HOME

TheInfoList




A monarch is a
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional cha ...
Webster's II New College Dictionar
Monarch
Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707.
for life or until
abdication Abdication is the act of formally relinquishing monarchical authority. Abdications have played various roles in the Order of succession, succession procedures of monarchies. While some cultures have viewed abdication as an extreme abandonment of dut ...
, and therefore the head of state of a
monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore ...
. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Usually a monarch either personally
inherits
inherits
the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as ''the throne'' or ''
the crown The Crown is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

the crown
'') or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may proclaim themself monarch, which may be backed and legitimated through
acclamation An acclamation is a form of election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office.
,
right of conquest The ''right of conquest'' is a right Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people accordi ...
or a combination of means. If a young child is crowned the monarch, then a
regent A regent (from the Latin : ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state ''pro tempore'' (Latin Language, Latin: 'for the time being') because the regnant monarch is a minor, is absent, abdicated the throne, is incapacitated or dea ...
is often appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy to another and in different eras; on one extreme, they may be
autocrats Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power over a state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps fo ...
(
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of in which the holds supreme authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, , or customs. These are often . In contrast, in , the 's authority derives from or is legally ...
) wielding genuine
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate au ...
; on the other they may be
ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious ...

ceremonial
heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and leg ...
who exercise little or no direct power or only
reserve power In a parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance Governance comprises all of the processes of governing – whether undertaken by the government of a state (polity), state, by a ma ...
s, with actual
authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empiric ...

authority
vested in a
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation (politics), representing the Election#Suffrage, electorate, making laws and overseeing the ...

parliament
or other body (
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
). A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the
monarchy of Canada The monarchy of Canada is the institution in which a person serves as Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic O ...
and the
monarchy of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents A precedent is a principle or rule established i ...
(as well as 14 other
Commonwealth realms A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permane ...
) are separate states, but they share the same monarch through
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
.


Characteristics

Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles –
king King is the title given to a male in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is , which title is also given to the of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to . G ...

king
or
queen Queen may refer to: Monarchy * Queen regnant, a female monarch of a Kingdom ** List of queens regnant * Queen consort, the wife of a reigning king * Queen dowager, the widow of a king * Queen mother, a queen dowager who is the mother of a reigni ...
,
prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. ''Prince'' is also a title of nobility (often highest), often hereditary title, hereditary, in som ...

prince
or
princess Princess is a regal rank and the feminine equivalent of prince (from Latin ''princeps'', meaning wiktionary:principal, principal citizen). Most often, the term has been used for the consort of a prince, or for the daughter of a king or prince. ...
(e.g.,
Sovereign Prince of Monaco The sovereign prince (french: prince de Monaco) or princess of Monaco (french: princesse de Monaco) is the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for lif ...
),
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), m ...

emperor
or
empress An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife (empress consort), m ...

empress
(e.g.,
Emperor of China Emperor of China, or ''Huángdì'' (), was the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of sta ...
,
Emperor of Ethiopia The Emperor of Ethiopia ( gez, ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary monarchy, hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, from at least the 13th Century until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. The Emp ...
,
Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch and the head of the Imperial House of Japan, Imperial Family of Japan. Under the Constitution of Japan, he is defined as the symbol of the Japanese state and the unity of the Japanese people, and his position ...
,
Emperor of India Emperor or Empress of India was a title used by British monarchs from 1 May 1876 (with the Royal Titles Act 1876) to 22 June 1948, that was used to signify their rule over British Raj, British India, as its imperial head of state. Royal Procl ...
),
archduke Archduke (feminine: Archduchess; German: ''Erzherzog'', feminine form: ''Erzherzogin'') was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within ...
,
duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a , or of a member of , or . As rulers, dukes are ranked below s, s, s, s, and sovereign s. As royalty or nobility, they are ranked below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes ...

