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Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and
philosophies Philosophy, Philosophical school of thought, schools of thought and philosophical movements. Absurdism - Actual idealism - Actualism - Advaita Vedanta -` Aesthetic Realism - Aesthetics - African philosophy - Afrocentrism - Agential realism - A ...
of the
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use ...

art
produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. A tendency away from the
narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also spelled non-fiction) is any document A document is a written Writing is a medium of human communication Comm ...

narrative
, which was characteristic for the traditional arts, toward
abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, mak ...

abstraction
is characteristic of much modern art. More recent artistic production is often called
contemporary art Contemporary art is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and ...

contemporary art
or
postmodern art Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath. In general, movements such as intermedia, installation art, conceptual art and multimedi ...
. Modern art begins with the heritage of painters like
Vincent van Gogh Vincent Willem van Gogh (; 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who posthumously became one of the most famous and influential figures in Western art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronun ...
,
Paul Cézanne Paul Cézanne ( , , ; ; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically di ...

Paul Cézanne
,
Paul Gauguin Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (, ; ; 7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French Post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetism, Synthetist style that were di ...
,
Georges Seurat Georges Pierre Seurat ( , , ; 2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist artist. He is best known for devising the painting techniques known as chromoluminarism and pointillism Pointillism (, ) is a technique of pai ...
and
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Count, Comte Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901) was a French painter, printmaking, printmaker, drawing, draughtsman, caricaturist and illustrator whose immersion in the colorful and theatri ...

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
all of whom were essential for the development of modern art. At the beginning of the 20th century
Henri Matisse Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (; 31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a drawing, draughtsman, printmaking, printmaker, and sculpture, scul ...

Henri Matisse
and several other young artists including the pre-cubists
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
,
André Derain André Derain (, ; 10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism Fauvism /ˈfoʊvɪzm̩/ is the style of ''les Fauves'' ( French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early 20th-century modern art ...
,
Raoul Dufy Raoul Dufy (; 3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter, brother of Jean Dufy. He developed a colorful, decorative style that became fashionable for designs of ceramic art, ceramics and textiles, as well as decorative schemes f ...
,
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
and
Maurice de Vlaminck Maurice de Vlaminck (4 April 1876 – 11 October 1958) was a French Painting, painter. Along with André Derain and Henri Matisse he is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauvism, Fauve movement, a group of modern artists who from ...
revolutionized the Paris art world with "wild", multi-colored, expressive landscapes and figure paintings that the critics called
Fauvism Fauvism /ˈfoʊvɪzm̩/ is the style of ''les Fauves'' (French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early 20th-century modern art Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and d ...
. Matisse's two versions of '' The Dance'' signified a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting. It reflected Matisse's incipient fascination with
primitive art Tribal art is the visual arts and material culture of indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a ...
: the intense warm color of the figures against the cool blue-green background and the rhythmical succession of the dancing nudes convey the feelings of emotional liberation and
hedonism Hedonism refers to a family of theories, all of which have in common that ''pleasure Pleasure refers to experience that feels good, that involves the enjoyment of something. It contrasts with pain Pain is a distressing feeling often cau ...
. At the start of 20th-century Western painting, and initially influenced by
Toulouse-Lautrec Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman, caricaturist and illustrator whose immersion in the colorful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 1 ...

Toulouse-Lautrec
,
Gauguin Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (, ; ; 7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French Post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetist style that were distinct fro ...

Gauguin
and other late-19th-century innovators,
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
made his first
Cubist Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or ' vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.John Picch ...
paintings based on Cézanne's idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids:
cube In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position ...

cube
,
sphere A sphere (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...

sphere
and
cone A cone is a three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Greek wikt:πα ...

cone
. With the painting ''
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon ''Les Demoiselles d'Avignon'' (''The Young Ladies of Avignon'', originally titled ''The Brothel of Avignon'') is a large oil painting created in 1907 by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. The work, part of the permanent collection of the Museum of ...
'' (1907), Picasso dramatically created a new and radical picture depicting a raw and primitive brothel scene with five prostitutes, violently painted women, reminiscent of African tribal masks and his own new Cubist inventions. Analytic cubism was jointly developed by Picasso and
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
, exemplified by ''Violin and Candlestick, Paris,'' from about 1908 through 1912. Analytic cubism, the first clear manifestation of cubism, was followed by Synthetic cubism, practiced by Braque, Picasso,
Fernand Léger Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (; February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painting, painter, sculpture, sculptor, and film director, filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism (known as "tubism") which he gradually m ...

Fernand Léger
,
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
,
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
,
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
and several other artists into the 1920s. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, surfaces,
collage Collage (, from the french: coller, "to glue" or "to stick together";) is a technique of art creation, primarily used in the visual arts, but in music too, by which art results from an Assemblage (art), assemblage of different forms, thus creat ...

collage
elements,
papier collé ''Papier collé'' (French: ''pasted paper'' or ''paper cut outs'') is a type of collage and collaging technique in which paper is adhered to a flat mount. The difference between collage and papier collé is that the latter refers exclusively to th ...
and a large variety of merged subject matter. The notion of modern art is closely related to
modernism Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...
.


History


Roots in the 19th century

Although modern
sculpture Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes originally used carving (the removal of material) and modelling (the addition of material, as clay), ...

sculpture
and
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the 19th century, the beginnings of modern
painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient ...

painting
can be located earlier. The date perhaps most commonly identified as marking the birth of modern art is 1863, the year that
Édouard Manet Édouard Manet (, , ; 23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French modernist painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a pivotal figure in the transition from realism (arts), Realism to Impressionis ...

