Misogyny () is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women
s. It enforces sexism
by punishing those who reject an inferior status for women and rewarding those who accept it. Misogyny manifests in numerous ways, including social exclusion
, sex discrimination
, male privilege
, belittling of women, disenfranchisement of women, violence against women
, and sexual objectification
Misogyny has existed throughout history. It was noted as a disease in Classical Greece
Misogyny can be found within sacred texts
, and Western philosophy
and Eastern philosophy
. Many misogynistic ideas have also been documented through the work of different western thinkers, such as Aristotle
Misogyny can lead to both physical and psychological violence.
Misogyny on the Internet
has also increased over time, often in the form of coordinated attacks.
There is also a trend in similar, stereotyping language being used in this online misogyny.
Psychological violence, such as internalised misogyny, abuse
, and harassment
, also correlate with misogyny.
Misogyny has been criticised in various ways, such as the interpretation of misogyny in second-wave feminism
and the idea that men fear women instead of hating them.
It is the opposite of philogyny
touches on different aspects of misogyny, such as the notion of "good" versus "bad" women, the patriarchal bargain, and contempt for the feminine. "Good" versus "bad" women is a concept used to control women and further the misogyny they experience by categorising women based on their response to their own oppression
According to sociologist Allan G. Johnson
, "misogyny is a cultural attitude of hatred for females because they are female". Johnson argues that:
Sociologist Michael Flood
at the University of Wollongong
defines misogyny as the hatred of women, and notes:
Philosopher Kate Manne
of Cornell University
defines misogyny as the attempt to control and punish women who challenge male dominance.
Manne finds the traditional "hatred of women" definition of misogyny too simplistic, noting it does not account for how perpetrators of misogynistic violence
may love certain women; for example, their mothers.
Instead, misogyny rewards women who uphold the status quo
and punishes those who reject women's subordinate status.
Manne distinguishes sexism
, which she says seeks to rationalise and justify patriarchy
, from misogyny, which she calls the "law enforcement" branch of patriarchy:
Dictionaries define misogyny as "hatred of women" and as "hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women". In 2012, primarily in response to events occurring in the Australian Parliament
, the Macquarie Dictionary
(which documents Australian English
and New Zealand English
) expanded the definition to include not only hatred of women but also "entrenched prejudices against women".
The counterpart of misogyny is misandry
, the hatred or dislike of men; the antonym
of misogyny is philogyny
, the love or fondness of women.
''Misogynous'' can be used as an adjectival form of the word.
In his book ''City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens'', J.W. Roberts argues that older than tragedy and comedy was a misogynistic tradition in Greek literature, reaching back at least as far as Hesiod
. The term ''misogyny'' itself comes directly into English from the Ancient Greek word ''misogunia'' (), which survives in several passages.
The earlier, longer, and more complete passage comes from a moral tract known as ''On Marriage'' (''c''. 150 BC) by the stoic
philosopher Antipater of Tarsus
[A recent critical text with translation is i]
to Will Deming, ''Paul on Marriage and Celibacy: The Hellenistic Background of 1 Corinthians 7'', pp. 221–226.
''Misogunia'' appears in the accusative case on page 224 of Deming, as the fifth word in line 33 of his Greek text.
It is split over lines 25–26 in von Arnim.
Antipater argues that marriage is the foundation of the state, and considers it to be based on divine (polytheistic
) decree. He uses ''misogunia'' to describe the sort of writing the tragedian Euripides
eschews, stating that he "reject
the hatred of women in his writing" (ἀποθέμενος τὴν ἐν τῷ γράφειν μισογυνίαν). He then offers an example of this, quoting from a lost play of Euripides in which the merits of a dutiful wife are praised.
The other surviving use of the original Greek word is by Chrysippus
, in a fragment from ''On affections'', quoted by Galen
on Affections''. Here, ''misogyny'' is the first in a short list of three "disaffections"—women (''misogunia''), wine (''misoinia'', μισοινία) and humanity (''misanthrōpia'', μισανθρωπία). Chrysippus' point is more abstract than Antipater's, and Galen quotes the passage as an example of an opinion contrary to his own. What is clear, however, is that he groups hatred of women with hatred of humanity generally, and even hatred of wine. "It was the prevailing medical opinion of his day that wine strengthens body and soul alike."
