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A mental model is an explanation of someone's
thought In their most common sense, the terms thought and thinking refer to conscious cognitive processes that can happen independently of sensory stimulation. Their most paradigmatic forms are judging, reasoning, concept formation, problem solving, an ...

thought
process about how something works in the real world. It is a representation of the surrounding world, the relationships between its various parts and a person's intuitive perception about their own acts and their consequences. Mental models can help shape
behaviour Behavior (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ...

behaviour
and set an approach to solving problems (similar to a personal
algorithm In and , an algorithm () is a finite sequence of , computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are always and are used as specifications for performing s, , , and other ...

algorithm
) and doing tasks. A mental model is a kind of internal symbol or representation of external reality, hypothesized to play a major role in
cognition Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual function Intellectual functioning refers to the "general men ...
,
reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ...

reasoning
and
decision-making In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several possible alternative options, it could be ...
.
Kenneth Craik Kenneth James William Craik (; 1914–1945) was a Scottish philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdom'. The ...
suggested in 1943 that the mind constructs "small-scale models" of reality that it uses to anticipate events.
Jay Wright Forrester Jay Wright Forrester (July 14, 1918 – November 16, 2016) was a pioneering American computer engineer and systems scientist. He is credited with being one of the inventors of magnetic core memory, the predominant form of random access, random-acc ...
defined general mental models as:
The image of the world around us, which we carry in our head, is just a model. Nobody in his head imagines all the world, government or country. He has only selected concepts, and relationships between them, and uses those to represent the real system (Forrester, 1971).
In psychology, the term ''mental models'' is sometimes used to refer to
mental representation A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the body. The mind–body problem is a paradigm ...
s or mental simulation generally. At other times it is used to refer to and to the mental model theory of reasoning developed by
Philip Johnson-Laird Philip N. Johnson-Laird (born 12 October 1936) was a professor at Princeton University's Princeton University Department of Psychology, Department of Psychology, as well as the author of several notable books on human cognition and the psychology ...
and Ruth M.J. Byrne.


History

The term ''mental model'' is believed to have originated with
Kenneth Craik Kenneth James William Craik (; 1914–1945) was a Scottish philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdom'. The ...
in his 1943 book ''The Nature of Explanation''. Georges-Henri Luquet in ''Le dessin enfantin'' (Children's drawings), published in 1927 by Alcan, Paris, argued that children construct internal models, a view that influenced, among others, child psychologist
Jean Piaget Jean Piaget (, , ; 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland *Swiss people Places *Swiss, Missouri *Swiss, North Carolina *Swiss, West Virginia *Swiss, Wisconsin Other uses *Swiss ...

Jean Piaget
.
Philip Johnson-Laird Philip N. Johnson-Laird (born 12 October 1936) was a professor at Princeton University's Princeton University Department of Psychology, Department of Psychology, as well as the author of several notable books on human cognition and the psychology ...
published ''Mental Models: Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference and Consciousness'' in 1983. In the same year,
Dedre Gentner Dedre Dariel Anne Cooke Gentner (born 1944) is an American cognitive and developmental psychologist. She is the Alice Gabriel Twight Professor of Psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of c ...
and Albert Stevens edited a collection of chapters in a book also titled ''Mental Models''. The first line of their book explains the idea further: "One function of this chapter is to belabor the obvious; people's views of the world, of themselves, of their own capabilities, and of the tasks that they are asked to perform, or topics they are asked to learn, depend heavily on the conceptualizations that they bring to the task." (see the book: ''
Mental Models ''Mental Models'' is a book published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., in 1983 . It was edited by Dedre Gentner and Albert L. Stevens, both employees of Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc. at the time. It appeared at about the same time as a b ...
''). Since then, there has been much discussion and use of the idea in human-computer interaction and
usability Usability can be described as the capacity of a system to provide a condition for its users to perform the tasks safely, effectively, and efficiently while enjoying the experience. In software engineering, usability is the degree to which a sof ...