Édouard Manet
showed his painting '' Le déjeuner sur l'herbe'' in the ''
Salon des Refusés The Salon des Refusés, French for "exhibition of rejects" (), is generally known as an exhibition of works rejected by the jury of the official Paris Salon The Salon (french: Salon), or rarely Paris Salon (French: ''Salon de Paris'' ), beginni ...
'' in Paris. Earlier dates have also been proposed, among them 1855 (the year
Gustave Courbet Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet ( , , ; 10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism Realism, Realistic, or Realists may refer to: In the arts *Realism (arts), the general attempt to depict subjects truthful ...

Gustave Courbet
exhibited ''
The Artist's Studio
The Artist's Studio
'') and 1784 (the year
Jacques-Louis David Jacques-Louis David (; 30 August 174829 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, m ...
completed his painting '' The Oath of the Horatii''). In the words of art historian H. Harvard Arnason: "Each of these dates has significance for the development of modern art, but none categorically marks a completely new beginning .... A gradual metamorphosis took place in the course of a hundred years." The strands of thought that eventually led to modern art can be traced back to the
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
. The important modern art critic
Clement Greenberg Clement Greenberg () (January 16, 1909 – May 7, 1994), occasionally writing under the pseudonym K. Hardesh, was an American essayist known mainly as a very influential visual art critic closely associated with American Modern art Modern art ...
, for instance, called
Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (, , ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about r ...

Immanuel Kant
"the first real Modernist" but also drew a distinction: "The Enlightenment criticized from the outside ... . Modernism criticizes from the inside." The
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
of 1789 uprooted assumptions and institutions that had for centuries been accepted with little question and accustomed the public to vigorous political and social debate. This gave rise to what art historian
Ernst Gombrich Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich (; ; 30 March 1909 – 3 November 2001) was an Austrian-born art historian who, after settling in England in 1936, became a naturalised British citizen in 1947 and spent most of his working life in the United King ...
called a "self-consciousness that made people select the style of their building as one selects the pattern of a wallpaper." The pioneers of modern art were
Romantics Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It compr ...
, Realists and
Impressionists Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open Composition (visual arts), composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the ...

Impressionists
. By the late 19th century, additional movements which were to be influential in modern art had begun to emerge:
post-Impressionism Post-Impressionism (also spelled Postimpressionism) was a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionism, Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism. Post-Impressionism emerged as ...
and
Symbolism Symbolism or symbolist may refer to: Arts * Symbolism (arts), a 19th-century movement rejecting Realism ** Symbolist movement in Romania, symbolist literature and visual arts in Romania during the late 19th and early 20th centuries ** Russian symb ...
. Influences upon these movements were varied: from exposure to Eastern decorative arts, particularly Japanese printmaking, to the coloristic innovations of
Turner Turner may refer to: People and fictional characters * Turner (surname), a common surname, including a list of people and fictional characters with the name * Turner (given name), a list of people with the given name *One who uses a lathe for turni ...
and Delacroix, to a search for more
realism Realism, Realistic, or Realists may refer to: In the arts *Realism (arts), the general attempt to depict subjects truthfully in different forms of the arts Arts movements related to realism include: *Classical Realism *Literary realism, a movem ...
in the depiction of common life, as found in the work of painters such as
Jean-François Millet Jean-François Millet (; October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French artist and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France. Millet is noted for his paintings of peasant farmers and can be categorized as part of the Realism ...
. The advocates of realism stood against the
idealism In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, l ...

idealism
of the tradition-bound
academic art Academic art, or academicism or academism, is a style of painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a th ...
that enjoyed public and official favor. The most successful painters of the day worked either through commissions or through large public exhibitions of their own work. There were official, government-sponsored painters' unions, while governments regularly held public exhibitions of new fine and decorative arts. The Impressionists argued that people do not see objects but only the light which they reflect, and therefore painters should paint in natural light (
en plein air ''En plein air'' (; French language, French for "outdoors"), or ''plein air'' painting, is the act of painting outdoors. This method contrasts with studio painting or academic rules that might create a predetermined look. The theory of 'En ple ...
) rather than in studios and should capture the effects of light in their work. Impressionist artists formed a group, ''Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs'' ("Association of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers") which, despite internal tensions, mounted a series of independent exhibitions. The style was adopted by artists in different nations, in preference to a "national" style. These factors established the view that it was a "movement". These traits—establishment of a working method integral to the art, establishment of a movement or visible active core of support, and international adoption—would be repeated by artistic movements in the Modern period in art.


Early 20th century

Among the movements which flowered in the first decade of the 20th century were
Fauvism Fauvism /ˈfoʊvɪzm̩/ is the style of ''les Fauves'' (French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early 20th-century modern art Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and d ...
,
Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art ...
,
Expressionism Expressionism is a modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western world, Western society during the late 19th and ...
, and
Futurism Futurism ( it, Futurismo) was an artistic Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally a ...
. During the years between 1910 and the end of World War I and after the heyday of
cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art ...
, several movements emerged in Paris.
Giorgio de Chirico Giorgio de Chirico ( , ; 10 July 1888 – 20 November 1978) was an Italian artist and writer born in Greece. In the years before World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war origina ...
moved to Paris in July 1911, where he joined his brother Andrea (the poet and painter known as
Alberto Savinio
Alberto Savinio
). Through his brother he met Pierre Laprade, a member of the jury at the
Salon d'Automne The Salon d'Automne (; en, Autumn Salon), or Société du Salon d'automne, is an art exhibition held annually in Paris, France. Since 2011, it is held on the Champs-Élysées, between the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, in mid-October. The fi ...
where he exhibited three of his dreamlike works: ''Enigma of the Oracle'', ''Enigma of an Afternoon'' and ''Self-Portrait''. During 1913 he exhibited his work at the
Salon des Indépendants Salon may refer to: * Beauty salon A beauty salon or beauty parlor is an establishment dealing with Cosmetics, cosmetic treatments for men and women. There's a difference between a beauty salon and a beauty parlor which is that a beauty salon ...

