" Marley, (6 February 1945 – 11 May 1981) was a Jamaican singer, songwriter, and musician. Considered one of the pioneers of reggae, his musical career was marked by fusing elements of reggae, ska, and rocksteady, as ...
, an artist primarily known for reggae music, was honored by Zimbabwe's 1980 Independence celebration due to his music giving inspirations to freedom fighters. The music genre of reggae is known to incorporate stylistic techniques from
rhythm and blues Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African-American communities in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban Afri ...
,
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognize ...
, African, Caribbean, and other genres as well but what makes reggae unique are the vocals and lyrics. The vocals tend to be sung in
Jamaican Patois A Jamaican Patois speaker discussing the usage of the language Jamaican Patois (), (known locally as Patois, Patwa, and Patwah and called Jamaican Creole by linguists) is an English-based creole language An English-based creole language (ofte ...
,
Jamaican English Jamaican English, which includes Jamaican Standard English, is a variety of English native to Jamaica Jamaica () is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles ...
, and
Iyaric 200px, Haile Selassie I Iyaric, also called Dread Talk, is a pseudo- dialect of English consciously created by members of the Rastafari movement Rastafari, also known as the Rastafari movement or Rastafarianism, is a religion that developed ...
dialects. The lyrics of reggae music usually tend to raise political awareness and on cultural perspectives.


Rock music

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "
rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and sty ...
" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different styles in the mid-1960s and later, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom.


Metal music

Heavy metal evolved from hard rock, psychedelic rock, and blues rock in 1980s, and became a rougher style than the rock music. Notable subgenres include
thrash metal Thrash metal (or simply thrash) is an Extreme metal, extreme subgenre of heavy metal music characterized by its overall aggression and often fast tempo.Kahn-Harris, Keith, ''Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge'', pp. 2–3, 9. Oxford: Be ...
,
death metal Death metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States. With roots in blues ro ...
,
power metal Power metal is a subgenre of heavy metal Heavy metal may refer to: *Heavy metals, a loose category of relatively dense metals and metalloids **Toxic heavy metal, any heavy metal chemical element of environmental concern *Heavy metal music, a ...
, and
black metal Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States. With roots in blues rock ...
.


Soul music and R&B

Soul music became a musical genre that came to include a wide variety of R&B-based music styles from the pop R&B acts at
Motown Records Motown Records is an American record label owned by the Universal Music Group. It was founded by Berry Gordy, Berry Gordy Jr. as Tamla Records on January 12, 1959, and incorporated as Motown Record Corporation on April 14, 1960. Its name, a po ...
in
Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, Techno City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town Tha ...

Detroit
, such as
The Temptations The Temptations are an American vocal group from Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, Techno City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the Wo ...
,
Gladys Knight & the Pips Gladys Knight & the Pips were an American Rhythm and blues, R&B/soul music, soul/funk family music group from Atlanta, Georgia, that remained active on the music charts and performing circuit for over three decades. Starting out as simply The P ...
,
Marvin Gaye Marvin Gaye (born Marvin Pentz Gay Jr.; April 2, 1939 – April 1, 1984) was an American singer, songwriter, and record producer. He helped to shape the sound of Motown in the 1960s, first as an in-house session player and later as a solo artis ...

Marvin Gaye
and
Four Tops The Four Tops are an American vocal quartet from Detroit who helped to define the city's Motown sound of the 1960s. The group's repertoire has included soul music, Rhythm and blues, R&B, disco, adult contemporary music, adult contemporary, doo-wop ...
, to "
deep soul Southern soul is a type of soul music that emerged from the Southern United States. The music originated from a combination of styles, including blues (both Twelve bar blues, 12 bar and Jump blues, jump), Country music, country, early rock and r ...
" singers such as
Percy Sledge Percy Tyrone Sledge (November 25, 1940 – April 14, 2015) was an American R&B, soul In many religious, philosophical, and myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as fou ...

Percy Sledge
and James Carr.


Polka

The polka is originally a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas.


Religious music

Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. Gospel, spiritual, and Christian music are examples of religious music.


