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A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
small enough to hold and operate in the hand. Typically, any handheld computer device will have an LCD or
OLED An organic light-emitting diode (OLED or organic LED), also known as organic electroluminescent (organic EL) diode, is a light-emitting diode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electr ...
flat screen interface, providing a
touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an Information processor, information processing system ...

touchscreen
interface with digital buttons and keyboard or physical buttons along with a physical keyboard. Many such devices can connect to the Internet and interconnect with other devices such as car entertainment systems or headsets via
Wi-Fi Wi-Fi () is a family of wireless network A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installa ...

Wi-Fi
,
Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the telecommunication, transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which ...

Bluetooth
, cellular networks or
near field communication Near-field communication (NFC) is a set of communication protocols A communication protocol is a system of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system 400px, Communication system A communications system or communica ...
(NFC). Integrated cameras, the ability to place and receive voice and video
telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyt ...

telephone
calls,
video games#REDIRECT Video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device ...

video games
, and
Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national ...
(GPS) capabilities are common. Power is typically provided by a
lithium-ion battery A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery A rechargeable battery, storage battery, or secondary cell, (or archaically accumulator) is a type of electrical battery A battery is a device consisting of o ...
. Mobile devices may run
mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems like macOS ...
s that allow third-party
applications Application may refer to: Mathematics and computing * Application software, computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks ** Application layer, an abstraction layer that specifies protocols and interface methods used in a co ...
to be installed and run. Early
smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

smartphone
s were joined in the late 2000s by larger, but otherwise essentially the same, tablets. Input and output is now usually via a touch-screen interface. Phones/tablets and
personal digital assistants Image:PalmTX.jpg, The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs have been mostly displaced by the widespread adoption of highly c ...
may provide much of the functionality of a
laptop A laptop, laptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with ...

laptop
/
desktop computer A desktop computer is a personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and ...
but more conveniently, in addition to exclusive features.
Enterprise digital assistant Typical PDT A portable data terminal, or shortly PDT, is an electronic device Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses ...
s can provide additional business functionality such as integrated data capture via
barcode A barcode or bar code is a method of representing data in a visual, machine-readable form. Initially, barcodes represented data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines. These barcodes, now commonly referred to as linear or one-dime ...
,
RFID Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic field An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used fo ...
and
smart card A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC or IC card) is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is typically a plastic credit card #REDIRECT Credit card A credit card is a paym ...
readers. By 2010, mobile devices often contained sensors such as
accelerometer An accelerometer is a tool that measures . Proper acceleration is the (the of ) of a body in its own instantaneous ; this is different from coordinate acceleration, which is acceleration in a fixed . For example, an accelerometer at rest on the s ...

accelerometer
s,
magnetometer A magnetometer is a device that measures magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For instance, a vector field in ...
s and
gyroscopes A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος ''gûros'', "circle" and σκοπέω ''skopéō'', "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining Orientation (geometry), orientation and angular velocity. It is a spinning wheel or disc in ...

gyroscopes
, allowing detection of orientation and motion. Mobile devices may provide
biometric Biometrics are body measurements and calculations related to human characteristics. Biometrics authentication Authentication (from ''authentikos'', "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης ''authentes'', "author") is the act of proving an ...

biometric
user authentication such as
face recognition A facial recognition system is a technology capable of matching a human face The face is the front of an animal's head that features three of the head's sense organs, the eyes, nose, and mouth, and through which animals express many of their ...

face recognition
or
fingerprint recognition A fingerprint is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Moisture and grease on a finger result in fingerprints on surface ...
. Major global manufacturers of mobile devices are
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
,
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affil ...
,
Huawei Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ( ; ) is a Chinese headquartered in , , China. It designs, develops and sells , and various s. The corporation was founded in 1987 by , a former Deputy Regimental Head in the . Initially focused on manufacturi ...
,
Meizu Meizu Technology Co., Ltd. () is a Chinese consumer electronics company based in Zhuhai Zhuhai (, ; Yale romanization of Cantonese, Yale: ''Jyūhói''), Chinese postal romanization, also known as Chuhai is a prefecture-level city located ...
,
Zte ZTE Corporation is a People's Republic of China, Chinese partially state-owned technology company that specializes in telecommunication. Founded in 1985, ZTE is listed on both the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, Hong Kong and Shenzhen Stock Exchang ...
,
Xiaomi Xiaomi Corporation (; ), registered in Asia as Xiaomi Inc., is a Chinese designer and manufacturer of consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics c ...