Salon des Indépendants
and Salon d’Automne, and his work was noticed by
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
,
Guillaume Apollinaire Guillaume Apollinaire (; 26 August 1880 – 9 November 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic An art critic is a person who is specialized in analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating art. Their written ...

Guillaume Apollinaire
, and several others. His compelling and mysterious paintings are considered instrumental to the early beginnings of
Surrealism Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") ...

Surrealism
. '' Song of Love'' (1914) is one of the most famous works by de Chirico and is an early example of the
surrealist Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") i ...

surrealist
style, though it was painted ten years before the movement was "founded" by
André Breton André Robert Breton (; 18 February 1896 – 28 September 1966) was a French writer and poet. He is known best as the co-founder, leader, principal theorist and chief apologist of surrealism Surrealism was a that developed in Europe in the ...

André Breton
in 1924. World War I brought an end to this phase but indicated the beginning of a number of
anti-art Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Somewhat paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point o ...
movements, such as
Dada Dada () or Dadaism was an art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at ...

Dada
, including the work of
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
, and of
Surrealism Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") ...

Surrealism
. Artist groups like
de Stijl ''De Stijl'' (; ), Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Cast ...
and
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German an ...

Bauhaus
developed new ideas about the interrelation of the arts, architecture, design, and art education. Modern art was introduced to the United States with the
Armory Show The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many ...
in 1913 and through European artists who moved to the U.S. during World War I.


After World War II

It was only after World War II, however, that the U.S. became the focal point of new artistic movements. The 1950s and 1960s saw the emergence of
Abstract Expressionism Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York City in the 1940s. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put New York at the center of the ...
,
Color field painting , ''Beginning'', 1958, magna on canvas painting, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Working in Washington, D.C., Noland was a pioneer of the color field movement in the late 1950s. Color field painting is a style of abstract painting that em ...
,
Conceptual art Conceptual art, also referred to as conceptualism, is art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposa ...
ists of
Art & Language Image:Art-LanguageV3No1-1974.jpg, Scratched photograph of the cover of ''Art-Language'', Vol.3 No.1, 1974. Art & Language is a conceptual artists' collaboration that has undergone many changes since it was created in the late 1960s. The group was f ...
,
Pop art
Pop art
,
Op art Op art, short for optical art, is a style of visual art that uses optical illusions. Op art works are abstract, with many better known pieces created in black and white. Typically, they give the viewer the impression of movement, hidden images ...
,
Hard-edge painting Hard-edge painting is painting in which abrupt transitions are found between color areas. Color areas are often of one unvarying color. The Hard-edge painting style is related to Geometric abstraction Black Square'', 1915, oil on linen, 79.5 x ...
,
Minimal art Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is set out to expose the essence, essentials or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms, features or con ...
, Lyrical Abstraction,
Fluxus Fluxus was an international, interdisciplinary community of artists, composers, designers and poets during the 1960s and 1970s who engaged in experimental art performances which emphasized the artistic process over the finished product. Fluxus i ...
,
Happening A happening is a performance, event, or Situationist International, situation art, usually as performance art. The term was first used by Allan Kaprow during the 1950s to describe a range of art-related events. History Origins Image:SurvivalRese ...

Happening
,
Video art Video art is an art form which relies on using video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and co ...
,
Postminimalism Postminimalism is an art term coined (as post-minimalism) by Robert Pincus-Witten in 1971Chilvers, Ian and Glaves-Smith, John, ''A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art'', second edition (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. ...
,
Photorealism Photorealism is a genre of art that encompasses painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, con ...
and various other movements. In the late 1960s and the 1970s,
Land art Land art, variously known as Earth art, environmental art, and Earthworks, is an art movement that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, largely associated with Great Britain and the United StatesArt in the modern era: A guide to styles, schools, & mov ...

Land art
,
Performance art Performance art is an artwork or art exhibition created through actions executed by the artist or other participants. It may be witnessed live or through documentation, spontaneously developed or written, and is traditionally presented to a pu ...
,
Conceptual art Conceptual art, also referred to as conceptualism, is art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposa ...
, and other new art forms had attracted the attention of curators and critics, at the expense of more traditional media. Larger
installations
installations
and
performances A performance is an act of staging or presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment. It is also defined as the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action, task, or function. Management science In the work place, ...
became widespread. By the end of the 1970s, when cultural critics began speaking of "the end of painting" (the title of a provocative essay written in 1981 by
Douglas Crimp John Douglas Crimp (August 19, 1944 July 5, 2019) was an American art historian, critic, curator, and HIV/AIDS, AIDS activist. He was known for his scholarly contributions to the fields of Postmodern art, postmodern theories and art, Institution ...
),
new media art New media art includes artworks designed and produced by means of new media technologies, comprising virtual art, computer graphics, computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated imag ...
had become a category in itself, with a growing number of artists experimenting with technological means such as
video art Video art is an art form which relies on using video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and co ...
. Painting assumed renewed importance in the 1980s and 1990s, as evidenced by the rise of neo-expressionism and the revival of
figurative painting Figurative art, sometimes written as figurativism, describes artwork (particularly paintings and sculptures) that is clearly derived from real object sources and so is, by definition, representation (arts), representational. The term is often in c ...
. Towards the end of the 20th century, a number of artists and architects started questioning the idea of " the modern" and created typically
Postmodern Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of skepticism Skepticism (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known a ...
works.


Art movements and artist groups

''(Roughly chronological with representative artists listed.)''