Traditional and folk music

Traditional and folk music are very similar categories. Although the traditional music is a very broad category and can include several genres, it is widely accepted that traditional music encompasses folk music. According to the ICTM (International Council for Traditional Music), traditional music are songs and tunes that have been performed over a long period of time (usually several generations). The
folk music Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and ti ...

folk music
genre is classified as the music that is orally passed from one generation to another. Usually the artist is unknown, and there are several versions of the same song. The genre is transmitted by singing, listening and dancing to popular songs. This type of communication allows culture to transmit the styles (pitches and cadences) as well as the context it was developed. Culturally transmitting folk songs maintain rich evidence about the period of history when they were created and the social class in which they developed. Some examples of the Folk Genre can be seen in the
folk music of England The folk music of England is a tradition-based music, which has existed since the later medieval period. It is often contrasted with courtly, classical music, classical and later commercial music. Folk music is traditionally preserved and passed ...
and
Turkish folk music Image:Zournas.jpg, 150px, Zurna Turkish folk music (''Türk Halk Müziği'') combines the distinct cultural values of all civilisations that have lived in Turkey and its former territories in Europe and Asia. Its unique structure includes regiona ...
. English folk music has developed since the
medieval period In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
and has been transmitted from that time until today. Similarly, Turkish folk music relates to all the civilizations that once passed thorough Turkey, thereby being a world reference since the east–west tensions during the
Early Modern Period The early modern period of modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recove ...
. Traditional folk music usually refers to songs composed in the twentieth century, which tend to be written as universal truths and big issues of the time they were composed. Artists including
Bob Dylan Robert Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman; May 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, author and visual artist. Often regarded as one of the greatest songwriters of all time, Dylan has been a major figure in popular culture during a care ...

Bob Dylan
;
Peter, Paul and Mary Peter, Paul and Mary was an American folk group formed in New York City in 1961, during the American folk music revival The American folk music revival began during the 1940s and peaked in popularity in the mid-1960s. Its roots went earlier, ...
;
James Taylor James Vernon Taylor (born March 12, 1948) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist. A six-time Grammy Award winner, he was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000. He is one of the List of best-selling music artists, best-sell ...
; and
Leonard Cohen Leonard Norman Cohen (September 21, 1934 – November 7, 2016) was a Canadian singer-songwriter, poet, and novelist. His work explored religion, politics, isolation, depression, sexuality, loss, death and romantic relationships. Cohen was induc ...

Leonard Cohen
transformed folk music to what it is known today. Newer composers such as
Ed Sheeran Edward Christopher Sheeran (; born 17 February 1991) is an English singer-songwriter. Born in Halifax, West Yorkshire, he was brought up in Framlingham, Suffolk and began writing songs around the age of eleven. In early 2011, Sheeran independe ...

Ed Sheeran
(pop folk) and
The Lumineers The Lumineers are an American folk rock Folk rock is a hybrid music genre combining elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom in the mid-1960s. In the U.S., folk rock emerged from ...

The Lumineers
(American folk) are examples of contemporary folk music, which has been recorded and adapted to the new way of listening to music (online)—unlike the traditional way of orally transmitting music. Each country in the world, in some cases each region, district and community, has its own folk music style. The sub-divisions of folk genre are developed by each place, cultural identity and history. Because the music is developed in different places, many of the instruments are characteristic to location and population—but some are used everywhere:
button In modern clothing and fashion design, a button is a small fastener, now most commonly made of plastic but also may be made of metal, wood, or seashell, that joins two pieces of fabric together. In archaeology, a button can be a significant Arti ...
or
piano accordion A piano accordion is an accordion Accordions (from 19th-century German ''Akkordeon'', from ''Akkord''—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free reed aerophone, free-reed ae ...

piano accordion
, different types of
flute The flute is a family of musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the ...

flute
s or
trumpet The trumpet is a brass instrument 332x332px, A tenor horn (alto horn) in E, baritone horn in B, and euphonium in B. A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by Sympathetic resonance, sympathetic vibration of air in a tu ...

trumpet
s,
banjo The banjo is a stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity to form a resonator. The membrane is typically circular, and usually made of plastic, or occasionally animal skin. Early forms of the instrument were fashion ...

banjo
, and
ukulele The ukulele ( ; from haw, ukulele , approximately ) is a member of the lute A lute ( or ) is any plucked string instrument with a neck and a deep round back enclosing a hollow cavity, usually with a sound hole or opening in the body. It ...

ukulele
. Both French and Scottish folk music use related instruments such as the
fiddle A fiddle is a Bow (music), bowed String instrument, string musical instrument, most often a violin. It is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres, including European classical music, classical music. Although in many c ...

fiddle
, the harp and variations of
bagpipes Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a music ...

bagpipes
.


