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Microblogging is an online
broadcast medium
broadcast medium
that exists as a specific form of
blogging A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the floo ...

blogging
. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actual and aggregated file size. Micro-blogs "allow users to exchange small elements of content such as short sentences, individual images, or video links",. Retrieved June 5, 2014 which may be the major reason for their popularity. These small messages are sometimes called ''micro posts''. As with traditional Blogging, micro-bloggers post about topics ranging from the simple, such as "what I'm doing right now", to the thematic, such as "sports cars". Commercial micro-blogs also exist to promote websites, services, and products and to promote
collaboration Collaboration (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be ...

collaboration
within an organization. Some microblogging services offer privacy settings, which allow users to control who can read their microblogs or alternative ways of publishing entries besides the web-based interface. These may include
text messaging Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer ...
,
instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time text, real-time transmission of text-based, text messages from sender to receiver. Chat ...

instant messaging
,
E-mail upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

E-mail
,
digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typically encoded as numerical Sampling (signal processing), s ...
, or
digital video Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video) in the form of encoded digital data. This is in contrast to analog video, which represents moving visual images in the form of analog signals. Digital video comprises ...
.


Origin

The first micro-blogs were known as ''tumblelogs''. The term was coined by
why the lucky stiff Jonathan Gillette, known by the pseudonym why the lucky stiff (often abbreviated as _why), is a writer, cartoonist, artist, and programmer notable for his work with the Ruby (programming language), Ruby programming language. Annie Lowrey described ...
in a blog post on April 12, 2005, while describing Leah Neukirchen's Anarchaia.
Jason Kottke Jason Kottke (born September 27, 1973) is an United States, American blogger, graphic designer, and web designer made famous for his blog Kottke.org. He won a Blog award, Lifetime Achievement Award as a blogger. , his blog is ranked #66 overall an ...
described tumblelogs on October 19, 2005: However, by 2006 and 2007, the word '' microblog'' was used more widely for services provided by established sites like
Tumblr Tumblr (stylized as tumblr and pronounced "tumbler") is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its con ...

Tumblr
and
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actu ...

Twitter
. As of May 2007, there were 111 micro-blogging sites in various countries. Among the most notable services are
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actu ...

Twitter
,
Tumblr Tumblr (stylized as tumblr and pronounced "tumbler") is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its con ...

Tumblr
,
FriendFeed FriendFeed was a real-time feed aggregator that consolidated updates from social media Social media are interactive technologies that allow the creation or sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, and other forms of expression ...
,
Plurk Plurk () is a free social networking A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar person ...

Plurk
,
Jaiku Jaiku was a social networking A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or car ...

Jaiku
and
identi.ca identi.ca is a free Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom, having the ability to act or change without constraint * Emancipate, to procure political rights, as for a disenfranchised group * Free will, control exercised by rational agents ove ...
. Different versions of services and software with micro-blogging features have been developed.
Plurk Plurk () is a free social networking A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar person ...

Plurk
has a timeline view that integrates video and picture sharing. Flipter uses micro-blogging as a platform for people to post topics and gather audience's opinions. PingGadget is a location-based micro-blogging service.
Pownce Pownce was a free social network A social network is a social structure In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergence, emergent from and determinant of the Structure and a ...
, developed by
Digg Digg, stylized in lowercase as digg, is an American news aggregator with a curated front page, aiming to select stories specifically for the Internet audience such as science, trending political issues, and viral phenomenon, viral Internet issu ...

Digg
founder
Kevin Rose Robert Kevin Rose (born February 21, 1977) is an American entrepreneur, Internet entrepreneur who co-founded Revision3, Digg, Pownce, and Milk. He also served as production assistant and co-host at TechTV's ''The Screen Savers''. From 2012 to 20 ...

Kevin Rose
among others, integrated micro-blogging with
file sharing File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media Digital media means any media (communication), media that are encoded in Machine-readable data, machine-readable formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, di ...
and event invitations. Pownce was merged into
SixApart Six Apart Ltd., sometimes abbreviated 6A, is a software company known for creating the Movable Type blogware, TypePad blog hosting service, and Vox (blogging platform), Vox (the blogging platform). The company also is the former owner of LiveJour ...
in December 2008. Other
social networking websites A social networking service or SNS (sometimes called a social networking site) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relation In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship b ...
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
,
MySpace#REDIRECT Myspace {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation {{R from former name {{R from page move ...