duke
or
grand duke Grand Duke (feminine: Grand Duchess) is a European , used either by certain s or by members of certain monarchs' families. In status, a Grand Duke traditionally ranks in below an , or and above a sovereign or sovereign . The title is used i ...
(e.g.,
Grand Duke of Luxembourg The grand duke of Luxembourg ( lb, Groussherzog vu Lëtzebuerg, french: Grand-duc de Luxembourg, german: Großherzog von Luxemburg) is the monarchical head of state of Luxembourg. Luxembourg has been a grand duchy since 15 March 1815, when it was ...
),
emir Emir (; ar, أمير ' ), sometimes transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus '' trans-'' + '' liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyr ...

emir
(e.g.,
Emir of Qatar The Emir of the State of Qatar ( ar, أمیر دولة قطر) is the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefor ...
),
sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a Royal and noble ranks, position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun ', meaning "authority" ...

sultan
(e.g.,
Sultan of Oman The sultan of the Sultanate of Oman is the monarch and head of state of Oman. It is the most Power (politics), powerful absolute monarch, position in the country. The sultans of Oman are members of the House of Busaid, Busaid dynasty, which has b ...
), or
pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. ...

pharaoh
.
Monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore ...
is political or sociocultural in nature, and is generally (but not always) associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both historically and in the present day, have been born and brought up within a
royal family A royal family is the immediate family of /, , /, or / and sometimes their extended family. The term imperial family appropriately describes the family of an or , and the term papal family describes the family of a , while the terms baronial ...
(whose rule over a period of time is referred to as a
dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press 200px, The Pitt Building in Cambridge, which us ...
) and trained for future duties. Different systems of succession have been used, such as
proximity of blood Proximity of blood, or proximity by degree of kinship In , kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often d ...
(male preference or absolute),
primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit Inherit may refer to: * Inheritance, passing on of property after someone's death * Heredity, passing of genetic traits to offspring * Inheritance ( ...
,
agnatic seniority Agnatic seniority is a patrilineality, patrilineal principle of inheritance where the order of succession to the throne prefers the monarch's younger brother over the monarch's own sons. A monarch's children (the next generation) succeed only aft ...
,
Salic law#REDIRECT Salic law The Salic law ( or ; la, Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Franks, Salian Frankish Civil law (legal system), civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis I, Clovis. The written text is in La ...
, etc. While traditionally most monarchs have been male, female monarchs have also ruled, and the term
queen regnant A queen regnant (plural: queens regnant) is a female monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of st ...
refers to a ruling monarch, as distinct from a
queen consort A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king King is the title given to a male in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is , which title is also given to the of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contem ...
, the wife of a reigning king. Some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an
elective monarchy An elective monarchy is a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for li ...
, the monarch is
elected
elected
but otherwise serves as any other monarch. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
s (chosen by
prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
s, but often coming from the same dynasty) and the
free election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office.Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is ...
. Modern examples include the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Literal translation, lit. "He Who is Made Lord"), Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), also known as the Supreme Head of the Federation, Paramount Ruler or King of Malaysia, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Mal ...
(lit. ‘He Who is Made Lord') of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of C ...

Malaysia
, who is appointed by the
Conference of Rulers The Conference of Rulers (also Council of Rulers or Durbar, '' Malay:'' Majlis Raja-Raja; '' Jawi:'' مجليس راج٢) in Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of ...
every five years or after the king's death, and the
pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

pope
of the
Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Roman Catholic Church
, who serves as sovereign of the
Vatican City State Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Città del Vaticano; la, Status Civitatis Vaticanae),—' * german: Vatikanstadt, cf. '—' (in Austria: ') * pl, Miasto Watykańskie, cf. '—' * pt, Cidade do Vatican ...