usability
by researchers including
Donald Norman Donald Arthur Norman (born December 25, 1935) is an American researcher, professor, and author. Norman is the director of The Design Lab at University of California, San Diego The University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego or, coll ...
and Steve Krug (in his book '' Don't Make Me Think'').
Walter Kintsch Walter Kintsch (born 1932) is an American Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Colorado in Boulder (United States). He is renowned for his groundbreaking theories in cognitive psychology, especially in relation to Reading comprehens ...
and
Teun A. van Dijk Teun Adrianus van Dijk (born May 7, 1943, in Naaldwijk, the Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Holland, is a country primarily located in Western Europe and partly in the Dutch Caribbean, Caribbean. It is ...
, using the term ''situation model'' (in their book ''Strategies of Discourse Comprehension'', 1983), showed the relevance of mental models for the production and comprehension of
discourse Discourse is a generalization of the notion of a conversation Conversation is interactive communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful d ...

discourse
.
Charlie Munger Charles Thomas Munger (born January 1, 1924) is an American billionaire investor, businessman, former real estate attorney, architectural designer, and philanthropist. He is vice chairman of Berkshire Hathaway Berkshire Hathaway () is an Ame ...

Charlie Munger
popularized the use of multi-disciplinary mental models for making business and investment decisions.


Mental models and reasoning

One view of human reasoning is that it depends on mental models. In this view, mental models can be constructed from perception, imagination, or the comprehension of discourse (Johnson-Laird, 1983). Such mental models are similar to architects' models or to physicists' diagrams in that their structure is analogous to the structure of the situation that they represent, unlike, say, the structure of logical forms used in formal rule theories of reasoning. In this respect, they are a little like pictures in the picture theory of language described by philosopher
Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein ( ; ; 26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationali ...

Ludwig Wittgenstein
in 1922.
Philip Johnson-Laird Philip N. Johnson-Laird (born 12 October 1936) was a professor at Princeton University's Princeton University Department of Psychology, Department of Psychology, as well as the author of several notable books on human cognition and the psychology ...
and Ruth M.J. Byrne developed their
mental model theory of reasoningThe mental model theory of reasoning was developed by Philip Johnson-Laird Philip N. Johnson-Laird (born 12 October 1936) was a professor at Princeton University's Princeton University Department of Psychology, Department of Psychology, as well as ...
which makes the assumption that reasoning depends, not on logical form, but on mental models (Johnson-Laird and Byrne, 1991).


Principles of mental models

Mental models are based on a small set of fundamental assumptions (
axiom An axiom, postulate or assumption is a statement that is taken to be truth, true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek ''axíōma'' () 'that which is thought worthy or fit' o ...

axiom
s), which distinguish them from other proposed representations in the
psychology of reasoning The psychology of reasoning (also known as the cognitive science of reasoning) is the study of how people reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning ...
(Byrne and Johnson-Laird, 2009). Each mental model represents a possibility. A mental model represents one possibility, capturing what is common to all the different ways in which the possibility may occur (Johnson-Laird and Byrne, 2002). Mental models are iconic, i.e., each part of a model corresponds to each part of what it represents (Johnson-Laird, 2006). Mental models are based on a principle of truth: they typically represent only those situations that are possible, and each model of a possibility represents only what is true in that possibility according to the proposition. However, mental models can represent what is false, temporarily assumed to be true, for example, in the case of
counterfactual conditionals Counterfactual conditionals (also ''subjunctive'' or ''X-marked'') are conditional sentence Conditional sentences are sentences that express one thing contingent In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundame ...
and
counterfactual thinking Counterfactual thinking is a concept in psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such a ...
(Byrne, 2005).


Reasoning with mental models

People infer that a conclusion is valid if it holds in all the possibilities. Procedures for reasoning with mental models rely on counter-examples to refute invalid inferences; they establish validity by ensuring that a conclusion holds over all the models of the premises. Reasoners focus on a subset of the possible models of multiple-model problems, often just a single model. The ease with which reasoners can make deductions is affected by many factors, including age and working memory (Barrouillet, et al., 2000). They reject a conclusion if they find a counterexample, i.e., a possibility in which the premises hold, but the conclusion does not (Schroyens, et al. 2003; Verschueren, et al., 2005).


