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In
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
, particularly in
category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and ...
, a morphism is a structure-preserving
map A map is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. A ...
from one
mathematical structure In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
to another one of the same type. The notion of morphism recurs in much of contemporary mathematics. In
set theory Set theory is the branch of that studies , which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of , is mostly concerned with those that are relevant to ...
, morphisms are
functions Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...
; in
linear algebra Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as: :a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n=b, linear maps such as: :(x_1, \ldots, x_n) \mapsto a_1x_1+\cdots +a_nx_n, and their representations in vector spaces and through matrix (mat ...
,
linear transformations In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
; in
group theory In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ...
,
group homomorphism In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ge ...

group homomorphism
s; in
topology In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities ...

topology
,
continuous functions In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
, and so on. In
category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and ...
, ''morphism'' is a broadly similar idea: the mathematical objects involved need not be sets, and the relationships between them may be something other than maps, although the morphisms between the objects of a given category have to behave similarly to maps in that they have to admit an
associative operation In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
similar to
function composition In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
. A morphism in category theory is an abstraction of a
homomorphism In algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical analysis, analysis. I ...
. The study of morphisms and of the structures (called "objects") over which they are defined is central to category theory. Much of the terminology of morphisms, as well as the intuition underlying them, comes from concrete categories, where the ''objects'' are simply ''sets with some additional structure'', and ''morphisms'' are ''structure-preserving functions''. In category theory, morphisms are sometimes also called arrows.


Definition

A
category Category, plural categories, may refer to: Philosophy and general uses *Categorization Categorization is the ability and activity to recognize shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the world (such as O ...
''C'' consists of two
classes Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ...
, one of and the other of . There are two objects that are associated to every morphism, the and the . A morphism ''f'' with source ''X'' and target ''Y'' is written ''f'' : ''X'' → ''Y'', and is represented diagrammatically by an from ''X'' to ''Y''. For many common categories, objects are sets (often with some additional structure) and morphisms are
functions Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...
from an object to another object. Therefore, the source and the target of a morphism are often called and respectively. Morphisms are equipped with a partial binary operation, called . The composition of two morphisms ''f'' and ''g'' is defined precisely when the target of ''f'' is the source of ''g'', and is denoted ''g'' ∘ ''f'' (or sometimes simply ''gf''). The source of ''g'' ∘ ''f'' is the source of ''f'', and the target of ''g'' ∘ ''f'' is the target of ''g''. The composition satisfies two
axiom An axiom, postulate or assumption is a statement that is taken to be truth, true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek ''axíōma'' () 'that which is thought worthy or fit' o ...

axiom
s: ;: For every object ''X'', there exists a morphism id''X'' : ''X'' → ''X'' called the identity morphism on ''X'', such that for every morphism we have id''B'' ∘ ''f'' = ''f'' = ''f'' ∘ id''A''. ;
Associativity In mathematics, the associative property is a property of some binary operations, which means that rearranging the parentheses in an expression will not change the result. In propositional logic, associativity is a Validity (logic), valid rule ...
: ''h'' ∘ (''g'' ∘ ''f'') = (''h'' ∘ ''g'') ∘ ''f'' whenever all the compositions are defined, i.e. when the target of ''f'' is the source of ''g'', and the target of ''g'' is the source of ''h''. For a concrete category (a category in which the objects are sets, possibly with additional structure, and the morphisms are structure-preserving functions), the identity morphism is just the
identity function Graph of the identity function on the real numbers In mathematics, an identity function, also called an identity relation, identity map or identity transformation, is a function (mathematics), function that always returns the same value that was ...

identity function
, and composition is just ordinary
composition of functions In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
. The composition of morphisms is often represented by a
commutative diagram 350px, The commutative diagram used in the proof of the five lemma. In mathematics, and especially in category theory, a commutative diagram is a Diagram (category theory), diagram such that all directed paths in the diagram with the same start an ...

commutative diagram
. For example, : The collection of all morphisms from ''X'' to ''Y'' is denoted Hom''C''(''X'',''Y'') or simply Hom(''X'', ''Y'') and called the hom-set between ''X'' and ''Y''. Some authors write Mor''C''(''X'',''Y''), Mor(''X'', ''Y'') or C(''X'', ''Y''). Note that the term hom-set is something of a misnomer, as the collection of morphisms is not required to be a set; a category where Hom(''X'', ''Y'') is a set for all objects ''X'' and ''Y'' is called
locally small This is a glossary of properties and concepts in category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a Graph labeling, labeled directed graph called a ''Category (mathematics), category'', whose nodes ...
. Because hom-sets may not be sets, some people prefer to use the term "hom-class". Note that the domain and codomain are in fact part of the information determining a morphism. For example, in the
category of setsIn the mathematical Mathematics (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...
, where morphisms are functions, two functions may be identical as sets of ordered pairs (may have the same
range Range may refer to: Geography * Range (geographic)A range, in geography, is a chain of hill A hill is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together ...
), while having different codomains. The two functions are distinct from the viewpoint of category theory. Thus many authors require that the hom-classes Hom(''X'', ''Y'') be
disjoint
disjoint
. In practice, this is not a problem because if this disjointness does not hold, it can be assured by appending the domain and codomain to the morphisms (say, as the second and third components of an ordered triple).