Vatican City State
and is elected to a life term by the
College of Cardinals The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinals of the Catholic Church. List of current cardinals, its current membership is 215. Cardinals are appointed by the ...
. In recent centuries, many states have abolished the monarchy and become
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
s (but see, e.g.,
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia. It is located at the eastern end of the Arabian Peninsula, and shares borders with Oma ...
). Advocacy of government by a republic is called
republicanism Republicanism is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use t ...
, while advocacy of monarchy is called
monarchism Monarchism is the advocacy of the system of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 70 ...
. A principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of national leadership, as illustrated in the classic phrase " The ldKing_is_dead._Long_live_the_[newKing!.html" ;"title="ew.html" ;"title="ldKing is dead. Long live the [new">ldKing is dead. Long live the [newKing!">ew.html" ;"title="ldKing is dead. Long live the [new">ldKing is dead. Long live the [newKing!". In cases where the monarch serves mostly as a ceremonial figure (e.g. most modern constitutional monarchies), real leadership does not depend on the monarch. A form of government may, in fact, be hereditary without being considered a monarchy, such as a family dictatorship.


Classification

Monarchies take a wide variety of forms, such as the two List of Co-Princes of Andorra, co-princes of Andorra, positions held simultaneously by the Roman Catholic bishop of Urgel (Spain) and the elected
president of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state ( ...
(although strictly Andorra is a
diarchy A diarchy (from Greek , ''di-'', "double", and , ''-arkhía'', "ruled"). or duumvirate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
). Similarly, the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Literal translation, lit. "He Who is Made Lord"), Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), also known as the Supreme Head of the Federation, Paramount Ruler or King of Malaysia, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Mal ...
of
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of C ...

Malaysia
is considered a monarch despite only holding the position for five years at a time.


Succession

Hereditary succession within one
patrilineal Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship In , kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact ...
family has been most common (but see the
Rain Queen Queen Modjadji, or the Rain Queen, is the hereditary Queen regnant, queen of lobedu people, Balobedu, a people of the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The succession to the position of Rain Queen is matrilineal succession, matrilineal, so her da ...
), with a preference for children over siblings, and sons over daughters. In Europe, some peoples practiced equal division of land and regalian rights among sons or brothers, as in the Germanic states of the Holy Roman Empire, until after the
medieval era In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman E ...
and sometimes (e.g.,
Ernestine duchies The Ernestine duchies (), also known as the Saxon duchies (''Sächsische Herzogtümer'', although the Albertine appanage duchies of Weissenfels, Merseburg and Zeitz were also "Saxon duchies" and adjacent to several Ernestine ones), were a cha ...
) into the 19th century. Other European realms practiced one or another form of
primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit Inherit may refer to: * Inheritance, passing on of property after someone's death * Heredity, passing of genetic traits to offspring * Inheritance ( ...
, in which a
lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the Peera ...

lord
was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had none, by his brother, his daughters or sons of daughters. The system of
tanistry Tanistry is a Gaelic Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Gaelic languages are spoken in Ireland, Scotland, ...
practiced among Celtic tribes was semi-elective and gave weight also to ability and merit. The
Salic law#REDIRECT Salic law The Salic law ( or ; la, Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Franks, Salian Frankish Civil law (legal system), civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis I, Clovis. The written text is in La ...
, practiced in France and in the Italian territories of the
House of Savoy The House of Savoy ( it, Casa Savoia) is a royal dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the univ ...
, stipulated that only men could inherit the crown. In most
fief A fief (; la, feudum) was the central element of feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the histor ...
s, in the event of the demise of all legitimate male members of the
patrilineage Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through their father's lineage. It generally involves the inheritance ...
, a female of the family could succeed (semi-Salic law). In most realms, daughters and sisters were eligible to succeed a ruling kinsman before more distant male relatives (male-preference primogeniture), but sometimes the husband of the heiress became the ruler, and most often also received the title, ''
jure uxoris ''Jure uxoris'' (a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republi ...
''. Spain today continues this model of succession law, in the form of
cognatic primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit the parent's entire or main estate in preference to shared inheritance among all or some children, any illegitimate child or any collateral relative ...
. In more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of
proximity Proximity may refer to: * Distance, a numerical description of how far apart objects are * Proxemics, the study of human spatial requirements and the effects of population density * Proximity (2000 film), ''Proximity'' (2000 film), an action/thrill ...
and
primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is the right, by law or custom, of the firstborn legitimate child to inherit Inherit may refer to: * Inheritance, passing on of property after someone's death * Heredity, passing of genetic traits to offspring * Inheritance ( ...
battled, and outcomes were often idiosyncratic. As the average life span increased, the eldest son was more likely to reach majority age before the death of his father, and primogeniture became increasingly favored over proximity, tanistry, seniority, and election. In 1980,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
became the first monarchy to declare ''equal primogeniture'', ''absolute primogeniture'' or ''full cognatic primogeniture'', meaning that the eldest child of the monarch, whether female or male, ascends to the throne. Other nations have since adopted this practice:
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
in 1983,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
in 1990,
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
in 1991,
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
in 2009, and
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...