[Teun L. Tieleman, ]
Chrysippus' on Affections:
Reconstruction and Interpretations'', (Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2003), p. 162.
So Chrysippus, like his fellow stoic Antipater, views misogyny negatively, as a disease
; a dislike of something that is good. It is this issue of conflicted or alternating emotions that was philosophically contentious to the ancient writers. Ricardo Salles suggests that the general stoic view was that "
man may not only alternate between philogyny and misogyny, philanthropy and misanthropy, but be prompted to each by the other."
has also been accused of being a misogynist; he has written that women were inferior to men. According to Cynthia Freeland
In the ''Routledge philosophy guidebook to Plato and the Republic'', Nickolas Pappas describes the "problem of misogyny" and states:
''Misogynist'' is also found in the Greek—''misogunēs'' ()—in ''Deipnosophistae'' (above) and in Plutarch
's ''Parallel Lives'', where it is used as the title of Heracles
in the history of Phocion
. It was the title of a play by Menander
, which we know of from book seven (concerning Alexandria
) of Strabo
's 17 volume ''Geography
[Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, ''A Greek–English Lexicon'' (''LSJ''), revised and augmented by Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940). ]
and quotations of Menander by Clement of Alexandria
that relate to marriage. A Greek play with a similar name, ''Misogunos'' (Μισόγυνος) or ''Woman-hater'', is reported by Marcus Tullius Cicero
(in Latin) and attributed to the poet Marcus Atilius
Cicero reports that Greek philosophers considered misogyny to be caused by gynophobia
, a fear of women.
[Marcus Tullius Cicero, ''Tusculanae Quaestiones'', Book 4, Chapter 11.]
In summary, Greek literature considered misogyny to be a disease
condition—in that it ran contrary to their perceptions of the value of women as wives and of the family as the foundation of society. These points are widely noted in the secondary literature.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary
the word entered English because of an anonymous proto-feminist
play, ''Swetnam the Woman-Hater
'', published in 1620 in England. The play is a criticism of anti-woman writer Joseph Swetnam
, who it represents with the pseudonym Misogynos. The character of Misogynos is the origin of the term misogynist in English.
The term was fairly rare until the mid-1970s. The publication of feminist Andrea Dworkin
's 1974 critique ''Woman Hating
'' popularised the idea. The term misogyny entered the lexicon of second-wave feminism
. Dworkin and her contemporaries used the term to include not only a hatred or contempt of women, but the practice of controlling women with violence and punishing women who reject subordination.
Misogyny was discussed worldwide in 2012 because of a viral video
of a speech by Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard
. Her parliamentary address is known as the Misogyny Speech
. In the speech, Gillard powerfully criticised her opponents for holding her policies to a different standard
than those of male politicians, and for speaking about her in crudely sexual terms.
Gillard's usage of the word "misogyny" promoted re-evaluations of the word's published definitions. The ''Macquarie Dictionary
'' revised its definition in 2012 to better match the way the word has been used over the prior 30 years. The book ''Down Girl
'', which reconsidered the definition using the tools of analytic philosophy
, was inspired in part by Gillard.
In ''Misogyny: The World's Oldest Prejudice'', Jack Holland
argues that there is evidence of misogyny in the mythology
of the ancient world. In Greek mythology
according to Hesiod, the human race had already experienced a peaceful, autonomous existence as a companion to the gods before the creation of women. When Prometheus
decides to steal the secret of fire from the gods, Zeus
becomes infuriated and decides to punish humankind with an "evil thing for their delight". This "evil thing" is Pandora
, the first woman, who carried a jar (usually described—incorrectly—as a box) which she was told to never open. Epimetheus
(the brother of Prometheus) is overwhelmed by her beauty, disregards Prometheus' warnings about her, and marries her. Pandora cannot resist peeking into the jar, and by opening it she unleashes into the world all evil; labour
, old age
, and death
In his book ''The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity, and Gender'', professor Bernard Faure of Columbia University
argued generally that "Buddhism is paradoxically neither as sexist nor as egalitarian as is usually thought." He remarked, "Many feminist scholars have emphasised the misogynistic (or at least androcentric) nature of Buddhism" and stated that Buddhism morally exalts its male monks while the mothers and wives of the monks also have important roles. Additionally, he wrote:
Differences in tradition and interpretations of scripture have caused sects of Christianity
to differ in their beliefs with regard to their treatment of women.