Criticisms

Scientific debate continues about whether human reasoning is based on mental models, versus formal
rules of inference In the philosophy of logic Following the developments in formal logic with symbolic logic in the late nineteenth century and mathematical logic in the twentieth, topics traditionally treated by logic not being part of formal logic have tended to ...
(e.g., O'Brien, 2009), domain-specific rules of inference (e.g., Cheng & Holyoak, 2008; Cosmides, 2005), or probabilities (e.g., Oaksford and Chater, 2007). Many empirical comparisons of the different theories have been carried out (e.g., Oberauer, 2006).


Mental models of dynamics systems: mental models in system dynamics


Characteristics

A mental model is generally: * founded on unquantifiable, impugnable, obscure, or incomplete facts; *
flexible Flexible may refer to: Science and technology * Power cord, a flexible electrical cable. ** Flexible cable, an Electrical cable as used on electrical appliances * Flexible electronics * Flexible response * Flexible-fuel vehicle * Flexible rake rec ...
– considerably variable in positive as well as in negative sense; * an information filter that causes
selective perceptionSelective perception is the tendency not to notice and more quickly forget stimuli that cause emotional discomfort and contradict our prior beliefs. For example, a teacher may have a favorite student because they are biased by in-group favoritism. T ...
, perception of only selected parts of
information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to c ...

information
; * very limited, compared with the complexities of the world, and even when a
scientific model Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted ...
is extensive and in accordance with a certain
reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only imaginary Imaginary may refer to: * Imaginary (sociology), a concept in sociology * The Imaginary (psychoanalysis), a concept by ...

reality
in the derivation of
logical consequence Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies ...
s of it, it must take into account such restrictions as
working memory Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that can hold information temporarily. Working memory is important for reasoning and the guidance of decision-making and behavior. Working memory is often used synonymously with short-te ...
; i.e., rules on the maximum number of elements that people are able to remember, gestaltisms or failure of the principles of
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
, etc.; * dependent on sources of information, which one cannot find anywhere else, are available at any time and can be used. Mental models are a fundamental way to understand organizational learning. Mental models, in popular science parlance, have been described as "deeply held images of thinking and acting". Mental models are so basic to understanding the world that people are hardly conscious of them.


Expression of mental models of dynamic systems

S.N. Groesser and M. Schaffernicht (2012) describe three basic methods which are typically used: *
Causal loop diagram A causal loop diagram (CLD) is a causal diagram that aids in visualizing how different variables in a system are interrelated. The diagram consists of a set of nodes In general, a node is a localized swelling (a "knot") or a point of intersection ( ...
s – displaying tendency and a direction of information connections and the resulting causality and feedback loops * System structure diagrams – another way to express the structure of a qualitative dynamic system * Stock and flow diagrams - a way to quantify the structure of a dynamic system These methods allow showing a mental model of a dynamic system, as an explicit, written model about a certain system based on internal beliefs. Analyzing these graphical representations has been an increasing area of research across many social science fields. Additionally software tools that attempt to capture and analyze the structural and functional properties of individual mental models such as Mental Modeler, "a participatory modeling tool based in fuzzy-logic cognitive mapping", have recently been developed and used to collect/compare/combine mental model representations collected from individuals for use in social science research, collaborative decision-making, and natural resource planning.


Mental model in relation to system dynamics and systemic thinking

In the simplification of reality, creating a model can find a sense of reality, seeking to overcome systemic thinking and
system dynamics System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space ...

system dynamics
. These two disciplines can help to construct a better coordination with the reality of mental models and simulate it accurately. They increase the probability that the consequences of how to decide and act in accordance with how to plan. *
System dynamics System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space ...