Luxembourg
in 2011. The
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
adopted absolute (equal) primogeniture on April 25, 2013, following agreement by the prime ministers of the sixteen Commonwealth Realms at the 22nd Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. In some monarchies, such as
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
, succession to the throne usually first passes to the monarch's next eldest brother and so on through his other brothers, and only after them to the monarch's children (''agnatic seniority''). In some other monarchies (e.g.
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It in ...

Jordan
), the monarch chooses who will be his successor within the royal family, who need not necessarily be his eldest son. Whatever the rules of succession, there have been many cases of a monarch being overthrown and replaced by a usurper who would often install his own family on the throne.


History


Monarchs in Africa

A series of
Pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. ...

Pharaoh
s ruled
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

Ancient Egypt
over the course of three millennia (circa 3150 BC to 31 BC) until it was conquered by the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
. In the same time period several kingdoms flourished in the nearby
Nubia Nubia () (Nobiin Nobiin, or Mahas, is a Northern Nubian languages, Nubian language of the Nilo-Saharan languages, Nilo-Saharan language family. "Nobiin" is the genitive case, genitive form of ''Nòòbíí'' ("Nubian") and literally means "(lan ...

Nubia
region, with at least one of them, that of the so-called
A-Group The A-Group culture was an ancient civilization that flourished between the First and Second Cataracts A cataract is a cloudy area in the lens (anatomy), lens of the eye that leads to a visual impairment, decrease in vision. Cataracts often deve ...
culture, apparently influencing the customs of Egypt itself. From the 6th to 19th centuries, Egypt was variously part of the Byzantine Empire, Islamic Empire, Mamluk Sultanate, Ottoman Empire and British Empire with a distant monarch. The Sultanate of Egypt was a short-lived protectorate of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
from 1914 until 1922 when it became the Kingdom of Egypt and Sultan Fuad I of Egypt, Fuad I changed his title to King. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 the monarchy was dissolved and Egypt became a republic. West Africa hosted the Kanem Empire (700–1376) and its successor, the Borno Emirate, Bornu principality which survives to the present day as one of the List of Nigerian traditional states, traditional states of Nigeria. In the Horn of Africa, the Kingdom of Aksum and later the Zagwe Dynasty, Ethiopian Empire (1270–1974), and Aussa Sultanate were ruled by a series of monarchs. Haile Selassie, the last Emperor of Ethiopia, was deposed in a communist coup. Various Somali aristocratic and court titles, Somali Sultanates also existed, including the Adal Sultanate (led by the Walashma dynasty of the Ifat Sultanate), Sultanate of Mogadishu, Ajuran Sultanate, Warsangali Sultanate, Geledi Sultanate, Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo. Central Africa, Central and Southern Africa were largely isolated from other regions until the modern era, but they did later feature kingdoms like the Kingdom of Kongo (1400–1914). The Zulu people formed a powerful Zulu Kingdom in 1816, one that was subsequently absorbed into the Colony of Natal in 1897. The List of Zulu kings, Zulu king continues to hold a hereditary title and an influential cultural position in contemporary South Africa, although he has no direct political power. Other tribes in the country, such as the Xhosa people, Xhosa and the Tswana people, Tswana, have also had and continue to have a series of kings and chiefs (namely the ''Inkosis'' and the ''Kgosis'') whose local precedence is recognised, but who exercise no legal authority. As part of the Scramble for Africa, Europeans conquered, bought, or established African kingdoms and styled themselves as monarchs due to them. Currently, the African nations of Morocco, Lesotho, and Eswatini, Eswatini (Swaziland) are sovereign monarchies under dynasties that are native to the continent. Places like St. Helena, Ceuta, Melilla and the Canary Islands are ruled by the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or the King of Spain. So-called "sub-national monarchies" of varying sizes can be found all over the rest of the continent, e.g. the Yoruba people, Yoruba city-state of Akure Kingdom, Akure in south-western Nigeria is something of an elective monarchy: its reigning Oba (ruler), Oba, the ''Deji of Akure, Deji'', has to be chosen by an electoral college of Nigerian chieftaincy, nobles from amongst a finite collection of royal princes of the realm upon the death or removal of an incumbent.