Xiaomi
,
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
,
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
,
HTC HTC Corporation ( zh, t=宏達國際電子股份有限公司, s=宏达国际电子股份有限公司, p=Hóngdá Guójì Diànzǐ Gǔfèn Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī, first=t) (High Tech Computer Corporation, literally ''Hongda International Electronics ...

HTC
,
LG
LG
,
TCL Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or as an initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, prac ...
,
Motorola Mobility Motorola Mobility LLC, marketed as Motorola, is an American consumer electronics and telecommunications company, and a subsidiary of Chinese multinational technology company Lenovo.;; Motorola primarily manufactures smartphones and other mobile d ...

Motorola Mobility
,
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational for ...

Nokia
and
Micromax Informatics Micromax Informatics is an Indian company that manufactures smartphone A smartphone is a mobile device that combines cellular and mobile computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger har ...
.


Characteristics

Device mobility can be viewed in the context of several qualities:. * Physical dimensions and weight * Whether the device is mobile or some kind of host to which it is attached is mobile * To what kind of host devices can it be bound * How devices communicate with a host * When the mobility occurs Strictly speaking, many so-called mobile devices are not mobile. It is the host that is mobile, i.e., a mobile human host carries a non-mobile
smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

smartphone
device. An example of a true
mobile computing Mobile computing is human–computer interaction in which a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of o ...
device, where the device itself is mobile, is a
robot A robot is a machine—especially one Computer program, programmable by a computer—capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. A robot can be guided by an external control device, or the robot control, control may be ...

robot
. Another example is an
autonomous vehicle A self-driving car, also known as an autonomous vehicle (AV), driverless car, or robotic car (robo-car), is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They a ...
. There are three basic ways mobile devices can be physically bound to mobile hosts: accompanied, surface-mounted or embedded into the fabric of a host, e.g., an embedded controller embedded in a host device. Accompanied refers to an object being loosely bound and accompanying a mobile host, e.g., a smartphone can be carried in a bag or pocket but can easily be misplaced. Hence, mobile hosts with embedded devices such as an
autonomous vehicle A self-driving car, also known as an autonomous vehicle (AV), driverless car, or robotic car (robo-car), is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They a ...
can appear larger than pocket-sized. As stated earlier, the most common size of mobile computing device is pocket-sized that can be hand-held, but other sizes for mobile devices exist, too.
Mark Weiser Mark D. Weiser (July 23, 1952 – April 27, 1999) was a computer scientist and chief technology officer A chief technical officer (CTO), also known as a chief technology officer or chief technologist, is an executive-level position in a comp ...

Mark Weiser
, known as the father of
ubiquitous computing Ubiquitous computing (or "ubicomp") is a concept in software engineering and computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical t ...
, computing everywhere, referred to device sizes that are tab-sized, pad and board sized, where ''tabs'' are defined as accompanied or wearable centimeter-sized devices, e.g.
smartphones A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphones
, and
pads Pads (also called leg guards) are protective equipment used by batters in the sport of cricket, catchers in the sports of baseball and fastpitch softball, and by goaltenders in ice hockey, bandy and box lacrosse. They serve to protect the legs fro ...
are defined as hand-held decimeter-sized devices. If one changes the form of the mobile devices in terms of being non-planar, one can also have skin devices and tiny dust-sized devices. ''Dust'' refers to miniaturized devices without direct HCI interfaces, e.g., micro electro-mechanical systems (
MEMS Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), also written as micro-electro-mechanical systems (or microelectronic and microelectromechanical systems) and the related micromechatronics and microsystems constitute the technology of microscopic devices, ...
), ranging from nanometres through micrometers to millimeters. See also Smart dust. ''Skin'': fabrics based upon light emitting and conductive polymers and organic computer devices. These can be formed into more flexible non-planar display surfaces and products such as clothes and curtains, see
OLED display An organic light-emitting diode (OLED or organic LED), also known as organic electroluminescent (organic EL) diode, is a light-emitting diode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electr ...
. Also see
smart device A smart device is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active ...
. Although mobility is often regarded as synonymous with having wireless connectivity, these terms are different. Not all network access by mobile users, applications and devices need be via wireless networks and vice versa. Wireless access devices can be static and mobile users can move in between wired and wireless hotspots such as in Internet cafés. Some mobile devices can be used as
mobile Internet deviceImage:Lenovo Ideapad U8 MID example.jpg, 300px, Lenovo Ideapad U8 MID A mobile Internet device (MID) is a multimedia capable mobile device providing wireless networking, wireless Internet access. They are designed to provide entertainment, informatio ...
s to access the Internet while moving but they do not need to do this and many phone functions or applications are still operational even while disconnected to the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. What makes the mobile device unique compared to other technologies is the inherent flexibility in the hardware and also the software. Flexible applications include video chat, Web browsing, payment systems, NFC, audio recording etc. As mobile devices become ubiquitous there, will be a proliferation of services which include the use of the
cloud In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid drop (liquid), droplets, ice crystals, frozen crystals, or other particulates, particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body or similar space. Wate ...