In ''The Troublesome Helpmate'', Katharine M. Rogers argues that Christianity is misogynistic, and she lists what she says are specific examples of misogyny in the Pauline epistles
. She states:
In K. K. Ruthven's ''Feminist Literary Studies: An Introduction'', Ruthven makes reference to Rogers' book and argues that the "legacy of Christian misogyny was consolidated by the so-called 'Fathers' of the Church, like Tertullian
, who thought a woman was not only 'the gateway of the devil' but also 'a temple built over a sewer'."
However, some other scholars have argued that Christianity does not include misogynistic principles, or at least that a proper interpretation of Christianity would not include misogynistic principles. David M. Scholer, a biblical scholar at Fuller Theological Seminary
, stated that the verse Galatians 3:28
("There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus") is "the fundamental Pauline theological basis for the inclusion of women and men as equal and mutual partners in all of the ministries of the church."
In his book ''Equality in Christ? Galatians 3:28 and the Gender Dispute'', Richard Hove argues that—while Galatians 3:28 does mean that one's sex does not affect salvation—"there remains a pattern in which the wife is to emulate the church's submission to Christ () and the husband is to emulate Christ's love for the church."
In ''Christian Men Who Hate Women'', clinical psychologist Margaret J. Rinck has written that Christian social culture often allows a misogynist "misuse of the biblical ideal of submission". However, she argues that this a distortion of the "healthy relationship of mutual submission" which is actually specified in Christian doctrine, where "
ve is based on a deep, mutual respect as the guiding principle behind all decisions, actions, and plans". Similarly, Catholic scholar Christopher West
argues that "male domination violates God's plan and is the specific result of sin".
The fourth chapter (or ''sura
'') of the Quran
is called "Women" (''an-nisa
''). The 34th verse
is a key verse in feminist criticism of Islam
. The verse notes men's God-given advantages over women. They are consequently their protectors and maintainers. Where women are disobedient "admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them...." In his book ''No god but God
'', University of Southern California
, Professor Reza Aslan
wrote that "misogynistic interpretation" has been persistently attached to An-Nisa, 34 because commentary on the Quran "has been the exclusive domain of Muslim men".
In his book ''Popular Islam and Misogyny: A Case Study of Bangladesh'', Taj Hashmi discusses misogyny in relation to Muslim culture, writing:
Mansoor Abul Hakim's 2004 book''Women Who Deserve to go to Hell''
typifies the above comment.
Scholars William M. Reynolds and Julie A. Webber have written that Guru Nanak
, the founder of the Sikh
faith tradition, was a "fighter for women's rights" that was "in no way misogynistic" in contrast to some of his contemporaries.
In his book ''Scientology: A New Slant on Life'', L. Ron Hubbard
wrote the following passage:
In the same book, he also wrote:
These passages, along with other ones of a similar nature from Hubbard, have been criticised by Alan Scherstuhl of ''The Village Voice
'' as expressions of hatred towards women. However, Baylor University
professor J. Gordon Melton
has written that Hubbard later disregarded and abrogated much of his earlier views about women, which Melton views as merely echoes of common prejudices at the time. Melton has also stated that the Church of Scientology
welcomes both genders equally at all levels—from leadership positions to auditing
and so on—since Scientologists view people as spiritual beings
Misogynistic ideas among prominent western thinkers
Numerous influential Western philosophers
have been expressed ideas that can be characterised as misogynistic, including Aristotle
, René Descartes
, Thomas Hobbes
, John Locke
, David Hume
, Jean-Jacques Rousseau
, G. W. F. Hegel
, Arthur Schopenhauer
, Friedrich Nietzsche
, Charles Darwin
, Sigmund Freud
, Otto Weininger
, Oswald Spengler
, and John Lucas
Because of the influence of these thinkers, feminist scholars trace misogyny in western culture to these philosophers and their ideas.
