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In
horology Horology ("the study of time", related to Latin ''horologium'' from Greek language, Greek , "instrument for telling the hour", from ''hṓra'' "hour; time" and -o- interfix and suffix ''-logy''), . is the study of the measurement of time. Clo ...
, a movement, also known as a caliber, is the mechanism of a
watch A watch is a portable Clock, timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person. It is designed to keep a consistent movement despite the motions caused by the person's activities. A wristwatch is designed to be worn around the wrist, attach ...

watch
or
timepiece A clock is a device used to measure, verify, keep, and indicate time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succes ...

timepiece
, as opposed to the ''case'', which encloses and protects the movement, and the ''
face The face is the front of an animal's head that features the eyes Eyes are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tis ...
'', which displays the time. The term originated with mechanical timepieces, whose
clockwork Clockwork refers to the inner workings of either mechanical machines called clock A clock or a timepiece is a device used to Measurement, measure and indicate time. The clock is one of the oldest Invention, human inventions, meeting th ...

clockwork
movements are made of many moving parts. The movement of a
digital watch A watch is a portable timepiece A clock is a device used to measure, verify, keep, and indicate time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irr ...
is more commonly known as a module. In modern mass-produced clocks and watches, the same movement is often inserted into many different styles of case. When buying a quality
pocketwatch X-ray video of a pocket stopwatch with a clear visible mechanics of the watch. Video was taken with 10 X-ray images per second A pocket watch (or pocketwatch) is a watch that is made to be carried in a pocket, as opposed to a watch, wristwatch ...
from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century, for example, the customer would select a movement and case individually. Mechanical movements get dirty and the lubricants dry up, so they must periodically be disassembled, cleaned, and lubricated. One source recommends servicing intervals of: 3–5 years for watches, 15–20 years for
grandfather clock A grandfather clock (also a longcase clock, tall-case clock, grandfather's clock, or floor clock) is a tall, freestanding, weight-driven pendulum clock with the pendulum A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing free ...
s, 10–15 years for wall or
mantel clock File:Seth Thomas tambour mantel clock ca. 1930.jpg, A Seth Thomas American tambour-style mantel clock, dating to around 1930. Mantel clocks—or shelf clocks—are relatively small house clocks traditionally placed on the shelf, or fireplace mante ...
s, 15–20 years for anniversary clocks, and 7 years for
cuckoo clock A cuckoo clock is, typically, a pendulum clock that striking clock, strikes the hours with a sound like a common cuckoo call and has an automated cuckoo bird that moves with each note. Some move their wings and open and close their beaks while l ...

cuckoo clock
s, with the longer intervals applying to antique timepieces.


Mechanical movements

A mechanical movement contains all the moving parts of a
watch A watch is a portable Clock, timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person. It is designed to keep a consistent movement despite the motions caused by the person's activities. A wristwatch is designed to be worn around the wrist, attach ...

watch
or
clock A clock or a timepiece is a device used to measure and indicate time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past ...

clock
except the hands, and in the case of
pendulum clock A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element. The advantage of a pendulum for timekeeping is that it is a harmonic oscillator: It swings back and forth in a precise time interval dependent on it ...
s, the
pendulum A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot Pivot may refer to: *Pivot, the point of rotation in a lever A lever ( or ) is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or '':wikt:fulcrum, fulcrum''. A lever ...

pendulum
and driving weights. The movement is made of the following components: ;Power source: Either a
mainspring A mainspring is a spiral torsion spring of metal ribbon—commonly spring steel—used as a power source in mechanical watches, some clocks, and other clockwork mechanisms. ''Winding'' the timepiece, by turning a knob or key, stores energy in t ...
, or a weight suspended from a cord wrapped around a
pulley A pulley is a wheel File:Roue primitive.png, An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle An axle or axletree is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On ...

pulley
. The mainspring or pulley has a mechanism to allow it to be wound up, which includes a ratchet to prevent it from unwinding. The barrel or pulley has gear teeth on it which drives the center wheel. ;Wheel train: A wheel train is a
gear train A gear train is a mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to apply Forc ...

gear train
that transmits the force of the power source to the escapement. Large gears known as ''wheels'' mesh with small gears known as
pinion A pinion is a round gear Cast iron mortise wheel with wooden cogs (powered by an external water wheel) meshing with a cast iron gear wheel, connected to a pulley with drive belt. Oil mill in Storkensohn (Haut-Rhin), France. A gear is a ...
s. The wheels in a typical going train are the centre wheel, third wheel, and fourth wheel. A separate set of wheels, the motion work, divides the motion of the minute hand by 12 to move the hour hand and in watches another set, the keyless work, allows the hands to be set. ;Escapement: An
escapement An escapement is a mechanical linkage in mechanical watches and clocks that gives impulses to the timekeeping element and periodically releases the gear train to move forward, advancing the clock's hands. The impulse action transfers energy to ...