cloud
. Although a common form of mobile device, a smartphone, has a display, another perhaps even more common form of smart computing device, the
smart card A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC or IC card) is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is typically a plastic credit card #REDIRECT Credit card A credit card is a paym ...
, e.g., used as a bank card or travel card, does not have a display. This mobile device often has a CPU and memory but needs to connect, or be inserted into a reader in order to display its internal data or state.


Types

There are many kinds of mobile devices, designed for different applications. They include: *
Mobile computers Mobile computing is human–computer interaction Human–computer interaction (HCI) studies the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people ( users) and computer A computer is a machine that can be p ...
**
Tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations aut ...
**
Netbook The marketing term netbook identified small and inexpensive laptop computer, laptops that were sold from 2007 to around 2013; these were generally low-performance. While the ''name'' has fallen out of use, machines matching their descripti ...

Netbook
**
Digital media player A digital media player (also sometimes known as a streaming device or streaming box) is a type of consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics compri ...
**
Enterprise digital assistant Typical PDT A portable data terminal, or shortly PDT, is an electronic device Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses ...
**
Graphing calculator A graphing calculator (also graphics calculator or graphic display calculator) is a handheld computer A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithm ...
**
Handheld game console A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/out ...

Handheld game console
**
Handheld PC A handheld personal computer (PC) is a miniature computer typically built around a clamshell Clamshell may denote anything resembling the bivalve shell of a clam: * Scoop stretcher, another name for this patient transport device * Clamshell des ...
**
Laptop A laptop, laptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with ...

Laptop
**
Mobile Internet deviceImage:Lenovo Ideapad U8 MID example.jpg, 300px, Lenovo Ideapad U8 MID A mobile Internet device (MID) is a multimedia capable mobile device providing wireless networking, wireless Internet access. They are designed to provide entertainment, informatio ...
(MID) **
Personal digital assistant#REDIRECT Personal digital assistant The Palm TX A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager. PDAs have been mostly displaced by the widesprea ...
(PDA) **
Pocket calculator An electronic calculator is typically a portable Electronics, electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics. The first Solid-state electronics, solid-state electronic calculator was created ...

Pocket calculator
**
Portable media player A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files. The data is typically stored on a compact disc (CD), Di ...
**
Ultra-mobile PC An ultra-mobile PC (ultra-mobile personal computer or UMPC) is a miniature version of a pen computer, a class of laptop whose specifications were launched by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multin ...
*
Mobile phones A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the tra ...

Mobile phones
**
Camera phones A camera phone is a mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunicatio ...
**
Feature phone A feature phone is a type or class of mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a ...
s **
Smartphones A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

Smartphones
** *
Digital cameras A digital camera is a camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behav ...

Digital cameras
** Digital camcorder **
Digital still camera A digital camera is a camera A camera is an optical instrument used to capture an image An SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of S ...
(DSC) **
Digital video camera A video camera is a camera A camera is an optical instrument used to capture an image An SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the Teide volcano. The city of Sant ...