MySpace
,
LinkedIn LinkedIn () is an American business- and employment-oriented online service that operates via websites and mobile apps. Launched on May 5, 2003, the platform is primarily used for professional networking and career development, and allows job se ...
,
Diaspora A diaspora ( ) is a scattered population whose origin Origin(s) or The Origin may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Comics and manga * , a Wolverine comic book mini-series published by Marvel Comics in 2002 * , a 1999 ''Buffy th ...
, JudgIt, Yahoo Pulse,
Google Buzz Google Buzz was a social network service, social networking, microblogging and messaging tool that was developed by Google which replaced Apache Wave, Google Wave and integrated into their Webmail, web-based email program, Gmail. Users could shar ...
,
Google+ Google+ (pronounced and sometimes written as Google Plus; sometimes called G+) was a Social networking service, social network owned and operated by Google. The network was launched on June 28, 2011, in an attempt to challenge other social networ ...
and
XING Xing may refer to: * an abbreviation for crossing such as Pedestrian crossing, Pedestrian Xing or Wildlife crossing, Wildlife Xing, primarily used in North America * Chinese surname (姓, ''xing'') * Xing (surname) (邢), a Chinese surname * Xing ( ...

XING
, also have their own micro-blogging feature, better known as "status updates". Status updates are usually more restricted than actual micro-blogging in terms of writing. Any activity involving posting short messages can be classified as microblogging, although it is usually not considered a microblogging “site” or “service” if it is a secondary rather than principal service provided there. Services such as Lifestream and
Snapchat Snapchat is an American multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory) Text may refer t ...
will aggregate micro-blogs from multiple social networks into a single list, while other services, such as Ping. fm, will send out your micro-blog to multiple social networks. Internet users in China are facing a different situation. Foreign micro-blogging services like Twitter, Facebook, Plurk, Tumblr, and Google+ are censored in China. The users use Chinese Weibo services such as
Sina Weibo Sina Weibo () (新浪微博) is a Chinese microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smalle ...
and Tencent Weibo. Tailored to Chinese people, these webs are like hybrids of Twitter and Facebook. They implement basic Twitter features and allow users to comment to others' posts, as well as a post with graphical emoticons, attach an image, music and video files. A survey by the Data Center of China Internet from 2010 showed that Chinese micro-blog users most often pursued content created by friends, experts in a specific field, or related to celebrities.


Usage

Several studies, most notably by the
Harvard Business School Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate Graduate refers to someone who has been the subject of a graduation, namely, someone who has completed the requirements of an academic degree. Education * Graduate, an alumnus * Graduate diploma, ...
and by
Sysomos Sysomos Inc. is a Toronto-based social media analytics company owned by Outside Insight market leaders Meltwater (company), Meltwater. History Sysomos was founded by Nilesh Bansal and Nick Koudas. The company is a spinoff of the University of T ...
, have tried to analyze user behavior on micro-blogging services. Several of these studies show that for services such as Twitter a small group of active users contributes to most of the activity. Sysomos' Inside Twitter survey, based on more than 11 million users, shows that 10% of Twitter users account for 86% of all activity. Twitter, Facebook, and other micro-blogging services have become platforms for
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
and
public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British ...
, with a sharp growth in the number of ''social-media marketers''. The Sysomos study shows that this specific group of marketers on Twitter is much more active than the general user population, with 15% of marketers following over 2,000 people and only 0.29% of the Twitter public following more than 2,000 people. Micro-blogging has also become an important source of real-time news updates during socio-political revolutions and crisis situations, such as the or the 2009 Iran protests. The short nature of updates allow users to post news items quickly, reaching an audience in seconds.
Clay Shirky Clay Shirky (born 1964) is an American writer, consultant and teacher on the social and economic effects of Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that u ...