System dynamics
– extending mental models through the creation of explicit models, which are clear, easily communicated and can be compared with each other. * Systemic thinking – seeking the means to improve the mental models and thereby improve the quality of dynamic decisions that are based on mental models. Experimental studies carried out in
weightlessness Weightlessness is the complete or near-complete absence of the sensation of weight In science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of som ...
and on Earth using
neuroimaging Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly Medical imaging, image the neuroanatomy, structure, function, or pharmacology of the nervous system. It is a relatively new discipline within medicine ...
showed that humans are endowed with a mental model of the effects of gravity on object motion.


Single and double-loop learning

After analyzing the basic characteristics, it is necessary to bring the process of changing the mental models, or the process of learning.
Learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical thing, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to use concepts to model that thing. Under ...

Learning
is a back-loop
process A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management *Business process A business process, business method ...
, and
feedback Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain A chain is a assembly of connected pieces, called links, typically made of metal, with an overall character similar to that of a in that it is flexib ...

feedback
loops can be illustrated as: single-loop learning or double-loop learning.


Single-loop learning

Mental models affect the way that people work with information, and also how they determine the final decision. The decision itself changes, but the mental models remain the same. It is the predominant method of learning, because it is very convenient.


Double-loop learning

Double-loop learning (''see diagram below'') is used when it is necessary to change the mental model on which a decision depends. Unlike single loops, this model includes a shift in understanding, from simple and static to broader and more dynamic, such as taking into account the changes in the surroundings and the need for expression changes in mental models.


See also

*
All models are wrong "All models are wrong" is a common aphorism An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: ''aphorismos'', denoting 'delimitation', 'distinction', and 'definition') is a concise, terse, laconic, or memorable expression of a general truth or princ ...
*
Cognitive map A cognitive map (sometimes called, but should not be confused with, a mental map or mental model) is a type of mental representation A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of ...
*
Cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental process Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intelle ...
*
Conceptual model A conceptual model is a depiction, representation of a system. It consists of concepts used to help people knowledge, know, understanding, understand, or simulation, simulate a subject the model represents. It is also a set of concepts. In contras ...

Conceptual model
*
Educational psychology Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in ...
*
Folk psychology In philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Phil ...
* Internal model (motor control) *
Knowledge representation Knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR, KR&R, KR²) is the field of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its ...
*
Lovemap The lovemap is a concept originated by sexologist John Money in his discussions of how people develop their sexual preferences. Money defined it as "a developmental representation or template in the mind and in the brain depicting the idealized lov ...
* Macrocognition *
Map–territory relation The map–territory relation describes the relationship between an object and a representation of that object Object may refer to: General meanings * Object (philosophy), a thing, being, or concept ** Entity, something that is tangible and w ...
*
Model-dependent realismModel-dependent realism is a view of scientific inquiry that focuses on the role of scientific model Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, defi ...
*
Neuro-linguistic programming Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is a Pseudoscience, pseudoscientific approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in California, United States, in the 1970s. NLP's creators c ...
*
Neuroeconomics Neuroeconomics is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields lik ...
*
Neuroplasticity Neuroplasticity, also known as neural plasticity, or brain plasticity, is the ability of neural networks#REDIRECT Artificial neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing syst ...

Neuroplasticity
*
OODA loop The OODA loop is the cycle ''observe–orient–decide–act'', developed by military strategist A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typica ...

OODA loop
*
Psyche (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence i ...
* Self-stereotyping *
Social intuitionismIn moral psychology, social intuitionism is a model that proposes that moral positions are often non-verbal and behavioral. Often such social intuitionism is based on "moral dumbfounding" where people have strong moral reactions but fail to establis ...
*
Space mapping The space mapping methodology for modeling and design optimization of engineering systems was first discovered by John Bandler in 1993. It uses relevant existing knowledge to speed up model generation and design Mathematical optimization, optimiza ...
*
System dynamics System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space ...