Digital video camera
(DVC) **
Front-facing camera A front-facing camera is a common feature of cameras, mobile phones, smartphones, and tablet computer, tablets. While stand-alone cameras face forward, away from the operator, tablet computer, tablets, smartphones and similar mobile devices typicall ...
*
Pagers A pager (also known as a beeper, bleeper or pocket bell) is a wireless telecommunications device that receives and displays alphanumeric or voice messages. One-way pagers can only receive messages, while response pagers and two-way pagers can ...
* Personal navigation device (PND) * Wearable computers **
Calculator watch Image:ΜWatch DIY Scientific Calculator Watch.jpg, The David L. Jones (electronics engineer)#.CE.BCWatch, μWatch, an open source DIY scientific calculator watch A calculator watch is a digital watch with a built-in calculator, usually includi ...
**
Smartwatch A smartwatch is a wearable computer in the form of a watch; modern smartwatches provide a local touchscreen interface for daily use, while an associated smartphone app provides for management and telemetry (such as long-term biomonitoring). Whil ...

Smartwatch
**
Head-mounted display A head-mounted display (HMD) is a display device, worn on the head or as part of a helmet (See Helmet-mounted display A helmet-mounted display (HMD) is a device used in aircraft to project information to the pilot's eyes. Its scope is similar to ...
*
Smart cards A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC or IC card) is a physical electronic authorization device, used to control access to a resource. It is typically a plastic credit card #REDIRECT Credit card A credit card is a paym ...


Uses

Handheld devices have become ruggedized for use in mobile field management. For instance, the uses are,
digitizing DigitizationDefinition of digitization
at WhatIs.com
is the process of converting ...
notes, sending and receiving
invoice :''See also Voucher: an invoice is within the European union primarily legally defined by the EU VAT directive as an accounting voucher (to verify tax and VAT reporting) and secondly as a Civil law (common law) document. An invoice, bill or tab is ...

invoice
s,
asset management Asset management refers to a systematic approach to the governance and realization of value from the things that a group or entity is responsible for, over their whole life cycles. It may apply both to tangible asset In financial accountancy, f ...
, recording signatures, managing parts, and scanning barcodes. In 2009, developments in
mobile collaborationMobile collaboration is a technology-based process of communicating using electronic assets and accompanying software designed for use in remote locations. Newest generation hand-held electronic devices feature video, audio, and telestration (on-scre ...
systems enabled the use of handheld devices that combine video, audio and on-screen drawing capabilities to enable multi-party conferencing in real-time, independent of location. Handheld computers are available in a variety of form factors, including
smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

smartphone
s on the low end, handheld
PDA PDA may refer to: Science and technology * Patron-driven acquisition, a mechanism for libraries to purchase books *Personal digital assistant, a mobile device * Photodiode array, a type of detector * Polydiacetylenes, a family of conducting polym ...
s,
Ultra-Mobile PC An ultra-mobile PC (ultra-mobile personal computer or UMPC) is a miniature version of a pen computer, a class of laptop A laptop, laptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project com ...
s and Tablet PCs (
Palm OS Palm OS (also known as Garnet OS) is a discontinued mobile operating system initially developed by Palm, Inc., for personal digital assistants (PDAs) in 1996. Palm OS was designed for ease of use with a touchscreen-based graphical user interface. ...
,
WebOS webOS, also known as LG webOS and previously known as Open webOS, HP webOS and Palm webOS, is a Linux kernel The Linux kernel is a free and open-source Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that is both free software and open-so ...

WebOS
). Users can watch television through Internet by IPTV on some mobile devices. Mobile
television receiver File:Sony Wega TV set.jpg, A Sony WEGA, Sony Wega CRT television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, telly, or tele, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers, for the pu ...
s have existed since the 1960s, and in the 21st century mobile phone providers began making television available on cellular phones. In the 2010s, mobile devices can and share a lot of data despite the distance or specifications of said devices. In the medical field, mobile devices are quickly becoming essential tools for accessing clinical information such as drugs, treatment, even medical calculation. Due to the popularity of mobile gaming, the gambling industry started offering casino games on mobile devices, which in turn lead to inclusion of these devices in anti hazard legislature as devices that could potentially be used in illegal gambling. Other potentially illegal activities might include the use of mobile devices in distributing child pornography and the legal sex industry use of mobile apps and hardware to promote its activities, as well as the possibility of using mobile devices to perform trans-border services, which are all issues that need to be regulated. In the military, mobile devices have created new opportunities for the armed forces to deliver training and educational materials to soldiers, regardless of where they are stationed.


See also

* Converged device * List of emerging technologies *Mobile interaction service, Mobile interaction * Near field communication (NFC) *Smart device


References


Sources

* * {{Authority control Information appliances Mobile computers Personal digital assistants