Clay Shirky
argues that these services have the potential to result in an
information cascade An Information cascade or informational cascade is a phenomenon described in behavioral economics Behavioral economics (also, behavioural economics) studies the effects of psychological Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. P ...
, prompting fence-sitters to turn activist. Micro-blogging has noticeably revolutionized the way information is consumed. It has empowered citizens themselves to act as sensors or sources of information that could lead to consequences and influence, or even cause, media coverage. People share what they observe in their surroundings, information about events, and their opinions about topics from a wide range of fields. Moreover, these services store various
metadata Metadata is "data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), v ...

metadata
from these posts, such as location and time. Aggregated analysis of this
data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used ...

data
includes different dimensions like space, time, theme, sentiment, network structure etc., and gives researchers an opportunity to understand social perceptions of people in the context of certain events of interest. Micro-blogging also promotes authorship. On the micro-blogging platform
Tumblr Tumblr (stylized as tumblr and pronounced "tumbler") is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its con ...

Tumblr
, the reblogging feature links the post back to the original creator. The findings of a study by Emily Pronin of Princeton University and Harvard University's Daniel Wegner may explain the rapid growth of micro-blogging. The study suggests a link between short bursts of activity and feelings of joy, power, and creativity. While the general appeal and influence of micro-blogging seem to be growing continuously, mobile micro-blogging is moving at a slower pace. Among the most popular activities carried out by mobile internet users on their devices in 2012, mobile blogging or tweeting was last on the list, with only 27% of users engaging in it.


Issues

Micro-blogging is not without issues, such as
privacy Privacy (, ) is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special ...

privacy
,
security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...

security
, and integration.
Privacy Privacy (, ) is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special ...

Privacy
is arguably a major issue because users may broadcast sensitive personal information to anyone who views their public feed. Micro-blog platform providers can also cause privacy issues by altering or presetting users' privacy options, so users feel they compromise their personal information. An example would be Google’s Buzz platform which incited controversy in 2010 by automatically publicizing users’ email contacts as ‘followers’.
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
later amended these settings. On centralized services, where all of the Micro-blog's information flows through one point (e.g. servers operated by
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actu ...

Twitter
), privacy has been a concern in that user information has sometimes been exposed to governments and courts without the prior consent of the user who generated such supposedly private information, usually through
subpoena A subpoena (; also subpœna, supenna or subpena) or witness summons is a writ issued by a government agency, most often a court, to compel testimony by a witness or production of evidence under a penalty for failure. There are two common types of ...
s or
court order A court order is an official proclamation by a judge A judge is a person who presides over court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organize ...
s. Examples can be found in Wikileaks related Twitter subpoenas, as well as various other cases.
Security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability. The term is used in a wide variety of fields, from physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its El ...

Security
concerns have been voiced within the business world, since there is potential for sensitive work information to be publicized on micro-blogging sites such as
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actu ...

Twitter
. This includes information which may be subject to a superinjunction. Integration could be the hardest issue to overcome since someone can be argued that
corporate culture Historically there have been differences among investigators regarding the definition of organizational culture. Edgar H. Schein, a leading researcher in this field, defined "organizational culture" as comprising a number of features, including a ...
must change to accommodate micro-blogging. An internet architecture called
OStatus OStatus is an open standard for federated microblogging, allowing users on one website to send and receive status updates with users on another website. The standard describes how a suite of open protocols, including Atom (standard), Atom, Activit ...
has been developed so that microblogging can occur seamlessly across multiple corporate platforms. This protocol has evolved into
ActivityPub ActivityPub is an Open-source software, open, Decentralised system, decentralized Social networking service, social networking Communication protocol, protocol based on Pump.io's ActivityPump protocol. It provides a Client–server model, client/ ...
, on which the
Mastodon A mastodon ( Greek: μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") is any proboscidean belonging to the extinct genus ''Mammut'' (family Mammutidae) that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene The Miocene ( ) is the first ...
federated platform has been based since version 1.6, and on which more and more platforms making up the
Fediverse The Fediverse (a portmanteau of "federation" and "universe") is an ensemble of Federation (information technology) , federated (i.e. interconnected) servers that are used for web publishing (i.e. social networking, microblogging, blogging, or websi ...
are based. Users of these platforms are member of a specific instance running one of the softwares of the Fediverse, which can interoperate as a federated social network, allowing users on different nodes to interact with each other. This is intended to give users the flexibility to select a server whose policies they prefer, and to keep access to a larger social network.