19th century

*
Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to ...
and the
Romantic movement Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1 ...
Francisco de Goya Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (; ; 30 March 174616 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker. He is considered the most important Spanish artist of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His paintings, drawings, and e ...
, J. M. W. Turner,
Eugène Delacroix Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix ( ; ; 26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.Noon, Patrick, et al., ''Crossing the Channel: British ...
*
Realism Realism, Realistic, or Realists may refer to: In the arts *Realism (arts), the general attempt to depict subjects truthfully in different forms of the arts Arts movements related to realism include: *Classical Realism *Literary realism, a movem ...
Gustave Courbet Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet ( , , ; 10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realism Realism, Realistic, or Realists may refer to: In the arts *Realism (arts), the general attempt to depict subjects truthful ...

Gustave Courbet
,
Camille Corot Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot ( , , ; July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''S ...
,
Jean-François Millet Jean-François Millet (; October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French artist and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France. Millet is noted for his paintings of peasant farmers and can be categorized as part of the Realism ...
,
Rosa Bonheur Rosa Bonheur, born Marie-Rosalie Bonheur (16 March 1822 – 25 May 1899), was a French artist, mostly a painter of animals (animalière) but also a sculptor, in a Realism (arts), realist style. Her paintings include ''Ploughing in the Nivernais'', ...

Rosa Bonheur
*
Pre-Raphaelites The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, James ...
William Holman Hunt William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His paintings were notable for their great attention to detail, vivid colour, and elaborate symbolism. ...

William Holman Hunt
,
John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, ( , ; 8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He was a child prodigy who, aged eleven, became the youngest ...

John Everett Millais
,
Dante Gabriel Rossetti Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti (), was an English poet, illustrator, painter, and translator, and member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Broth ...
*
Macchiaioli, a leading artist in the Macchiaioli movement The Macchiaioli () were a group of Italy, Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italia ...
Giovanni Fattori Giovanni Fattori (September 6, 1825August 30, 1908) was an Italian artist, one of the leaders of the group known as the Macchiaioli. He was initially a painter of historical themes and military subjects. In his middle years, inspired by the Barbizo ...

Giovanni Fattori
,
Silvestro Lega Silvestro Lega (8 December 1826 – 21 September 1895) was an Italian realist painter. He was one of the leading artists of the Macchiaioli and was also involved with the Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (, , ; 22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was a ...
,
Telemaco SignoriniImage:Telemaco Signorini.jpg, 180px, Telemaco Signorini (c.1875) Telemaco Signorini (; August 18, 1835 – February 1, 1901) was an Italy, Italian artist who belonged to the group known as the Macchiaioli. Biography He was born in the Basilica di S ...

Telemaco Signorini
*
Impressionism Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or ...

Impressionism
Frédéric Bazille Jean Frédéric Bazille (December 6, 1841 – November 28, 1870) was a French Impressionist Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate ...
,
Gustave Caillebotte , Paris.Gustave Caillebotte (; 19 August 1848 – 21 February 1894) was a French painter who was a member and patron of the Impressionists Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush str ...
,
Mary Cassatt Mary Stevenson Cassatt (; May 22, 1844June 14, 1926) was an American painter and printmaker. She was born in Allegheny City, Pennsylvania (now part of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States and ...

Mary Cassatt
,
Edgar Degas Edgar Degas (, ; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas, ; 19 July 183427 September 1917) was a French Impressionist Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open compositio ...

Edgar Degas
,
Armand Guillaumin Armand Guillaumin (; February 16, 1841 – June 26, 1927) was a French impressionist Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate de ...
,
Édouard Manet Édouard Manet (, , ; 23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French modernist painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a pivotal figure in the transition from realism (arts), Realism to Impressionis ...

Édouard Manet
,
Claude Monet Oscar-Claude Monet (, , ; 14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a French painter and founder of impressionist Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open c ...
,
Berthe Morisot Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot (; January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was a French painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. In 1864, Morisot exhibited for the first time in the highly est ...

Berthe Morisot
,
Pierre-Auguste Renoir Pierre-Auguste Renoir (; 25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet v ...
,
Camille Pissarro Camille Pissarro ( , ; 10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on a ...
,
Alfred Sisley Alfred Sisley (; ; 30 October 1839 – 29 January 1899) was an Impressionist landscape painter who was born and spent most of his life in France, but retained British citizenship. He was the most consistent of the Impressionists in his dedicatio ...
*
Post-impressionism Post-Impressionism (also spelled Postimpressionism) was a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905, from the last Impressionism, Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism. Post-Impressionism emerged as ...
Georges Seurat Georges Pierre Seurat ( , , ; 2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist artist. He is best known for devising the painting techniques known as chromoluminarism and pointillism Pointillism (, ) is a technique of pai ...
,
Paul Cézanne Paul Cézanne ( , , ; ; 19 January 1839 – 22 October 1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically di ...

Paul Cézanne
,
Paul Gauguin Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (, ; ; 7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French Post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetism, Synthetist style that were di ...
,
Vincent van Gogh Vincent Willem van Gogh (; 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who posthumously became one of the most famous and influential figures in Western art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronun ...
,
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Count, Comte Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa (24 November 1864 – 9 September 1901) was a French painter, printmaking, printmaker, drawing, draughtsman, caricaturist and illustrator whose immersion in the colorful and theatri ...