Monarchs in Europe

Within the Holy Roman Empire different titles were used by nobles exercising various degrees of sovereignty within their borders (see below). Such titles were granted or recognised by the Emperor or Pope. Adoption of a new title to indicate sovereign or semi-sovereign status was not always recognized by other governments or nations, sometimes causing diplomacy, diplomatic problems. During the nineteenth century many small monarchies in Europe merged with other territories to form larger entities, and following World War I and World War II, many Monarchy abolishment, monarchies were abolished, but of those remaining all except Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Andorra, Vatican City, and Monaco were headed by a king or queen. in Europe there are twelve monarchies: seven monarchy, kingdoms (
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
,
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
,
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
,
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
, Spain,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
), one grand duchy (
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...

Luxembourg
), one papacy (Vatican City), and two principalities (Liechtenstein and Monaco), as well as one
diarchy A diarchy (from Greek , ''di-'', "double", and , ''-arkhía'', "ruled"). or duumvirate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
principality (Andorra).


Monarchs in Asia

In China, before the abolition of the monarchy in 1912, the
Emperor of China Emperor of China, or ''Huángdì'' (), was the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of sta ...
was traditionally regarded as the ruler of "Tianxia, All under heaven". "King" is the usual translation for the term ''wang'' 王, the sovereign before the Qin dynasty and during the Ten Kingdoms period. During the early Han dynasty, China had a number of kingdoms, each about the size of a province and subordinate to the Emperor. In Korea, ''Daewang'' (great king), or ''Wang'' (king), was a Chinese royal style used in many states rising from the dissolution of Gojoseon, Buyeo kingdom, Buyeo, Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla and Balhae, Goryeo, Joseon. The legendary Dangun Wanggeom founded the first kingdom, Gojoseon. Some scholars maintain that the term ''Dangun'' also refers to a title used by all rulers of Gojoseon and that ''Wanggeom'' is the proper name of the founder. ''Gyuwon Sahwa'' (1675) describes The Annals of the Danguns as a collection of nationalistic legends. The monarchs of Goguryeo and some monarchs of Silla used the title "Taewang", meaning "Greatest King". The early monarchs of Silla have used the title of "Geoseogan", "Chachaung", "Isageum", and finally "Maripgan" until 503. The title "Gun" (prince) can refer to the dethroned rulers of the Joseon dynasty as well. Under the Korean Empire (1897–1910), the rulers of Korea were given the title of "Hwangje", meaning the "Emperor". Today, Members of the Korean Imperial Family continue to participate in numerous traditional ceremonies, and groups exist to preserve Korea's imperial heritage. The Imperial House of Japan, Japanese monarchy is now the only monarchy to still use the title of Emperor. In modern history, between 1925 and 1979, Iran was ruled by two Emperors from the Pahlavi dynasty that used the title of "Shahanshah" (or "King of Kings"). The last Iranian Shahanshah was King Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who was forced to abdicate the throne as a result of a revolution in Iran. In fact Persian (Iranian) kingdom goes back to about 2,700 BC (see Kings of iran#Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC), List of Kings of Persia), but reached its ultimate height and glory when King Cyrus the Great (Known as "The Great Kourosh" in Iran) started the Achaemenid Empire, Achaemenid dynasty, and under his rule, the Empire embraced all the previous civilized states of Ancient Near East, the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean Sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. Thailand and Bhutan are like the United Kingdom in that they are constitutional monarchies ruled by a King.
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It in ...

