at the tip of a dermal papillus.
A photomicrograph of a thin section of a [[limestone">Image:CarmelOoids.jpg|A photomicrograph of a thin section of a [[limestone
with [[ooids. The largest is approximately 1.2 mm in diameter. The red object in the lower left is a ''scale bar'' indicating relative size.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a [[photograph or digital image taken through a [[microscope or similar device to show a [[magnify|magnified image of an object. This is opposed to a macrograph
or photomacrograph, an image which is also taken on a microscope but is only slightly magnified, usually less than 10 times. Micrography is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs.
A micrograph contains extensive details of microstructure. A wealth of information can be obtained from a simple micrograph like behavior of the material under different conditions, the phases found in the system, failure analysis, grain size estimation, elemental analysis and so on. Micrographs are widely used in all fields of microscopy.
A light micrograph or photomicrograph is a micrograph prepared using an optical microscope
, a process referred to as ''photomicroscopy''. At a basic level, photomicroscopy may be performed simply by connecting a camera
to a microscope, thereby enabling the user to take photographs at reasonably high magnification
Scientific use began in England in 1850 by Prof Richard Hill Norris FRSE
for his studies of blood cells.
was a pioneer in the field of photomicroscopy, specializing in the photography of living creatures in full motion. He also made major developments in light-interruption photography and color photomicroscopy.
Photomicrographs may also be obtained using a USB microscope
attached directly to a home computer or laptop.
An electron micrograph is a micrograph prepared using an electron microscope
Magnification and micron bars
Micrographs usually have micron bars, or magnification ratios, or both.
is a ratio between the size of an object on a picture and its real size. Unfortunately, magnification can be a misleading parameter as it depends on the final size of a printed picture and therefore varies with picture size. A ''scale bar'', or ''micron bar'', is a line of known length displayed on a picture. The bar can be used for measurements on a picture. When the picture is resized the bar is also resized making it possible to recalculate the magnification. Ideally, all pictures destined for publication/presentation should be supplied with a scale bar; the magnification ratio is optional. All but one (limestone) of the micrographs presented on this page do not have a micron bar; supplied magnification ratios are likely incorrect, as they were not calculated for pictures at the present size.
Micrography as art
The microscope has been mainly used for scientific discovery. It has also been linked to the arts since its invention in the 17th century. Early adopters of the microscope, such as Robert Hooke
and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
, were excellent illustrators. Cornelius Varley
's graphic microscope made sketching from a microscope easier with a camera-lucida-like mechanism. After the invention of photography
in the 1820s the microscope was later combined with the camera to take pictures instead of relying on an artistic rendering.
Since the early 1970s individuals have been using the microscope as an artistic instrument. Websites and traveling art exhibits such as the Nikon Small World and Olympus Bioscapes have featured a range of images for the sole purpose of artistic enjoyment. Some collaborative groups, such as the Paper Project
have also incorporated microscopic imagery into tactile art
pieces as well as 3D immersive rooms and dance performances.
In 2015, photographer and gemologist Danny J. Sanchez photographed mineral and gemstone interiors in works referred to as "otherworldly."
Image:Colpoda400xm2.jpg|Measurements of a large ''Colpodium'' at 400x.
Image:Amoeba400XM.jpg|Measurements of a large amoeba at 400x.
File:Wilson A. Bentley snowflake, 1890.jpg|Snowflake micrograph by Wilson Bentley, 1890.
File:Misc pollen.jpg|An image of pollen taken from a scanning electron microscope.
* Digital microscope
* Macro photography
* USB microscope
Make a Micrograph
– This presentation by the research department of Children's Hospital Boston
shows how researchers create a three-color micrograph.
Shots with a Microscope
– a basic, comprehensive guide to photomicrography
– free scientific quality photomicrographs by Doc. RNDr. Josef Reischig
Micrographs of 18 natural fibres
by the International Year of Natural Fibres 2009
Seeing Beyond the Human Eye
Video produced by Off Book (web series)
- Solomon C. Fuller bioCharles Krebs Microscopic ImagesPhotomicrography by Danny J. SanchezDennis Kunkel MicroscopyAndrew Paul Leonard, APL MicroscopicCell Centered Database - MontageNikon Small WorldOlympus Bioscapes