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
,
Henri Rousseau Henri Julien Félix Rousseau (; 21 May 1844 – 2 September 1910)
at the
,
Henri-Jean Guillaume Martin Henri-Jean Guillaume Martin (5 August 1860 – 12 November 1943) was a renowned French impressionist Painting, painter. Background Born in Toulouse to a French cabinet maker and a mother of Italian descent, Martin successfully persuaded his fa ...
, Albert Lebourg,
Robert Antoine Pinchon Robert Antoine Pinchon (, 1 July 1886 in Rouen Rouen (, ; or ) is a city on the River Seine in northern France. It is the prefecture of the Regions of France, region of Normandy (administrative region), Normandy and the Departments of Fra ...
*
Pointillism Pointillism (, ) is a technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of color are applied in patterns to form an image. Georges Seurat and Paul Signac developed the technique in 1886, branching from Impressionism. The term "Pointillism" was ...
Georges Seurat Georges Pierre Seurat ( , , ; 2 December 1859 – 29 March 1891) was a French post-Impressionist artist. He is best known for devising the painting techniques known as chromoluminarism and pointillism Pointillism (, ) is a technique of pai ...
,
Paul Signac Paul Victor Jules Signac ( , , ; 11 November 1863 – 15 August 1935) was a French Neo-Impressionist painter Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, ...
, Maximilien Luce,
Henri-Edmond Cross Henri-Edmond Cross, born Henri-Edmond-Joseph Delacroix, (20 May 1856 – 16 May 1910) was a French painter and printmaker. He is most acclaimed as a master of Neo-Impressionism and he played an important role in shaping the second phase of tha ...
*
Divisionism Divisionism (also called chromoluminarism) was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically..Homer, William I. ''Seurat and the Science of Pa ...
Gaetano Previati Gaetano Previati (1852 – 1920) was an Italy, Italian Symbolism (arts), Symbolist painter in the Divisionism, Divisionist style. Biography Previati was born in Ferrara. He relocated to Milan in 1876 and enrolled at the Brera Academy of Fine Arts, ...
,
Giovanni Segantini Giovanni Segantini (15 January 1858 – 28 September 1899) was an Italian painter known for his large pastoral landscapes of the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain ...
, Pellizza da Volpedo *
Symbolism Symbolism or symbolist may refer to: Arts * Symbolism (arts), a 19th-century movement rejecting Realism ** Symbolist movement in Romania, symbolist literature and visual arts in Romania during the late 19th and early 20th centuries ** Russian symb ...
Gustave Moreau Gustave Moreau (; 6 April 1826 – 18 April 1898) was a major figure in the French Symbolism (arts), Symbolist movement, whose main emphasis was the illustration of Bible, biblical and mythological figures. Moreau's paintings appealed to the imagi ...

Gustave Moreau
,
Odilon Redon Odilon Redon (born Bertrand Redon; ; 20 April 18406 July 1916) was a French Symbolism (arts), symbolist painter, printmaker, Drawing, draughtsman and pastellist. Early in his career, both before and after fighting in the Franco-Prussian War, he ...

Odilon Redon
,
Edvard Munch Edvard Munch ( , ; 12 December 1863 – 23 January 1944) was a Norwegian painter Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a subs ...

Edvard Munch
,
James Whistler James Abbott McNeill Whistler (; July 11, 1834July 17, 1903) was an American artist active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom. He eschewed sentimentality and moral allusion in painting and was a leading prop ...
,
James Ensor James Sidney Edouard, Baron Ensor (13 April 1860 – 19 November 1949) was a Belgian painter and printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait ...
*
Les Nabis Les Nabis (French: les nabis, ) were a group of young French artists active in Paris from 1888 until 1900, who played a large part in the transition from impressionism Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively sma ...
Pierre Bonnard Pierre Bonnard (; 3 October 186723 January 1947) was a French painter, illustrator, and printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching, ...

Pierre Bonnard
, Édouard Vuillard, Félix Vallotton,
Maurice Denis Maurice Denis (; 25 November 1870 – 13 November 1943) was a French painter, decorative artist and writer, who was an important figure in the transitional period between impressionism Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterized ...

Maurice Denis
,
Paul Sérusier Image:Serusier - the talisman.JPG, Paul Sérusier, ''The Talisman (painting), The Talisman'' (1888); oil on wood, 27 x 21.5 cm. Musée d'Orsay, Paris Paul Sérusier (9 November 1864 – 7 October 1927) was a French painter who was a pioneer of abst ...
*
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
and variants –
Jugendstil Jugendstil ("Youth Style") was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts ] The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design and manufacture of objects that are both beautiful and functional. It includes most of ...

Jugendstil
, Vienna Secession, Secession,
Modern Style The Modern Style is a style of architecture, art, and design that first emerged in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Kingdom in the mid-1880s. It is the first Art Nouveau style worldwide, and it represents the evolution of Arts ...
, Modernisme – Aubrey Beardsley, Alphonse Mucha, Gustav Klimt, *
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
and design – Antoni Gaudí, Otto Wagner, Wiener Werkstätte, Josef Hoffmann, Adolf Loos, Koloman Moser * Early Modernist sculptors – Aristide Maillol, Auguste Rodin


Early 20th century (before World War I)

* Abstract art – Francis Picabia, Wassily Kandinsky, František Kupka, Robert Delaunay, Sonia Delaunay, Léopold Survage, Piet Mondrian, Kazimir Malevich, *
Fauvism Fauvism /ˈfoʊvɪzm̩/ is the style of ''les Fauves'' (French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early 20th-century modern art Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and d ...
André Derain André Derain (, ; 10 June 1880 – 8 September 1954) was a French artist, painter, sculptor and co-founder of Fauvism Fauvism /ˈfoʊvɪzm̩/ is the style of ''les Fauves'' ( French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early 20th-century modern art ...
,
Henri Matisse Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (; 31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a drawing, draughtsman, printmaking, printmaker, and sculpture, scul ...