Some special morphisms


Monomorphisms and epimorphisms

A morphism ''f'': ''X'' → ''Y'' is called a
monomorphism 220px In the context of abstract algebra or universal algebra, a monomorphism is an Injective function, injective homomorphism. A monomorphism from to is often denoted with the notation X\hookrightarrow Y. In the more general setting of catego ...
if ''f'' ∘ ''g''1 = ''f'' ∘ ''g''2 implies ''g''1 = ''g''2 for all morphisms ''g''1, ''g''2: ''Z'' → ''X''. A monomorphism can be called a ''mono'' for short, and we can use ''monic'' as an adjective.Jacobson (2009), p. 15. A morphism ''f'' has a left inverse or is a split monomorphism if there is a morphism ''g'': ''Y'' → ''X'' such that ''g'' ∘ ''f'' id''X''. Thus ''f'' ∘ ''g'': ''Y'' → ''Y'' is
idempotent Idempotence (, ) is the property of certain operations in mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), an ...
; that is, (''f'' ∘ ''g'')2 ''f'' ∘ (''g'' ∘ ''f'') ∘ ''g'' ''f'' ∘ ''g''. The left inverse ''g'' is also called a
retraction In academic publishing, a retraction is the action by which a published paper in an academic journal is removed from the journal. Online journals typically remove the retracted article from online access. Procedure A retraction may be initiate ...
of ''f''. Morphisms with left inverses are always monomorphisms, but the converse is not true in general; a monomorphism may fail to have a left inverse. In concrete categories, a function that has a left inverse is
injective In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
. Thus in concrete categories, monomorphisms are often, but not always, injective. The condition of being an injection is stronger than that of being a monomorphism, but weaker than that of being a split monomorphism. Dually to monomorphisms, a morphism ''f'': ''X'' → ''Y'' is called an
epimorphism 220px In category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a Graph labeling, labeled directed graph called a ''Category (mathematics), category'', whose nodes are called ''objects'', and whose labe ...
if ''g''1 ∘ ''f'' = ''g''2 ∘ ''f'' implies ''g''1 = ''g''2 for all morphisms ''g''1, ''g''2: ''Y'' → ''Z''. An epimorphism can be called an ''epi'' for short, and we can use ''epic'' as an adjective. A morphism ''f'' has a right inverse or is a split epimorphism if there is a morphism ''g'': ''Y'' → ''X'' such that ''f'' ∘ ''g'' id''Y''. The right inverse ''g'' is also called a section of ''f''. Morphisms having a right inverse are always epimorphisms, but the converse is not true in general, as an epimorphism may fail to have a right inverse. If a monomorphism ''f'' splits with left inverse ''g'', then ''g'' is a split epimorphism with right inverse ''f''. In concrete categories, a function that has a right inverse is
surjective In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
. Thus in concrete categories, epimorphisms are often, but not always, surjective. The condition of being a surjection is stronger than that of being an epimorphism, but weaker than that of being a split epimorphism. In the
category of setsIn the mathematical Mathematics (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...
, the statement that every surjection has a section is equivalent to the
axiom of choice In , the axiom of choice, or AC, is an of equivalent to the statement that ''a of a collection of non-empty sets is non-empty''. Informally put, the axiom of choice says that given any collection of bins, each containing at least one object ...

axiom of choice
. A morphism that is both an epimorphism and a monomorphism is called a bimorphism.


Isomorphisms

A morphism ''f'': ''X'' → ''Y'' is called an
isomorphism In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...

isomorphism
if there exists a morphism ''g'': ''Y'' → ''X'' such that ''f'' ∘ ''g'' = id''Y'' and ''g'' ∘ ''f'' = id''X''. If a morphism has both left-inverse and right-inverse, then the two inverses are equal, so ''f'' is an isomorphism, and ''g'' is called simply the inverse of ''f''. Inverse morphisms, if they exist, are unique. The inverse ''g'' is also an isomorphism, with inverse ''f''. Two objects with an isomorphism between them are said to be
isomorphic In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...

isomorphic
or equivalent. While every isomorphism is a bimorphism, a bimorphism is not necessarily an isomorphism. For example, in the category of
commutative ring In , a branch of , a commutative ring is a in which the multiplication operation is . The study of commutative rings is called . Complementarily, is the study of s where multiplication is not required to be commutative. Definition and first e ...
s the inclusion Z → Q is a bimorphism that is not an isomorphism. However, any morphism that is both an epimorphism and a ''split'' monomorphism, or both a monomorphism and a ''split'' epimorphism, must be an isomorphism. A category, such as Set, in which every bimorphism is an isomorphism is known as a balanced category.