Jordan
and many other Middle Eastern monarchies are ruled by a Malik and parts of the United Arab Emirates, such as Dubai, are still ruled by monarchs.
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
is the largest Arab state in Western Asia by land area and the second-largest in the Arab world (after Algeria). It was founded by Ibn Saud, Abdul-Aziz bin Saud in 1932, although the conquests which eventually led to the creation of the Kingdom began in 1902 when he captured Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud; succession to the throne was limited to sons of Ibn Saud until 2015, when Muhammad bin Nayef, a grandson was elevated to Crown Prince. The Saudi Arabian government has been an absolute monarchy since its inception, and designates itself as Islamic. The King bears the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to the two holiest places in Islam: Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, and Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina. Oman is led by Sultan Haitham bin Tariq Al Said. The Kingdom of Jordan is one of the Middle East's more modern monarchies is also ruled by a Malik. In Arab and Arabized countries, Malik (absolute King) is the absolute word to render a monarch and is superior to all other titles. Nepal abolished their monarchy in 2008. Sri Lanka had a complex system of monarchies from 543BC to 1815. Between 47BC-42BC Anula of Sri Lanka became the country's first female head of state as well as Asia's first head of state. In
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of C ...

Malaysia
's constitutional monarchy, the
Yang di-Pertuan Agong The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Literal translation, lit. "He Who is Made Lord"), Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), also known as the Supreme Head of the Federation, Paramount Ruler or King of Malaysia, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Mal ...
(The Supreme Lord of the Federation) is ''de facto'' rotated every five years among the nine Rulers of the Malay states of Malaysia (those nine of the thirteen states of Malaysia that have hereditary royal rulers), elected by ''Majlis Raja-Raja'' (
Conference of Rulers The Conference of Rulers (also Council of Rulers or Durbar, '' Malay:'' Majlis Raja-Raja; '' Jawi:'' مجليس راج٢) in Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of ...
). Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, the Sultan of Brunei is the head of state with full executive authority, including emergency powers, since 1962. The Prime Minister of Brunei is a title held by the Sultan. As the prime minister, the Sultan presides over the cabinet. Cambodia has been a kingdom since the 1st century. The power of the absolute monarchy was reduced when it became the French Protectorate of Cambodia from 1863 to 1953. It returned to an absolute monarchy from 1953 until the establishment of a republic following the Cambodian coup of 1970, 1970 coup. The monarchy was restored as a constitutional monarchy in 1993 with the king as a largely symbolic figurehead. In the Philippines, the History of the Philippines (900–1521), pre-Colonial Filipino people, Filipino nobility, variously titled the ''harì'' (today meaning "king"), ''Lakan'', ''Raja'' and ''Datu'' belonged to the caste called ''Uring Maharlika'' (Noble Class). When the islands Spanish colonization of the Philippines, were annexed to the Spanish Empire in the late 16th century, the Monarchy of Spain, Spanish monarch became the sovereign while local rulers often retained their prestige as part of the Christianity in the Philippines, Christianised nobility called the ''Principalía''. After the Spanish–American War, the country was ceded to the United States of America and made into a territory and eventually a Commonwealth of the Philippines, Commonwealth, thus ending monarchism. While the Philippines is currently a republic, the Sultanate of Sulu, Sultan of Sulu and Sultanate of Maguindanao, Sultan of Maguindanao retain their titles only for ceremonial purposes but are considered ordinary citizens by the 1987 Constitution. Bhutan has been an independent kingdom since 1907. The first Druk Gyalpo (''Dragon King'') was elected and thereafter became a hereditary absolute monarchy. It became a constitutional monarchy in 2008. Tibet was a monarchy since the Tibetan Empire in the 6th century. It was ruled by the Yuan Dynasty following the Mongol invasion in the 13th century and became an effective
diarchy A diarchy (from Greek , ''di-'', "double", and , ''-arkhía'', "ruled"). or duumvirate (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originall ...
with the Dalai Lama as co-ruler. It came under the rule of the Chinese Qing Dynasty from 1724 until 1912 when it gained de facto independence. The Dalai Lama became an absolute temporal monarch until the annexation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China in 1951. Nepal was a monarchy for most of its history until becoming a federal republic in 2008.