Henri Matisse
,
Maurice de Vlaminck Maurice de Vlaminck (4 April 1876 – 11 October 1958) was a French Painting, painter. Along with André Derain and Henri Matisse he is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauvism, Fauve movement, a group of modern artists who from ...
,
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
, Kees van Dongen *
Expressionism Expressionism is a modernist , Solomon Guggenheim Museum 1946–1959 Modernism is both a philosophy, philosophical movement and an art movement that arose from broad transformations in Western world, Western society during the late 19th and ...
and related – Die Brücke, Der Blaue Reiter – Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka, Emil Nolde, Axel Törneman, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Max Pechstein *
Cubism Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde The avant-garde (; In 'advance guard' or 'vanguard', literally 'fore-guard') are people or works that are experimental, Wikt:radical#Adjective, radical, or unorthodox with respect to The arts, art ...
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
,
Georges Braque Georges Braque ( , ; 13 May 1882 – 31 August 1963) was a major 20th-century French painter This is a list of French people, French painters sorted alphabetically and by the century in which the painter was most active. alphabetically ...
,
Jean Metzinger Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger (; 24 June 1883 – 3 November 1956) was a major 20th-century French painter, theorist, writer, critic and poet, who along with wrote the first theoretical work on . His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were in ...
,
Albert Gleizes Albert Gleizes (; 8 December 1881 – 23 June 1953) was a major 20th-century French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of and an influence on the . Albert Gleizes and wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, ', 1912. ...
,
Fernand Léger Joseph Fernand Henri Léger (; February 4, 1881 – August 17, 1955) was a French painting, painter, sculpture, sculptor, and film director, filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism (known as "tubism") which he gradually m ...

Fernand Léger
, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier,
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
, Jacques Villon, Francis Picabia,
Juan Gris José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (23 March 1887 – 11 May 1927), better known as Juan Gris (; ), was a Spanish painter born in Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain. The city has almost 3.4&nbs ...

Juan Gris
* Futurism (art), Futurism – Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov * Orphism (art), Orphism – Robert Delaunay, Sonia Delaunay, František Kupka * Suprematism – Kazimir Malevich, Alexander Rodchenko, El Lissitzky * Synchromism – Stanton Macdonald-Wright, Morgan Russell * Vorticism – Wyndham Lewis * Sculpture – Constantin Brâncuși, Joseph Csaky, Alexander Archipenko, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Jacques Lipchitz, Ossip Zadkine, Henri Laurens, Elie Nadelman, Chaim Gross, Chana Orloff, Jacob Epstein, Gustave Miklos * Photography – Pictorialism, Straight photography


World War I to World War II

*
Dada Dada () or Dadaism was an art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at ...

Dada
– Jean Arp,
Marcel Duchamp Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (; ; 28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French Americans, French-American painter, sculptor, chess player, and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, Dada, and conceptual art. Duchamp is commonly regarded, a ...

Marcel Duchamp
, Max Ernst, Francis Picabia, Kurt Schwitters *
Surrealism Surrealism was a cultural movement A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") ...

Surrealism
– Marc Chagall, René Magritte, Jean Arp, Salvador Dalí, Max Ernst,
Giorgio de Chirico Giorgio de Chirico ( , ; 10 July 1888 – 20 November 1978) was an Italian artist and writer born in Greece. In the years before World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war origina ...
, André Masson, Joan Miró * Pittura Metafisica –
Giorgio de Chirico Giorgio de Chirico ( , ; 10 July 1888 – 20 November 1978) was an Italian artist and writer born in Greece. In the years before World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war origina ...
, Carlo Carrà, Giorgio Morandi * De Stijl – Theo van Doesburg, Piet Mondrian * New Objectivity – Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, George Grosz * Figurative painting –
Henri Matisse Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (; 31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a drawing, draughtsman, printmaking, printmaker, and sculpture, scul ...

Henri Matisse
,
Pierre Bonnard Pierre Bonnard (; 3 October 186723 January 1947) was a French painter, illustrator, and printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching, ...

Pierre Bonnard
* American Modernism – Stuart Davis (painter), Stuart Davis, Arthur G. Dove, Marsden Hartley, Georgia O'Keeffe * Constructivism (art), Constructivism – Naum Gabo, Gustav Klutsis, László Moholy-Nagy, El Lissitzky, Kasimir Malevich, Vadim Meller, Alexander Rodchenko, Vladimir Tatlin *
Bauhaus The Staatliches Bauhaus (), commonly known as the Bauhaus (German: "building house"), was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German an ...

Bauhaus
– Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Josef Albers * Scottish Colourists – Francis Cadell (artist), Francis Cadell, Samuel Peploe, George Hunter (painter), Leslie Hunter, John Duncan Fergusson * Social realism – Grant Wood, Walker Evans, Diego Rivera * Precisionism – Charles Sheeler, Charles Demuth * Sculpture – Alexander Calder, Alberto Giacometti, Gaston Lachaise, Henry Moore,
Pablo Picasso Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker 300px, Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', etching">Self-portrait.html" ;"title="Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait">Rembrandt, ''Self-portrait'', et ...