Aristotle believed women were inferior and described them as "deformed males".
In his work ''Politics
'', he states
as regards the sexes, the male is by nature superior and the female inferior, the male ruler and the female subject 4 (1254b13-14).
Another example is ''Cynthia's catalog'' where Cynthia states "Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; that 'matter yearns for form, as the female for the male and the ugly for the beautiful'; that women have fewer teeth than men; that a female is an incomplete male or 'as it were, a deformity'.
Aristotle believed that men and women naturally differed both physically and mentally. He claimed that women are "more mischievous, less simple, more impulsive ... more compassionate
... more easily moved to tears
... more jealous, more querulous, more apt to scold and to strike
... more prone to despondency and less hopeful
... more void of shame or self-respect, more false of speech, more deceptive, of more retentive memory nd
... also more wakeful; more shrinking nd
more difficult to rouse to action" than men.
is well known for his views against equal rights for women for example in his treatise ''Emile
'', he writes: "Always justify the burdens you impose upon girls but impose them anyway... . They must be thwarted from an early age... . They must be exercised to constraint, so that it costs them nothing to stifle all their fantasies to submit them to the will of others." Other quotes consist of "closed up in their houses", "must receive the decisions of fathers and husbands like that of the church".
has been noted as a misogynist by many such as the philosopher, critic, and author Tom Grimwood.
In a 2008 article published in the philosophical journal of ''Kritique,'' Grimwood argues that Schopenhauer's misogynistic works have largely escaped attention despite being more noticeable than those of other philosophers such as Nietzsche.
For example, he noted Schopenhauer's works where the latter had argued women only have "meagre" reason comparable that of "the animal" "who lives in the present". Other works he noted consisted of Schopenhauer's argument that women's only role in nature is to further the species through childbirth and hence is equipped with the power to seduce and "capture" men.
He goes on to state that women's cheerfulness is chaotic and disruptive which is why it is crucial to exercise obedience to those with rationality. For her to function beyond her rational subjugator is a threat against men as well as other women, he notes. Schopenhauer also thought women's cheerfulness is an expression of her lack of morality and incapability to understand abstract or objective meaning such as art.
This is followed up by his quote "have never been able to produce a single, really great, genuine and original achievement in the fine arts, or bring to anywhere into the world a work of permanent value".
Arthur Schopenhauer also blamed women for the fall of King Louis XIII and triggering the French Revolution, in which he was later quoted as saying:
"At all events, a false position of the female sex, such as has its most acute symptom in our lady-business, is a fundamental defect of the state of society. Proceeding from the heart of this, it is bound to spread its noxious influence to all parts."
Schopenhauer has also been accused of misogyny for his essay "On Women" (Über die Weiber), in which he expressed his opposition to what he called "Teutonico-Christian stupidity" on female affairs. He argued that women are "by nature meant to obey" as they are "childish, frivolous, and short sighted".
He claimed that no woman had ever produced great art or "any work of permanent value".
He also argued that women did not possess any real beauty:
In ''Beyond Good and Evil
'', Friedrich Nietzsche
stated that stricter controls on women was a condition of "every elevation of culture". In his ''Thus Spoke Zarathustra
'', he has a female character say "You are going to women? Do not forget the whip!" In ''Twilight of the Idols
'', Nietzsche writes "Women are considered profound. Why? Because we never fathom their depths. But women aren't even shallow." There is controversy over the questions of whether or not this amounts to misogyny, whether his polemic against women is meant to be taken literally, and the exact nature of his opinions of women.
[Robert C. Holub, ''Nietzsche and The Women's Question'']
Coursework for Berkeley University.