Monarchs in the Americas

The concept of monarchy existed in the Americas long before the arrival of European colonialists. When the Europeans arrived they referred to these tracts of land within territories of different aboriginal groups to be kingdoms, and the leaders of these groups were often referred to by the Europeans as Kings, particularly hereditary leaders. Pre-colonial titles that were used included: * Cacique – Aboriginal Hispaniola and Borinquen * Tlatoani – Nahua peoples, Nahuas * Ajaw – Maya civilization, Maya * Qhapaq Inka – Inca Empire, Tawuantin Suyu (Inca Empire) * Morubixaba – Tupi people, Tupi tribes * Sha-quan – King of the world used in some Native American tribes The first local monarch to emerge in North America after colonization was Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who declared himself First Haitian Empire, Emperor of Haiti on September 22, 1804. Haiti again had an emperor, Faustin I of Haiti, Faustin I from 1849 to 1859. In South America, BrazilL Gomes. 1889: como um imperador cansado, um marechal vaidoso e um professor injustiçado contribuíram para a o fim da monarquia e programação da republica no Brasil. Globo Livros. 2013. had a royal house ruling as emperor between 1822 and 1889, under Emperors Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro I and Pedro II of Brazil, Pedro II. Between 1931 and 1983 nine other previous British colonies attained independence as kingdoms. All, including Canada, are in a
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
relationship under a shared monarch. Therefore, though today there are legally ten American monarchs, one person occupies each distinct position. In addition to these sovereign states, there are also a number of sub-national ones. In Bolivia, for example, the Afro-Bolivian monarchy, Afro-Bolivian king claims descent from an African dynasty that was taken from its homeland and sold into slavery. Though largely a ceremonial title today, the position of ''king of the Afro-Bolivians'' is officially recognized by the government of Bolivia.


Monarchs in Oceania

Polynesian societies were ruled by an ''ariki'' from ancient times. The title is variously translated as "supreme chief", "paramount chief" or "king". The Kingdom of Tahiti was founded in 1788. Sovereignty was ceded to France in 1880 although descendants of the Pōmare Dynasty claim the title of King of Tahiti. The Kingdom of Hawaii was established in 1795 and overthrown in 1893. An independent Kingdom of Rarotonga was established in 1858. It became a protectorate of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
at its own request in 1893. Seru Epenisa Cakobau ruled the short-lived Kingdom of Fiji, a constitutional monarchy, from 1871 to 1874 when he voluntarily ceded sovereignty of the islands to the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. After independence in 1970, the Dominion of Fiji retained the British monarch as head of state until it became a republic following a 1987 Fijian coups d'état, military coup in 1987. Australia, New Zealand (including the Cook Islands and Niue), Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu are sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that currently have Elizabeth II as their reigning constitutional monarch. The Pitcairn Islands are part of the British Overseas Territories with Elizabeth II as the reigning constitutional monarch. Tonga is the only remaining sovereign kingdom in Oceania. It has had a monarch since the 10th century and became a constitutional monarchy in 1875. In 2008, King George Tupou V relinquished most of the powers of the monarchy and the position is now largely ceremonial. In New Zealand the position of Māori King Movement, Māori King was established in 1858. The role is largely cultural and ceremonial and has no legal power. Wallis Island, Uvea, Alo (Wallis and Futuna), Alo and Sigave in the France, French territory of Wallis and Futuna have non-sovereign elective monarchs.