System dynamics
* Text and conversation theory


Notes


References

* Barrouillet, P. et al. (2000)
Conditional reasoning by mental models: chronometric and developmental evidence
''Cognit.'' 75, 237-266. * Byrne, R.M.J. (2005).
The Rational Imagination: How People Create Counterfactual Alternatives to Reality
'' Cambridge MA: MIT Press. * Byrne, R.M.J. & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (2009). 'If' and the problems of conditional reasoning. ''Trends in Cognitive Sciences''. 13, 282-287 * Cheng, P.C. and Holyoak, K.J. (2008) Pragmatic reasoning schemas. In
Reasoning: studies of human inference and its foundations
' (Adler, J.E. and Rips, L.J., eds), pp. 827–842, Cambridge University Press * Cosmides, L. et al. (2005) Detecting cheaters. ''Trends in Cognitive Sciences''. 9,505–506 * Forrester, J. W. (1971
Counterintuitive behavior of social systems
''Technology Review.'' * Oberauer K. (2006
Reasoning with conditionals: A test of formal models of four theories
''Cognit. Psychol.'' 53:238–283. * O’Brien, D. (2009). Human reasoning includes a mental logic. ''Behav. Brain Sci.'' 32, 96–97 * Oaksford, M. and Chater, N. (2007) ''Bayesian Rationality''. Oxford University Press * Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1983). ''Mental Models: Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference, and Consciousness.'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Johnson-Laird, P.N. (2006) ''How We Reason''. Oxford University Press * Johnson-Laird, P.N. and Byrne, R.M.J. (2002) Conditionals: a theory of meaning, inference, and pragmatics. ''Psychol. Rev.'' 109, 646–678 * Schroyens, W. et al. (2003)
In search of counterexamples: Deductive rationality in human reasoning
''Quart. J. Exp. Psychol.'' 56(A), 1129–1145. * Verschueren, N. et al. (2005)
Everyday conditional reasoning: A working memory-dependent tradeoff between counterexample and likelihood use
''Mem. Cognit''. 33, 107-119.


Further reading

* Georges-Henri Luquet (2001). ''Children's Drawings''.
Free Association Books Free Association Books is a project started in London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capi ...
. * Chater, N. et al. (2006) Probabilistic Models of Cognition: Conceptual Foundations. Trends Cogn Sci 10(7):287-91. . * Gentner, Dedre; Stevens, Albert L., eds. (1983)
''Mental Models''
Hillsdale: Erlbaum 1983. * Groesser, S.N. (2012).
Mental model of dynamic systems
'. In N.M. Seel (Ed.). The encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (Vol. 5, pp. 2195–2200). New York: Springer. * Groesser, S.N. & Schaffernicht, M. (2012). ''Mental Models of Dynamic Systems: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead''. System Dynamics Review, 28(1): 46-68, Wiley.
Johnson-Laird, P.N. 2005. The History of Mental Models
* Jones, N. A. et al. (2011).
Mental Models: an interdisciplinary synthesis of theory and methods
''Ecology and Society.''16 (1): 46. * Jones, N. A. et al. (2014).
Eliciting mental models: a comparison of interview procedures in the context of natural resource management
''Ecology and Society.''19 (1): 13. * Prediger, S. (2008).
Discontinuities for mental models - a source for difficulties with the multiplication of fractions
''Proceedings of ICME-11, Topic Study Group 10, Research and Development of Number Systems and Arithmetic''. (See also Prediger's references to Fischbein 1985 and Fischbein 1989, "Tacit models and mathematical reasoning".) * Robles-De-La-Torre, G. & Sekuler, R. (2004).
Numerically Estimating Internal Models of Dynamic Virtual Objects
. In: ''ACM Transactions on Applied Perception 1(2)'', pp. 102–117.


External links


Mental Models and Reasoning Laboratory

Systems Analysis, Modelling and Prediction Group, University of Oxford

System Dynamics Society
{{DEFAULTSORT:Mental Model Conceptual modelling Cognitive modeling Cognitive psychology Cognitive science Information Information science
Scientific modeling This category scientific modeling gives an interdisciplinary overview of general and specific articles about abstract, conceptual, theoretical and/or practical scientific model (abstract), models and about scientific modeling. {{DEFAULTSORT:Mode ...