Pablo Picasso
, Julio González (sculptor), Julio Gonzalez


After World War II

* Figurative art, Figuratifs – Bernard Buffet, Jean Carzou, Maurice Boitel, Daniel du Janerand, Claude-Max Lochu * Sculpture – Henry Moore, David Smith (sculptor), David Smith, Tony Smith (sculptor), Tony Smith, Alexander Calder, Isamu Noguchi, Alberto Giacometti, Sir Anthony Caro, Jean Dubuffet, Isaac Witkin, René Iché, Marino Marini (sculptor), Marino Marini, Louise Nevelson, Albert Vrana * Abstract expressionism – Joan Mitchell, Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, Arshile Gorky, Hans Hofmann, Franz Kline, Robert Motherwell, Clyfford Still, Lee Krasner, * American Abstract Artists – Ilya Bolotowsky, Ibram Lassaw, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, Burgoyne Diller * Outsider Art, Art Brut – Adolf Wölfli, August Natterer, Ferdinand Cheval, Madge Gill * Arte Povera – Jannis Kounellis, Luciano Fabro, Mario Merz, Piero Manzoni, Alighiero Boetti *
Color field painting , ''Beginning'', 1958, magna on canvas painting, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Working in Washington, D.C., Noland was a pioneer of the color field movement in the late 1950s. Color field painting is a style of abstract painting that em ...
– Barnett Newman, Mark Rothko, Adolph Gottlieb, Sam Francis, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Helen Frankenthaler * Tachisme – Jean Dubuffet, Pierre Soulages, Hans Hartung, Ludwig Merwart * COBRA (avant-garde movement), COBRA – Pierre Alechinsky, Karel Appel, Asger Jorn *
Conceptual art Conceptual art, also referred to as conceptualism, is art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposa ...
Art & Language Image:Art-LanguageV3No1-1974.jpg, Scratched photograph of the cover of ''Art-Language'', Vol.3 No.1, 1974. Art & Language is a conceptual artists' collaboration that has undergone many changes since it was created in the late 1960s. The group was f ...
, Dan Graham, Lawrence Weiner, Bruce Nauman, Daniel Buren, Victor Burgin, Sol LeWitt * De-collage – Wolf Vostell, Mimmo Rotella * Neo-Dada – Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, John Chamberlain (sculptor), John Chamberlain, Joseph Beuys, Lee Bontecou, Edward Kienholz * American Figurative Expressionism, Figurative Expressionism – Larry Rivers, Grace Hartigan, Elaine de Kooning, Robert De Niro, Sr., Lester Johnson (artist), Lester Johnson, George McNeil (artist), George McNeil, Earle M. Pilgrim, Jan Müller (artist), Jan Müller, Robert Beauchamp, Bob Thompson (painter), Bob Thompson *Feminist art movement, Feminist Art — Eva Hesse, Judy Chicago, Barbara Kruger, Mary Beth Edelson, Ewa Partum, Valie Export, Yoko Ono, Louise Bourgeois, Cindy Sherman, Kiki Smith, Guerrilla Girls, Hannah Wilke *
Fluxus Fluxus was an international, interdisciplinary community of artists, composers, designers and poets during the 1960s and 1970s who engaged in experimental art performances which emphasized the artistic process over the finished product. Fluxus i ...
– George Maciunas, Joseph Beuys, Wolf Vostell, Nam June Paik, Daniel Spoerri, Dieter Roth, Carolee Schneeman, Alison Knowles, Charlotte Moorman, Dick Higgins *
Happening A happening is a performance, event, or Situationist International, situation art, usually as performance art. The term was first used by Allan Kaprow during the 1950s to describe a range of art-related events. History Origins Image:SurvivalRese ...

Happening
– Allan Kaprow, Joseph Beuys, Wolf Vostell, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, Red Grooms, Nam June Paik, Charlotte Moorman, Robert Whitman, Yoko Ono * Dau-al-Set – founded in Barcelona by poet/artist Joan Brossa, – Antoni Tàpies * – founded in Madrid by artists Antonio Saura, Pablo Serrano * Geometric abstraction – Wassily Kandinsky, Kazimir Malevich, Nadir Afonso, Manlio Rho, Mario Radice, Mino Argento, Adam Szentpétery *
Hard-edge painting Hard-edge painting is painting in which abrupt transitions are found between color areas. Color areas are often of one unvarying color. The Hard-edge painting style is related to Geometric abstraction Black Square'', 1915, oil on linen, 79.5 x ...
– John McLaughlin (artist), John McLaughlin, Ellsworth Kelly, Frank Stella, Al Held, Ronald Davis * Kinetic art – George Rickey, Getulio Alviani *
Land art Land art, variously known as Earth art, environmental art, and Earthworks, is an art movement that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s, largely associated with Great Britain and the United StatesArt in the modern era: A guide to styles, schools, & mov ...

Land art
– Ana Mendieta, Christo, Richard Long (artist), Richard Long, Robert Smithson, Michael Heizer * Les Automatistes – Claude Gauvreau, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Pierre Gauvreau, Fernand Leduc, Jean-Paul Mousseau, Marcelle Ferron *
Minimal art Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is set out to expose the essence, essentials or identity of a subject through eliminating all non-essential forms, features or con ...
– Sol LeWitt, Donald Judd, Dan Flavin, Richard Serra, Agnes Martin *
Postminimalism Postminimalism is an art term coined (as post-minimalism) by Robert Pincus-Witten in 1971Chilvers, Ian and Glaves-Smith, John, ''A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art'', second edition (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. ...
– Eva Hesse, Bruce Nauman, Lynda Benglis * Lyrical abstraction – Ronnie Landfield, Sam Gilliam, Larry Zox, Dan Christensen, Natvar Bhavsar, Larry Poons * Neo-figurative, Neo-figurative art – Fernando Botero, Antonio Berni * Neo-expressionism – Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer, Jörg Immendorff, Jean-Michel Basquiat * Transavanguardia – Francesco Clemente, Mimmo Paladino, Sandro Chia, Enzo Cucchi * Figuration libre – Hervé Di Rosa, François Boisrond, Robert Combas * New realism – Yves Klein, Pierre Restany, Arman *
Op art Op art, short for optical art, is a style of visual art that uses optical illusions. Op art works are abstract, with many better known pieces created in black and white. Typically, they give the viewer the impression of movement, hidden images ...
– Victor Vasarely, Bridget Riley, Richard Anuszkiewicz, Jeffrey Steele (artist), Jeffrey Steele * Outsider art – Howard Finster, Grandma Moses, Bob Justin *
Photorealism Photorealism is a genre of art that encompasses painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, con ...
– Audrey Flack, Chuck Close, Duane Hanson, Richard Estes, Malcolm Morley *
Pop art
Pop art
– Richard Hamilton (artist), Richard Hamilton, Robert Indiana, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol, Ed Ruscha, David Hockney * Postwar European figurative painting – Lucian Freud, Francis Bacon (painter), Francis Bacon, Frank Auerbach, Gerhard Richter * New European Painting – Luc Tuymans, Marlene Dumas, Neo Rauch, Bracha Ettinger, Michaël Borremans, Chris Ofili * Shaped canvas – Frank Stella, Kenneth Noland, Ronald Davis, Ron Davis, Robert Mangold. * Soviet art – Aleksandr Deyneka, Aleksandr Gerasimov (painter), Aleksandr Gerasimov, Ilya Kabakov, Komar & Melamid, Alexandr Zhdanov, Leonid Sokov * Spatialism – Lucio Fontana *
Video art Video art is an art form which relies on using video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and co ...
– Nam June Paik, Wolf Vostell, Joseph Beuys, Bill Viola, Hans Breder * Visionary art – Ernst Fuchs (artist), Ernst Fuchs, Paul Laffoley, Michael Bowen (artist), Michael Bowen