Titles and precedence in Europe

The usage and meaning of a monarch's specific title have historically been defined by tradition, law and diplomatic considerations. Note that some titles borne by monarchs have several meanings and may not exclusively designate a monarch. A Prince may be a prince du sang, person of royal blood (some languages uphold this distinction, see Fürst). A Duke may belong to a peerage and hold a dukedom (title) but no duchy (territory). In Imperial Russia, a Grand Duke was a son or patrilineal grandson of the Tsar or Tsarina. Holders of titles in these alternative meanings did not enjoy the same status as monarchs of the same title. Within the Holy Roman Empire, there were numerous titles used by noblemen whose authority within their territory sometimes approached
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate au ...
, even though they acknowledged the Holy Roman Emperor as suzerain; Prince-elector, Elector, Grand Duke, Margrave, Landgrave and Count Palatine, as well as secular princes like kings, dukes, princes and "princely counts" (''Gefürstete Grafen''), and ecclesiastical princes like Prince-Archbishops, Prince-bishop, Prince-Bishops and Prince-Abbots. A ruler with a title below emperor or king might still be regarded as a monarch, outranking a nobleman of the same ostensible title (e.g., Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, a reigning sovereign, and his younger brother, Claude, Duke of Guise, a nobleman in the peerage of France). The table below lists titles in approximate order of precedence. According to protocol (diplomacy), protocol any holder of a title indicating sovereignty took precedence over any non-sovereign titleholder.


Titles outside modern Europe


Titles by region

When a difference exists below, male titles are placed to the left and female titles are placed to the right of the slash. }) or grand duke, Vialiki kniaz ( be, Вялікі князь) , - , Mbret, , Albanian King , - , Mepe (royal title), Mepe, , Georgia (country), Georgian King and Queen , - , Rex (title), Rex/Regina, , Was the Latin language, Latin title for "king". Specifically, it was the title of the king of Rome, kings of ancient Rome. Ethmologically in the Romanic languages the words evolved to ''Rei/Rainha'' in mordern Portuguese language, Portuguese, ''Rey/Reyna'' in modern Spanish language, Spanish, ''Roi/Reine'' in modern French language, French, ''Re/Regina'' in modern Italian language, Italian and ''Rege/Regină'' in modern Romanian language, Romanian. , - , Rí, , Gaels, Gaelic king. Also Ruiri (regional overking), Rí ruirech (provincial king of overkings), and Ard Rí (pre-eminent Rí ruirech) , - , Tsar/Tsaritsa/Czar, , Bulgaria, pre-imperial Russia, very short in medieval Serbia , - , Vezér, , Ancient Hungary, Hungarian , - , Voivode, Voievod, , Medieval: Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, Hungaria, Romania, Poland , - ! rowspan="7" valign=top , Middle-East , Shah, , Persian/Iranian and Afghanistan King Padishah(Ottoman Empire) Han


See also

* List of fictional monarchs


References

* *


External links


A Glossary of European Noble, Princely, Royal and Imperial Titles


King lists worldwide
Archontology

African Kingdoms Imperial Throne Leadership and Enthronements
{{Authority control Monarchy, * Monarchs, * Positions of authority Titles Politics Noble titles