escapement
is a mechanism that allows the wheel train to advance, or ''escape'' a fixed amount with each swing of the balance wheel or pendulum. It consists of a gear called an ''escape wheel'' which is released one tooth at a time by a lever that rocks back and forth. Each time the escape wheel moves forward it also gives the pendulum or balance wheel a push to keep it moving. ;Oscillator: The timekeeping element, either a
pendulum A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot Pivot may refer to: *Pivot, the point of rotation in a lever A lever ( or ) is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or '':wikt:fulcrum, fulcrum''. A lever ...

pendulum
or a
balance wheel A balance wheel, or balance, is the timekeeping device used in mechanical watch A mechanical watch is a watch that uses a Movement (clockwork), clockwork mechanism to measure the passage of time, as opposed to quartz watches which function electron ...
. It swings back and forth, with a precisely constant time interval between each swing, called the beat. A pendulum movement has a pendulum hangar usually attached to a sturdy support on the back, from which the pendulum is suspended and a ''fork'' which gives the pendulum impulses. The oscillator always has some means for adjusting the rate of the clock. Pendulums usually have an adjustment nut under the
bob Bob, BOB, or B.O.B. may refer to: Places * Bob, West Virginia, an unincorporated community in Raleigh County, West Virginia, United States * Mount Bob, New York, United States * Bob Island, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica People, fictional charac ...
, while balance wheels have a ''regulator'' lever on the
balance spring Balance may refer to: Common meanings * Balance (ability) in biomechanics * Balance (accounting) In banking A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates a demand deposit while simultaneously making ...
.


Types of movements

Watch movements come in various shapes to fit different case styles, such as round, tonneau, rectangular, rectangular with cut corners, oval and baguette, and are measured in ''
ligne The ''ligne'' ( ), or line or Paris line, is a historic unit of length used in France and elsewhere prior to the adoption of the metric system The metric system is a that succeeded the decimalised system based on the introduced in Fran ...
s'', or in millimetres. Each specific watch movement is called a ''caliber''. The movement parts are separated into two main categories: those belonging to the '' ébauches'' and those belonging to the ''
assortment
assortment
s''. In watch movements the wheels and other moving parts are mounted between two plates, which are held a small distance apart with pillars to make a rigid framework for the movement. One of these plates, the front plate just behind the face, is always circular, or the same shape and dimensions as the movement. The back plate has various shapes: ;Full plate movement: In this design, used in the earliest
pocketwatch X-ray video of a pocket stopwatch with a clear visible mechanics of the watch. Video was taken with 10 X-ray images per second A pocket watch (or pocketwatch) is a watch that is made to be carried in a pocket, as opposed to a watch, wristwatch ...
es until the 18th century, the back plate was also circular. All the parts of the watch were mounted between the two plates except the balance wheel, which was mounted on the outside of the back plate, held by a bracket called the ''balance cock''. ;Three-quarter plate movement: In the 18th century, to make movements thinner, part of the back plate was cut away to make room for the balance and balance cock. ;Bridge movement: In modern watch movements, the back plate is replaced with a series of plates or bars, called bridges. This makes servicing the movement easier, since individual bridges and the wheels they support can be removed and installed without disturbing the rest of the movement. The first bridge movements, in Swiss pocketwatches from around 1900, had three parallel bar bridges to support the three wheels of the going train. This style is called a ''three finger'' or ''Geneva'' movement. Mechanical watch movements are also classified as manual or automatic: ;Manual or hand winding: In this type the wearer must turn the crown periodically, often daily, in order to wind the mainspring, storing energy to run the watch until the next winding. ;Automatic or self-winding: In an
automatic watchImage:Self-winding wristwatch (transparent backside).jpg, Backside view of an automatic watch with an exhibition case back, showing its Movement (clockwork), movement. The semicircular central rotor which winds the mainspring is plainly visible. An ...

automatic watch
, including in most mechanical watches sold today, the mainspring is automatically wound by the natural motions of the wearer's wrist while it is being worn, eliminating the need for manual winding. Additionally, a distinction is also sometimes made on whether or not the movement offers hacking, allowing the second hand to be stopped.


Caliber

In
horology Horology ("the study of time", related to Latin ''horologium'' from Greek language, Greek , "instrument for telling the hour", from ''hṓra'' "hour; time" and -o- interfix and suffix ''-logy''), . is the study of the measurement of time. Clo ...
, "caliber" refers to the specific internal mechanism of a watch or clock, also known as a movement. Although the term originally was only used to refer to the size of a movement, it is now used to designate a specific model (although the same caliber can be used in many different watches or clocks). Different watch manufacturers tend to use their own identification system to number their calibers.


See also

*
Clockwork Clockwork refers to the inner workings of either mechanical machines called clock A clock or a timepiece is a device used to Measurement, measure and indicate time. The clock is one of the oldest Invention, human inventions, meeting th ...

Clockwork
* Chinese standard movement * Spring Drive


References


The Beautiful Mathematics and Physics of Clocks. How Clocks Work?
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
video by timekeeping and the mathematics and physics of clocks


External links


Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry: Glossary

Easy Guide to Watch Movements

Caliber Guide

Titan Watch Movement Manufacturer
{{DEFAULTSORT:Movement (Clockwork) Movement (clockwork) Articles containing video clips