Psychology of music preference


Social influences on music selection

Since music has become more easily accessible (
Spotify Spotify (Help:IPA/English, /ˈspɒtɪfaɪ/; Swedish: Help:IPA/Swedish, spɔ̂tːɪfaj, is a Sweden, Swedish Streaming media, audio streaming and media services provider, founded in 2006 by Daniel Ek. Spotify is incorporated in Luxembourg a ...

Spotify
,
iTunes iTunes () is a media player, media library, Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or co ...

iTunes
,
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform owned by Google. It was launched on February 14, 2005 by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. It is the second most visited website, right after Google itself. You ...

YouTube
, etc.), more people have begun listening to a broader and wider range of music styles. In addition, social identity also plays a large role in music preference. Personality is a key contributor for music selection. Those who consider themselves to be "rebels" will tend to choose heavier music styles like
heavy metal Heavy metal may refer to: *Heavy metals, a loose category of relatively dense metals and metalloids **Toxic heavy metal, any heavy metal chemical element of environmental concern *Heavy metal music, a genre of rock music **Heavy metal genres *Hea ...
or
hard rock Hard rock or heavy rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different st ...

hard rock
, while those who consider themselves to be more "relaxed" or "laid back" will tend to choose lighter music styles like
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognize ...
or
classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...

classical
music. According to one model, there are five main factors that exist that underlie music preferences that are genre-free, and reflect emotional/affective responses. These five factors are: # A Mellow factor consisting of smooth and relaxing styles (jazz, classical, etc.). # An Urban factor defined largely by rhythmic and percussive music (rap,
hip-hop Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabili ...
,
funk Funk is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It ...
, etc.). # A Sophisticated factor (
operatic Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a spe ...
,
world In its most general sense, the term "world" refers to the totality of entities, to the whole of reality or to everything that is. The nature of the world has been conceptualized differently in different fields. Some conceptions see the world ...
, etc.) # An Intensity factor that is defined by forceful, loud, and energetic music (rock, metal, etc.). # A campestral factor, which refers to singer-songwriter genres and country.


Individual and situational influences

Studies have shown that while women prefer more treble oriented music, men prefer to listen to bass-heavy music. A preference for bass-heavy music is sometimes paired with borderline and antisocial personalities. Age is another strong factor that contributes to musical preference. Evidence is available that shows that music preference can change as one gets older. A Canadian study showed that adolescents show greater interest in pop music artists while adults and the elderly population prefer classic genres such as
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and the way in w ...
,
opera Opera is a form of theatre in which music is a fundamental component and dramatic roles are taken by Singing, singers, but is distinct from musical theatre. Such a "work" (the literal translation of the Italian word "opera") is typically a co ...

opera
, and
jazz Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognize ...
.


See also

* Composition school *
Genealogy of musical genres The genealogy of musical genres is the pattern of music genre, musical genres that have contributed to the development of new genres. Cultural evolution , Evolution in musical instruments in technology and in culture can influence the evolution o ...
*
List of music styles This is a list of music styles. Music can be described in terms of many genres and styles. Classifications are often arbitrary, and may be disputed and closely related forms often overlap. Larger genres and styles comprise more specific sub-cate ...
*
List of popular music genres Popular music is music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompa ...
* List of radio formats *Radio Data System, which enables the tagging of the genre of broadcasts within defined categories *List of Grammy Award categories, which defines a list of genres *List of ID3v1 Genres *Billboard charts, which defines a list of genres


References


Further reading

* * * {{Authority control Music genres,