Hegel's view of women can be characterised as misogynistic. Passages from Hegel's ''Elements of the Philosophy of Right'' illustrate the criticism:
Since 2018 counter-terrorism professionals such as ICCT and START have tracked misogyny or male supremacy as ideologies that have motivated terrorism. They describe this form of terror as a "rising threat". Among the attacks designated as misogynist terrorism are the 2014 Isla Vista killings and the 2018 Toronto van attack.
Blogger Jessica Valenti was influential in designating these acts as misogynist terrorism.
Some of the attackers have identified with the incel movement, and were motivated to kill by a perception of being entitled to sexual access to women. As is typical of terrorism, these acts are intended to cause widespread fear. Women are targeted merely because they fit a certain type rather than because they have any particular relationship to the killer. However, misogyny is common among mass killers, even when it is not the primary motivation.
Andrew Anglin uses the white supremacist website ''The Daily Stormer'' as a platform to promote misogynistic conspiracy theories, claiming that politically active "ite women across the Western world" are pushing for liberal immigration policies "to ensure an endless supply of Black and Arab men to satisfy their depraved sexual desires."
In July 2018, Anglin summarised his misogynistic views, writing: "Look, I hate women. I think they deserve to be beaten, raped and locked in cages."
The majority of domestic violence and intimate partner violence targets women and is committed by men. In particular, men with a rigid, narrow view of how to be a man are more likely to commit or tolerate this form of violence. The belief that men should be forceful and dominant in relationships and households makes a man more likely to hit, abuse, coerce, and sexually harass a woman. On the other hand, flexible and egalitarian ideas about manhood typically lead to less violence.
Misogynistic rhetoric is prevalent online and has grown more aggressive over time.
Online misogyny includes both individual attempts to intimidate and denigrate women, and also coordinated, collective attempts such as vote brigading and the Gamergate antifeminist harassment campaign. In a paper written for the Journal of International Affairs, the authors discuss how online misogyny can lead to women facing obstacles when trying to engage in the public and political spheres of the internet due to the abusive nature of these spaces. These scholars also suggest regulations and shut downs of online misogyny through both governmental and non-governmental means.
The most likely targets for misogynistic attacks by coordinated groups are women who are visible in the public sphere, women who speak out about the threats they receive, and women who are perceived to be associated with feminism or feminist gains. Authors of misogynistic messages are usually anonymous or otherwise difficult to identify. Their rhetoric involves misogynistic epithets and graphic or sexualised imagery. It centres on the women's physical appearance, and prescribes sexual violence as a corrective for the targeted women. Examples of famous women who spoke out about misogynistic attacks are Anita Sarkeesian, Laurie Penny, Caroline Criado Perez, Stella Creasy, and Lindy West.
These attacks do not always remain online only. The government of Brazil makes misogynistic attacks against Patrícia Campos Mello and other female journalists in conjunction with street-level threats and violence. Swatting was used to bring Gamergate attacks into the physical world.
The insults and threats directed at different women tend to be very similar. Sady Doyle who has been the target of online threats noted the "overwhelmingly impersonal, repetitive, stereotyped quality" of the abuse, the fact that "all of us are being called the same things, in the same tone".
A 2016 study conducted by the think tank Demos found that the majority of Twitter messages containing the words "whore" or "slut" were advertisements for pornography. Of those that are not, a majority used the terms in a non-aggressive way, such a discussion of slut-shaming. Of those that used the terms "whore" or "slut" in an aggressive, insulting way, about half were women and half were men. Twitter users most frequently targeted by women with aggressive insults were celebrities, such as Beyoncé Knowles.
A 2020 study published in the journal New Media & Society also discusses how language on the internet can contribute to online misogyny. The authors specifically criticise Urban Dictionary, claiming the language used in the definitions are misogynistic and anti-feminist, rather than simply being a collaborative dictionary.
Internalized sexism is when an individual enacts sexist actions and attitudes towards themselves and people of their own sex.