Related concepts

Live blogging is a derivative of micro-blogging that generates a continuous feed on a specific web page.
Instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat allowing real-time text transmission over the Internet or another computer network. Messages are typically transmitted between two or more parties, when each user inputs text and trigge ...

Instant messaging
and
IRC Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a text-based chat (instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time text, real-time t ...

IRC
display status, but generally only one of a few choices, such as: available, off-line, away, busy. Away messages (messages displayed when the user is away) form a kind of micro-blogging. In the
Finger protocol In computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital signal, digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the Node (networking ...
, the .project and .plan files are sometimes used for status updates similar to micro-blogging.


See also


Articles

*
Blog A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the decimal point. Truncation and floor function Truncation of positive real numbers can be done using the f ...
ging *
Comparison of microblogging services : The tables below compare general and technical information for some notable active microblogging services, and also social network services that have ''status updates''. General information Features An overview of integral features. Extra ...
*
Emoticon An emoticon (, , rarely pronounced ), short for "emotion icon", also known simply as an emote, is a pictorial representation of a facial expression A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscle Skeletal muscles ...

Emoticon
*
Geosocial networking Geosocial networking is a type of social network service, social networking in which geography, geographic services and capabilities such as geocoding and geotagging are used to enable additional social dynamics.
*
Microblogging in China Weibo (微博 ''wēi bó'') is a general term for ''microblogging'', but normally understood as Chinese-based mini-blogging services, including social chat sites and platform sharing. Weibo services makes it possible for internet users to set up r ...
* Microblogging novel *
Online Journalism Digital journalism, also known as online journalism, is a contemporary form of journalism where editorial content is distributed via the Internet, as opposed to publishing via Printing, print or broadcast. What constitutes digital journalism is d ...
*
Social networking service A social networking service or SNS (sometimes called a social networking site) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relation In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship ...


Platforms

*
GNU social GNU social (previously known as StatusNet and once known as LaconicaLaconica is now StatusNet , retrieved 2009-10-04) is a free and open source software Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of instructi ...


Services

*
Mastodon A mastodon ( Greek: μαστός "breast" and ὀδούς, "tooth") is any proboscidean belonging to the extinct genus ''Mammut'' (family Mammutidae) that inhabited North and Central America during the late Miocene The Miocene ( ) is the first ...
* MeetMe * micro.blog *
Parler Parler () is an American alt-tech microblogging and social networking A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with ...

Parler
*
Plurk Plurk () is a free social networking A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar person ...

Plurk
* Solaborate *
Tout A tout is any person who solicits business or employment in a persistent and annoying manner (generally equivalent to a ' or ' in , or a ' in ). An example would be a person who frequents heavily touristed areas and presents himself as a tour gu ...
*
Tumblr Tumblr (stylized as tumblr and pronounced "tumbler") is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its con ...

Tumblr
*
Twister Twister may refer to: Weather * Tornado Aviation * Pipistrel Twister, a Slovenian ultralight trike * Silence Twister, a German homebuilt aircraft design * Wings of Change Twister, an Austrian paraglider design Entertainment * Twister (1989 film) ...
*
Twitter Twitter is an American microblogging Microblogging is an online Broadcasting, broadcast medium that exists as a specific form of blogging. A micro-blog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actu ...

Twitter
* Koo * Weibo *
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook


Defunct

Past micro-blogging services, no longer active. *
Google+ Google+ (pronounced and sometimes written as Google Plus; sometimes called G+) was a Social networking service, social network owned and operated by Google. The network was launched on June 28, 2011, in an attempt to challenge other social networ ...
* * ImaHima *
Posterous Posterous was a simple blogging platform started in May 2008. It supported integrated and automatic posting to other social media tools such as Flickr, Twitter, and Facebook, a built-in Google Analytics package, and custom themes. It was based in S ...

Posterous
*
Soup Soup is a primarily liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the material de ...
*
Blip Blip may refer to: * Beta-lactamase inhibitor protein * Blip (website), a defunct web video platform * Blip.pl, a Polish social networking site * Blip, a message in the Apache Wave (formerly Google Wave) collaboration platform * Blip Festival, an a ...


References

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