Important modern art exhibitions and museums


Austria

* Leopold Museum, Vienna


Belgium

* SMAK, Ghent


Brazil

* Museu de Arte de São Paulo, MASP, São Paulo, São Paulo (city), SP * Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, MAM/SP, São Paulo, São Paulo (city), SP * Museum of Modern Art, Rio de Janeiro, MAM/RJ, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (city), RJ * Museum of Modern Art of Bahia, MAM/BA, Salvador, Bahia


Colombia

* Bogotá Museum of Modern Art, Bogotá Museum of Modern Art (MAMBO)


Croatia

* Ivan Meštrović Gallery, Split (city), Split * Modern Gallery, Zagreb * Museum of Contemporary Art, Zagreb


Ecuador

* Museo Antropologico y de Arte Contemporaneo, Guayaquil * La Capilla del Hombre, Quito


Finland

* EMMA (museum), EMMA, Espoo * Kiasma, Helsinki


France

* Château de Montsoreau-Museum of Contemporary Art, Montsoreau * Lille Métropole Museum of Modern, Contemporary and Outsider Art, Villeneuve d'Ascq * Musée d'Orsay, Paris * Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris * Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris * Musée Picasso, Paris * Strasbourg Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Strasbourg * Musée d'art moderne de Troyes


Germany

* documenta, Kassel, an exhibition of modern and contemporary art held every 5 years * Museum Ludwig, Cologne * Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich


India

* (CIMA), Kolkata * National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi * National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai, National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai * National Gallery of Modern Art, Bangalore, National Gallery of Modern Art, Bangalore


Iran

* Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art, Museum of Contemporary Art, Tehran


Ireland

* Hugh Lane Gallery, Dublin * Irish Museum of Modern Art, Dublin


Israel

* Tel Aviv Museum of Art


Italy

* Palazzo delle Esposizioni * Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna * Venice Biennial, Venice * Palazzo Pitti, Florence * Museo del Novecento, Milan


Mexico

* Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexican Federal District, México D.F.


Netherlands

* Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam * Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam


Norway

* Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art, Oslo * Henie-Onstad Art Centre, Oslo


Poland

* Museum of Art in Łódź, Museum of Art, Łódź * National Museum, Kraków, National Museum, Kraków


Qatar

* Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art, Doha


Romania

* National Museum of Contemporary Art (Romania), National Museum of Contemporary Art, Bucharest


Russia

* Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg * Pushkin Museum, Moscow * Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow


Serbia

* Museum of Contemporary Art, Belgrade, Museum of Contemporary Art, Belgrade


Spain

* Museu d'Art Contemporani de Barcelona, Barcelona * Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid * Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid * Institut Valencià d'Art Modern, Valencia, Spain, Valencia * Atlantic Center of Modern Art, Las Palmas, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria * Museu Picasso, Barcelona. * Museo Picasso Málaga, Málaga.


Sweden

* Moderna Museet, Stockholm


Taiwan

* Asia Museum of Modern Art, Taichung


United Kingdom

* Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art, London * Saatchi Gallery, London * Tate Britain, London * Tate Liverpool * Tate Modern, London * Tate St Ives


United States

* Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York * Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois * Empire State Plaza#Art collection, Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza Art Collection, Albany, New York * Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Guggenheim Museum, New York City, New York, and Venice, Italy ; more recently in Berlin, Germany, Bilbao, Spain, and Las Vegas, Nevada * High Museum, Atlanta, Georgia * Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, California * McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, Texas * Menil Collection, Houston, Texas * Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts * Museum of Modern Art, New York City, New York * San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California * Naples Museum of Art, The Baker Museum, Naples, Florida * Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota * Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City, New York


See also

* 20th century art * 20th-century Western painting * Art manifesto * Art movements * Art periods *
Conceptual art Conceptual art, also referred to as conceptualism, is art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposa ...
* Contemporary art * Gesamtkunstwerk * History of painting * List of 20th-century women artists * List of modern artists * Modern architecture * Modernism * Postmodern art * Western painting


Notes


References


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * * * *
See also: ''The First Moderns''. * * * * *


External links


Tate Modern

The Museum of Modern Art

Modern artists and art

A ''TIME'' Archives Collection of Modern Art's perception

National Gallery of Modern Art – Govt. of India
{{DEFAULTSORT:Modern Art Modern art,