Endomorphisms and automorphisms

A morphism ''f'': ''X'' → ''X'' (that is, a morphism with identical source and target) is an
endomorphism In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
of ''X''. A split endomorphism is an idempotent endomorphism ''f'' if ''f'' admits a decomposition ''f'' = ''h'' ∘ ''g'' with ''g'' ∘ ''h'' = id. In particular, the
Karoubi envelopeIn mathematics the Karoubi envelope (or Cauchy completion or idempotent completion) of a category (mathematics), category C is a classification of the idempotents of C, by means of an auxiliary category. Taking the Karoubi envelope of a preadditive c ...
of a category splits every idempotent morphism. An
automorphism In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and t ...

automorphism
is a morphism that is both an endomorphism and an isomorphism. In every category, the automorphisms of an object always form a
group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be represented in language with ...
, called the
automorphism group In mathematics, the automorphism group of an object ''X'' is the group (mathematics), group consisting of automorphisms of ''X''. For example, if ''X'' is a Dimension (vector space), finite-dimensional vector space, then the automorphism group of ' ...
of the object.


Examples

* For
algebraic structure In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
s commonly considered in
algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical analysis, analysis. In its most ge ...

algebra
, such as
groups A group is a number of people or things that are located, gathered, or classed together. Groups of people * Cultural group, a group whose members share the same cultural identity * Ethnic group, a group whose members share the same ethnic identi ...
,
rings Ring most commonly refers either to a hollow circular shape or to a high-pitched sound. It thus may refer to: *Ring (jewellery) A ring is a round band, usually of metal A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine ...
,
modules Broadly speaking, modularity is the degree to which a system's components may be separated and recombined, often with the benefit of flexibility and variety in use. The concept of modularity is used primarily to reduce complexity by breaking a syst ...
, etc., the morphisms are usually the
homomorphism In algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical analysis, analysis. I ...
s, and the notions of isomorphism, automorphism, endomorphism, epimorphism, and monomorphism are the same as the above defined ones. However, in the case of rings, "epimorphism" is often considered as a synonym of "
surjection In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...

surjection
", although there are ring epimorphisms that are not surjective (this is the case for the embedding of the
integer An integer (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to ...
s in the
rational number In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction (mathematics), fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator . For example, is a rational number, as is every integer (e.g. ) ...
s. * In the
category of topological spaces In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and the ...
, the morphisms are the
continuous function In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gen ...
s and isomorphisms are called
homeomorphism and a donut (torus In geometry, a torus (plural tori, colloquially donut) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis that is coplanarity, coplanar with the circle. If the axis of ...
s. There are
bijection In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...

bijection
s (that is, isomorphisms of sets) that are not homeomorphisms. * In the category of
smooth manifold In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold The real projective plane is a two-dimensional manifold that cannot be realized in three dimensions without self-intersection, shown here as Boy's s ...
s, the morphisms are the
smooth function is a smooth function with compact support. In mathematical analysis, the smoothness of a function (mathematics), function is a property measured by the number of Continuous function, continuous Derivative (mathematics), derivatives it has over ...

smooth function
s and isomorphisms are called
diffeomorphism In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
s. * In the category of small categories, the morphisms are
functor In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ge ...

functor
s. * In a
functor categoryIn category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a Graph labeling, labeled directed graph called a ''Category (mathematics), category'', whose nodes are called ''objects'', and whose labelled dire ...
, the morphisms are
natural transformation In category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a Graph labeling, labeled directed graph called a ''Category (mathematics), category'', whose nodes are called ''objects'', and whose labelled dir ...

natural transformation
s. For more examples, see
Category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and ...
.


See also

*
Normal morphismIn category theory and its applications to mathematics, a normal monomorphism or conormal epimorphism is a particularly well-behaved type of morphism. A normal category is a category in which every monomorphism is normal. A conormal category is one i ...
*
Zero morphismIn category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a Graph labeling, labeled directed graph called a ''Category (mathematics), category'', whose nodes are called ''objects'', and whose labelled dire ...


Notes


References

* . * Now available as free on-line edition (4.2MB PDF).


External links

* * * {{Authority control