[Bearman, Steve, Neill Korobov, and Avril Thorne. "The fabric of internalised sexism." ''Journal of Integrated Social Sciences'' 1, no. 1 (2009): 10-47.] On a larger scale, internalised sexism falls under the broad topic of internalised oppression, which "consists of oppressive practices that continue to make the rounds even when members of the oppressor group are not present". Women who experience internalised misogyny may express it through minimising the value of women, mistrusting women, and believing gender bias in favour of men. [Szymanski, Gupta, and Carr. 2009. "Internalised Misogyny as a Moderator of the Link between Sexist Events and Women’s Psychological Distress." ''Sex Roles'' 16, no. 1-2: 101–109.] Women, after hearing men demean the value and skills of women repeatedly, eventually internalise their beliefs and apply the misogynistic beliefs to themselves and other women. A common manifestation of internalised misogyny is lateral violence. In the United States, a study of young women showed that internalised misogyny also corresponded to political affiliation. Of the women interviewed, Democrats and Independents tended to have lower levels of internalised misogyny than Republicans and Not Affiliated women.
Abuse and harassment
Misogyny causes sexual harassment. Harassment is associated with decreased psychological well-being, including diminished self-confidence and greater risk of anxiety and depression.
Misogynist attitudes lead to the physical, sexual, and emotional abuse of gender nonconforming boys in childhood.
"Good" versus "bad" women
Many feminists have written that the notions of "good" women and "bad" women are imposed upon women in order to control them. Women who are easy to control, or who advocate for their own oppression, may be told they are good. The categories of bad and good also cause fighting among women; Helen Lewis identifies this "long tradition of regulating female behaviour by defining women in opposition to one another" as the architecture of misogyny.
The ''Madonna–whore dichotomy'' or ''virgin/whore dichotomy'' is the perception of women as either good and chaste or as bad and promiscuous. Belief in this dichotomy leads to misogyny, according to the feminist perspective, because the dichotomy appears to justify policing women's behaviour. Misogynists seek to punish "bad" women for their sexuality. Author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie observes that when women describe being harassed or assaulted (as in the #MeToo movement) they are viewed as deserving sympathy only if they are "good" women — nonsexual, and perhaps helpless.
In her 1974 book ''Woman Hating'', Andrea Dworkin uses traditional fairy tales to illustrate misogyny. Fairy tales designate certain women as "good", for example Sleeping Beauty and Snow White, who are inert, passive characters. Dworkin observed that these characters "never think, act, initiate, confront, resist, challenge, feel, care, or question. Sometimes they are forced to do housework." In contrast, the "evil" women who populate fairy tales are queens, witches, and other women with power. Further, men in fairy tales are said to be good kings and good husbands irrespective of their actions. For Dworkin, this illustrates that under misogyny only powerless women are allowed to be seen as good. No similar judgement is applied to men.
In her book ''Right-Wing Women'', Dworkin adds that powerful women are tolerated by misogynists provided women use their power to reinforce the power of men and to oppose feminism. Dworkin gives Phyllis Schlafly and Anita Bryant as examples of powerful women tolerated by antifeminists only because they advocated for their own oppression. Women may even be worshiped or called superior to men if they are sufficiently "good", meaning obedient or inert.
Philosopher Kate Manne argues that the word "misogyny" as used by modern feminists denotes not a generalised hatred of women, but instead the system of distinguishing good from bad women. Misogyny is like a police force, Manne writes, that rewards or punishes women based on these judgements.
The patriarchal bargain
In the late 20th century, second-wave feminist theorists argued that misogyny is both a cause and a result of patriarchal social structures.
Economist Deniz Kandiyoti has written that colonisers of the Middle East, Africa, and Asia kept conquered armies of men under control by offering them complete power over women. She calls this the "patriarchal bargain". Men who were interested in accepting the bargain were promoted to leadership by colonial powers, causing the colonised societies to become more misogynistic.
Sociologist Michael Flood has argued that "misandry lacks the systemic, trans-historic, institutionalised, and legislated antipathy of misogyny".
British legal situation
In recent years, there has been increasing discussion in the UK of misogyny being added to the list of aggravating factors that are commonly referred to by the media as "hate crimes". Aggravating factors in criminal sentencing currently include hostility to a victim due to characteristics such as sexuality, race or disability.
