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A microaerophile is a
microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes ...
that requires
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
to survive, but requires environments containing lower levels of oxygen than that are present in the
atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in ...

atmosphere
(i.e. < 21% O2; typically 2–10% O2). Many microaerophiles are also
capnophiles Capnophiles are microorganisms that thrive in the presence of high concentrations of carbon dioxide (). Some capnophiles may have a metabolic requirement for carbon dioxide, while others merely compete more successfully for resources under these ...
, requiring an elevated concentration of
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
(e.g. 10% CO2 in the case of ''
Campylobacter ''Campylobacter'' (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Ci ...

Campylobacter
''
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
).


Culture

Microaerophiles can be cultivated in candle jars. Candle jars are containers into which a lit
candle A candle is an ignitable candle wick, wick embedded in wax, or another flammable solid substance such as tallow, that provides light, and in some cases, a Aroma compound, fragrance. A candle can also provide heat or a method of keeping time. ...

candle
is introduced before sealing the container's
airtight A hermetic seal is any type of sealing that makes a given object airtight (preventing the passage of air, oxygen, or other gases). The term originally applied to airtight glass containers, but as technology advanced it applied to a larger categor ...
lid. The candle's flame burns until extinguished by oxygen deprivation, creating a carbon dioxide-rich, oxygen-poor atmosphere. Other methods of creating a microaerobic environment include using a gas-generating pack and gas exchange.


Examples

* ''
Campylobacter ''Campylobacter'' (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Ci ...

Campylobacter
'' species are microaerophilic. * ''
Helicobacter pylori ''Helicobacter pylori'', previously known as ''Campylobacter pylori'', is a gram-negative, microaerophile, microaerophilic, spiral bacteria, spiral (helical) bacterium usually found in the stomach. Its helical shape (from which the genus name, ...

Helicobacter pylori
'', a species of
proteobacteria Proteobacteria is a major phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number. The pl ...
that has been linked to
peptic ulcer Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the inner Gastric mucosa, lining of the stomach, the first part of the small intestine, or sometimes the lower esophagus. An ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer, while one in the first part of t ...

peptic ulcer
s and some types of
gastritis Gastritis is inflammation Inflammation (from la, inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living org ...


See also

*
Aerobic respiration Aerobic means "requiring air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of the atmosphere (0.04402961% at Apr ...
*
Anaerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration is respiration Respiration may refer to: Biology * Cellular respiration, the process in which nutrients are converted into useful energy in a cell ** Anaerobic respiration, cellular respiration without oxygen ** Maintenan ...
*
Facultative anaerobe A facultative anaerobic organism is an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, ...
*
Fermentation Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signalin ...

Fermentation
*
Obligate aerobe An obligate aerobe is an organism that requires oxygen to grow. Through cellular respiration, these organisms use oxygen to metabolise substances, like sugars or fats, to obtain energy. In this type of respiration, oxygen serves as the terminal e ...
*
Obligate anaerobe Obligate anaerobes are microorganism A microorganism, or microbe,, ''mikros'', "small") and ''organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical stru ...
*
Oxygenation (environmental) Environmental oxygenation can be important to the sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphe ...


References


External links


Characterization of an unclassified microaerophilic bacterium associated with gastroenteritis.
Microbial growth and nutrition {{Microbiology-stub