In 2016, Nottinghamshire Police began a pilot project to record misogynistic behaviour as either hate crime or hate incidents, depending on whether the action was a criminal offence. Over two years (April 2016-March 2018) there were 174 reports made, of which 73 were classified as crimes and 101 as incidents.
In September 2018, it was announced that the Law Commission would conduct a review into whether misogynistic conduct, as well as hostility due to ageism, misandry or towards groups such as goths, should be treated as a hate crime.
In October 2018, two senior police officers, Sara Thornton, chair of the National Police Chiefs' Council, and Cressida Dick, Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, stated that police forces should focus on more serious crimes such as burglary and violent offences, and not on recording incidents which are not crimes. Thornton said that "treating misogyny as a hate crime is a concern for some well-organised campaigning organisations", but that police forces "do not have the resources to do everything".
In September 2020 the Law Commission proposed that sex or gender be added to the list of protected characteristics. At the time of the Law Commission's proposals seven police forces in England and Wales classed misogyny as a hate crime, but that definition had not been adopted across the board. The commission plans to make its official recommendations to the government in 2021.
Criticism of the concept
Camille Paglia, a self-described "dissident feminist" who has often been at odds with other academic feminists, argues that there are serious flaws in the Marxism-inspired
["Marxist feminists reduced the historical cult of woman’s virginity to her property value, her worth on the male marriage market.", Paglia, 1991, ''Sexual Persona'', p. 27.] interpretation of misogyny that is prevalent in second-wave feminism. In contrast, Paglia argues that a close reading of historical texts reveals that men do not ''hate'' women but ''fear'' them. [Paglia, Camille (1991). ''Sexual Personae'', NY: Vintage, Chapter 1 and passim.] Christian Groes-Green has argued that misogyny must be seen in relation to its opposite which he terms philogyny. Criticising R. W. Connell's theory of hegemonic masculinities, he shows how philogynous masculinities play out among youth in Maputo, Mozambique.
* Exploitation of women in mass media
* Gender studies
* Honour killing
* Men Going Their Own Way
* Misogyny and mass media
* Misogyny in hip hop culture
* Misogyny in horror films
* Misogyny in sports
* Object relations theory
* Sexuality in music videos
* ''Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta''
* ''The Bro Code: How Contemporary Culture Creates Sexist Men''
* Wife selling
* Women's rights
Notes and references
* Boteach, Shmuley. ''Hating Women: America's Hostile Campaign Against the Fairer Sex''. 2005.
* Brownmiller, Susan. ''Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape''. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1975.
* Clack, Beverley, comp. ''Misogyny in the Western Philosophical Tradition: a reader''. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999.
* Dijkstra, Bram. ''Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil''. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
* Chodorow, Nancy. ''The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender''. Berkeley: University of California, Berkeley, 1978.
* Dworkin, Andrea. ''Woman Hating''. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1974.
* Ellmann, Mary. ''Thinking About Women''. 1968.
* Ferguson, Frances and R. Howard Bloch. ''Misogyny, Misandry, and Misanthropy''. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
* Forward, Susan, and Joan Torres. ''Men Who Hate Women and the Women Who Love Them: When Loving Hurts and You Don't Know Why''. Bantam Books, 1986.
* Gilmore, David D. ''Misogyny: the Male Malady''. 2001.
* Haskell, Molly. ''From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in the Movies''. 1974. University of Chicago Press, 1987.
* Holland, Jack. ''Misogyny: The World's Oldest Prejudice''. 2006.
* Johnson, Allan G. 'Misogyny'. In ''Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology: A User's Guide to Sociological Language''. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2000.
* Kipnis, Laura. ''The Female Thing: Dirt, Sex, Envy, Vulnerability''. 2006.
* Klein, Melanie. ''The Collected Writings of Melanie Klein''. 4 volumes. London: Hogarth Press, 1975.
* Lewis, Helen. ''Difficult Women: A History Of Feminism In 11 Fights''. Jonathan Cape, 2020.
* Manne, Kate. ''Down Girl: The Logic of Misogyny''. Oxford University Press, 2017.
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Misogyny, Misandry, and Misanthropy
Category:Sexuality and gender-related prejudices